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Mastroroberto M.,Unit of Liver Transplantation | Berardi S.,Unit of Liver Transplantation | Fraticelli L.,Unit of Liver Transplantation | Pianta P.,Unit of Liver Transplantation | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Pancreas | Year: 2012

Context The sarcoidosis is an idiopathic multisystem inflammatory disease characterized by the presence of non-caseating granulomas in the affected organs. The clinical picture includes non-specific systemic symptoms and organ-specific symptoms, but it is frequently asymptomatic. Although not fully understood, a clear association between sarcoidosis and malignancies has been reported. In neoplastic patient, beside classical sarcoidosis, cases of sarcoid-like reaction have been extensively described, a condition characterized by the presence of non-caseating granulomas in the lymph nodes draining the tumor or, less commonly, in the distant lymph nodes; this is considered a benign non progressive condition, potentially regressive following neoplasm eradication. Case report We report the first case of sarcoidosis/sarcoid-like reaction associated with neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. Conclusion This clinical case highlights the difficulty and importance of differential diagnosis of lymphadenopathy in the management of neoplastic disease, and in view of the evolving clinical picture, if a distinction between sarcoidosis and sarcoid-like reaction is a clinical reality or if they is just represent different stage of the same disease. Therefore, we believe that a follow-up is necessary even in case of sarcoid-like reaction, since no data are reported in the literature on the long-term of this condition once treated the associated tumor. Source

Vral A.,Ghent University | Magri V.,Urology Secondary Care Clinic | Montanari E.,University of Milan | Gazzano G.,Cytodiagnostics | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2012

Inflammatory processes are important components in the pathogenesis of many human cancers. According to the 'injury and regeneration' model for prostate carcinogenesis, injury caused by pathogens or pro-inflammatory cytotoxic agents would trigger proliferation of prostatic glandular cells, leading to the appearance of epithelial lesions named 'Proliferative Inflammatory Atrophy' (PIA). Inflammatory cells infiltrating the prostate would release genotoxic reactive oxygen species, leading atrophic cells to neoplastic progression. The hypothesis pointing to PIA as risk-lesion for prostate cancer has been extensively investigated at the cellular and molecular levels, but few morphological data are available linking PIA or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) to inflammation or clinical prostatitis. We investigated at the morphological level 1367 prostate biopsies from 98 patients with a recent history of chronic prostatitis, and 32 patients with biopsies positive for carcinoma. Our results show that i) PIA is found more frequently in biopsy cores containing a severe or moderate inflammatory focus, compared to NON-PIA lesions (partial or cystic atrophy); ii) the PIA lesion post-atrophic hyperplasia is more frequently found in tissues showing mild or no inflammation; iii) the extent of PIA per patient correlates with the burden of moderate or severe inflammation, whereas NON-PIA lesions do not; iv) low-grade PIN is in over 90% of cases emerging from normal, non-atrophic glands and is more frequently found in biopsy cores with absent or mild inflammatory burden; v) the inverse relationship between the prevalence of low-grade PIN and the extent of PIA lesions per patient is described by a power law function, suggesting the low likelihood of the concomitant presence of these lesions in the same tissue; vi) NON-PIA lesions correlate inversely with neoplasia in patients with prostate cancer; vii) the total scores of the NIH-CPSI questionnaire correlate with both PIA and inflammation burdens at diagnosis of prostatitis but not after pharmacological intervention. These results point to a positive association between tissue inflammation, clinical prostatitis and the putative cancer risk-lesion PIA, but do not support a model whereby low-grade PIN would arise from PIA. Source

Pacheco B.,University of Toronto | Pacheco B.,Cytodiagnostics | Crombet L.,University of Toronto | Loppnau P.,University of Toronto | Cossar D.,University of Toronto
Protein Expression and Purification | Year: 2012

