Cytheris Inc.

Rockville, MD, United States

Cytheris Inc.

Rockville, MD, United States
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Pellegrini M.,Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research | Pellegrini M.,University of Melbourne | Pellegrini M.,Campbell University | Calzascia T.,Campbell University | And 17 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2011

Understanding the factors that impede immune responses to persistent viruses is essential in designing therapies for HIV infection. Mice infected with LCMV clone-13 have persistent high-level viremia and a dysfunctional immune response. Interleukin-7, a cytokine that is critical for immune development and homeostasis, was used here to promote immunity toward clone-13, enabling elucidation of the inhibitory pathways underlying impaired antiviral immune response. Mechanistically, IL-7 downregulated a critical repressor of cytokine signaling, Socs3, resulting in amplified cytokine production, increased T cell effector function and numbers, and viral clearance. IL-7 enhanced thymic output to expand the naive T cell pool, including T cells that were not LCMV specific. Additionally, IL-7 promoted production of cytoprotective IL-22 that abrogated liver pathology. The IL-7-mediated effects were dependent on endogenous IL-6. These attributes of IL-7 have profound implications for its use as a therapeutic in the treatment of chronic viral diseases. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Sheikh V.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Porter B.O.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | DerSimonian R.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Kovacs S.B.,Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research | And 20 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2016

Idiopathic CD4 lymphopenia (ICL) is a rare syndrome defined by low CD4 T-cell counts (<300/mL) without evidence of HIV infection or other known cause of immunodeficiency. ICL confers an increased risk of opportunistic infections and has no established treatment. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is fundamental for thymopoiesis, T-cell homeostasis, and survival of mature T cells, which provides a rationale for its potential use as an immunotherapeutic agent for ICL. We performed an open-label phase 1/2A doseescalation trial of 3 subcutaneous doses of recombinant human IL-7 (rhIL-7) per week in patients with ICL who were at risk of disease progression. The primary objectives of the study were to assess safety and the immunomodulatory effects of rhIL-7 in ICL patients. Injection site reactions were the most frequently reported adverse events. One patient experienced a hypersensitivity reaction and developed non-neutralizing anti-IL-7 antibodies. Patients with autoimmune diseases that required systemic therapy at screening were excluded from the study; however, 1 participant developed systemic lupus erythematosus while on study and was excluded from further rhIL-7 dosing. Quantitatively, rhIL-7 led to an increase in the number of circulating CD4 and CD8 T cells and tissue-resident CD3 T cells in the gut mucosa and bone marrow. Functionally, these T cells were capable of producing cytokines after mitogenic stimulation. rhIL-7 was well tolerated at biologically active doses andmay represent a promising therapeutic intervention in ICL. Copyright 2011 by The American Society of Hematology; All rights reserved.

Sportes C.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Babb R.R.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Krumlauf M.C.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Hakim F.T.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 14 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2010

Purpose: Interleukin-7 (IL-7) has critical and nonredundant roles in T-cell development, hematopoiesis, and postdevelopmental immune functions as a prototypic homeostatic cytokine. Based on a large body of preclinical evidence, it may have multiple therapeutic applications in immunodeficiency states, either physiologic (immunosenescence), pathologic (HIV), or iatrogenic (postchemotherapy and posthematopoietic stem cell transplant), and may have roles in immune reconstitution or enhancement of immunotherapy. We report here on the toxicity and biological activity of recombinant human IL-7 (rhIL-7) in humans. Design: Subjects with incurable malignancy received rhIL-7 subcutaneously every other day for 2 weeks in a phase I interpatient dose escalation study (3, 10, 30, and 60 μg/kg/dose). The objectives were safety and dose-limiting toxicity determination, identification of a range of biologically active doses, and characterization of biological and, possibly, antitumor effects. Results: Mild to moderate constitutional symptoms, reversible spleen and lymph node enlargement, and marked increase in peripheral CD3 +, CD4+, and CD8+ lymphocytes were seen in a dose-dependent and age-independent manner in all subjects receiving ≥10 μg/kg/dose, resulting in a rejuvenated circulating T-cell profile, resembling that seen earlier in life. In some subjects, rhIL-7 induced in the bone marrow a marked, transient polyclonal proliferation of pre-B cells showing a spectrum of maturation as well as an increase in circulating transitional B cells. Conclusion: This study shows the potent biological activity of rhIL-7 in humans over a well-tolerated dose range and allows further exploration of its possible therapeutic applications. ©2010 AACR.

Unsinger J.,University of Washington | McGlynn M.,University of Washington | Kasten K.R.,University of Cincinnati | Kasten K.R.,Shriners Hospital for Children | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Immunology | Year: 2010

Sepsis is a highly lethal disorder characterized by widespread apoptosis-induced depletion of immune cells and the development of a profound immunosuppressive state. IL-7 is a potent antiapoptotic cytokine that enhances immune effector cell function and is essential for lymphocyte survival. In this study, recombinant human IL-7 (rhIL-7) efficacy and potential mechanisms of action were tested in a murine peritonitis model. Studies at two independent laboratories showed that rhIL-7 markedly improved host survival, blocked apoptosis of CD4 and CD8 T cells, restored IFN-γ production, and improved immune effector cell recruitment to the infected site. Importantly, rhIL-7 also prevented a hallmark of sepsis (i.e., the loss of delayed-type hypersensitivity), which is an IFN-γ- and T cell-dependent response. Mechanistically, rhIL-7 significantly increased the expression of the leukocyte adhesion markers LFA-1 and VLA-4, consistent with its ability to improve leukocyte function and trafficking to the infectious focus. rhIL-7 also increased the expression of CD8. The potent antiapoptotic effect of rhIL-7 was due to increased Bcl-2, as well as to a dramatic decrease in sepsis-induced PUMA, a heretofore unreported effect of IL-7. If additional animal studies support its efficacy in sepsis and if current clinical trials continue to confirm its safety in diverse settings, rhIL-7 should be strongly considered for clinical trials in sepsis. Copyright © 2010 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

Kasten K.R.,University of Cincinnati | Prakash P.S.,University of Cincinnati | Unsinger J.,University of Washington | Goetzman H.S.,University of Cincinnati | And 9 more authors.
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2010

The sepsis syndrome represents an improper immune response to infection and is associated with unacceptably high rates of mortality and morbidity. The interactions between T cells and the innate immune system while combating sepsis are poorly understood. In this report, we observed that treatment with the potent, antiapoptotic cytokine interleukin-7 (IL-7) accelerated neutrophil recruitment and improved bacterial clearance. We first determined that T cells were necessary for the previously observed IL-7-mediated enhanced survival. Next, IL-7 increased Bcl-2 expression in T cells isolated from septic mice as early as 3 h following treatment. This treatment resulted in increased gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and IP-10 production within the septic peritoneum together with local and systemic increases of IL-17 in IL-7-treated mice. We further demonstrate that the increase in IL-17 was largely due to increased recruitment and production by γδ T cells, which express CXCR3. Consistent with increased IL-17 production, IL-7 treatment increased CXCL1/KC production, neutrophil recruitment, and bacterial clearance. Significantly, end-organ tissue injury was not significantly different between vehicle- and IL-7-treated mice. Collectively, these data illustrate that IL-7 can mediate the cross talk between Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes during sepsis such that neutrophil recruitment and bacterial clearance is improved while early tissue injury is not increased. All together, these observations may underlay novel potential therapeutic targets to improve the host immune response to sepsis. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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