Heterologous protein expression in Escherichia coli is commonly used to obtain recombinant proteins for a variety of downstream applications. However, many proteins are not, or are only poorly, expressed in soluble form. High level expression often leads to the formation of inclusion bodies and an inactive product that needs to be refolded. By screening the solubility pattern for a set of 71 target proteins in different host-strains and varying parameters such as location of purification tag, promoter and induction temperature we propose a protocol with a success rate of 77% of clones returning a soluble protein. This protocol is particularly suitable for high-throughput screening with the goal to obtain soluble protein product for e.g. structure determination. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Reuschenbach M.,University of Heidelberg | Clad A.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Von Knebel Doeberitz C.,University of Heidelberg | Wentzensen N.,University of Heidelberg | And 5 more authors.
Gynecologic Oncology | Year: 2010

Objective: The prognostic value of dysplastic lesions of the uterine cervix cannot be adequately determined by Pap cytology alone. Detection of HPV DNA increases the diagnostic sensitivity. However, due to the very high prevalence of transient HPV infections, HPV DNA testing suffers from poor diagnostic specificity. Biomarkers that highlight the shift from self limited transient to potentially dangerous transforming HPV infections may improve the accuracy of cervical cancer screening. We evaluated HPV E6/E7 mRNA detection (APTIMA), p16INK4a-immunocytology (CINtec), and HPV DNA testing (HC2) to identify women with high grade cervical neoplasia in a disease-enriched cross-sectional cohort. Methods: Liquid based cytology specimens were collected from 275 patients. All assays were performed from these vials. Detection rates of each test were evaluated against conventional H&E based histopathology alone and stratified by p16INK4a-immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: All assays yielded a high sensitivity for the detection of CIN3+ (96.4% (95% CI, 90.4-98.8) for HC2, 95.5% (89.2-98.3) for APTIMA and CINtec) and CIN2+ (91.5% (85.8-95.1) for HC2, 88.4% (82.3-92.7) for APTIMA, 86.6% (80.2-91.2) for CINtec). The specificity to detect high grade dysplasia was highest for CINtec p16INK4a-cytology (60.6% (52.7-68.0) in CIN3+ and 74.8% (65.5-82.3) in CIN2+), followed by APTIMA (56.4% (48.4-64.0) in CIN3+ and 71.2% (61.7-79.2) in CIN2+) and HC2 (49.1% (41.3-56.9) in CIN3+ and 63.4% (53.7-72.1) in CIN2+). All tests had higher sensitivity using p16INK4a-IHC-positive CIN2+ lesions as endpoint. Conclusions: Biomarkers that detect HPV induced dysplastic changes in the transforming stage are promising tools to overcome the current limitations of cervical cancer screening. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Normanno N.,Cell Biology and Biotherapy Unit | Normanno N.,Crom Centro Ricerche Oncologiche Of Mercogliano | Pinto C.,S. Orsola Malpighi University Hospital | Taddei G.,University of Florence | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology | Year: 2013

Introduction: The Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) and the Italian Society of Pathology and Cytology organized an external quality assessment (EQA) scheme for EGFR mutation testing in non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods: Ten specimens, including three small biopsies with known epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status, were validated in three referral laboratories and provided to 47 participating centers. The participants were requested to perform mutational analysis, using their usual method, and to submit results within a 4-week time frame. According to a predefined scoring system, two points were assigned to correct genotype and zero points to false-negative or false-positive results. The threshold to pass the EQA was set at higher than 18 of 20 points. Two rounds were preplanned. Results: All participating centers submitted the results within the time frame. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/sequencing was the main methodology used (n = 37 laboratories), although a few centers did use pyrosequencing (n = 8) or real-time PCR (n = 2). A significant number of analytical errors were observed (n = 20), with a high frequency of false-positive results (n = 16). The lower scores were obtained for the small biopsies. Fourteen of 47 centers (30%) that did not pass the first round, having a score less than or equal to 18 points, used PCR/sequencing, whereas 10 of 10 laboratories, using pyrosequencing or real-time PCR, passed the first round. Eight laboratories passed the second round. Overall, 41of 47 centers (87%) passed the EQA. Conclusion: The results of the EQA for EGFR testing in non-smallcell lung cancer suggest that good quality EGFR mutational analysis is performed in Italian laboratories, although differences between testing methods were observed, especially for small biopsies. Copyright ©2013 by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Source

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