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Meriin A.B.,Boston University | Mense M.,Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics | Colbert J.D.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | Liang F.,Flatley Discovery Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2012

Protein homeostasis depends on a balance of translation, folding, and degradation. Here, we demonstrate that mild inhibition of translation results in a dramatic and disproportional reduction in production of misfolded polypeptides in mammalian cells, suggesting an improved folding of newly synthesized proteins. Indeed, inhibition of translation elongation, which slightly attenuated levels of a copepod GFP mutant protein, significantly enhanced its function. In contrast, inhibition of translation initiation had minimal effects on copepod GFP folding. On the other hand, mild suppression of either translation elongation or initiation corrected folding defects of the disease-associated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutant F508del. We propose that modulation of translation can be used as a novel approach to improve overall proteostasis in mammalian cells, as well as functions of disease-associated mutant proteins with folding deficiencies. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

Kalid O.,EPIX Pharmaceuticals Ltd. | Kalid O.,Tel Aviv University | Mense M.,EPIX Pharmaceuticals Ltd. | Fischman S.,EPIX Pharmaceuticals Ltd. | And 18 more authors.
Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design | Year: 2010

Folding correctors of F508del-CFTR were discovered by in silico structure-based screening utilizing homology models of CFTR. The intracellular segment of CFTR was modeled and three cavities were identified at inter-domain interfaces: (1) Interface between the two Nucleotide Binding Domains (NBDs); (2) Interface between NBD1 and Intracellular Loop (ICL) 4, in the region of the F508 deletion; (3) multi-domain interface between NBD 1:2:ICL 1:2:4. We hypothesized that compounds binding at these interfaces may improve the stability of the protein, potentially affecting the folding yield or surface stability. In silico structure-based screening was performed at the putative binding-sites and a total of 496 candidate compounds from all three sites were tested in functional assays. A total of 15 compounds, representing diverse chemotypes, were identified as F508del folding correctors. This corresponds to a 3% hit rate, ∼tenfold higher than hit rates obtained in corresponding highthroughput screening campaigns. The same binding sites also yielded potentiators and, most notably, compounds with a dual corrector-potentiator activity (dual-acting). Compounds harboring both activity types may prove to be better leads for the development of CF therapeutics than either pure correctors or pure potentiators. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of structure-based discovery of CFTR modulators. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010. Source

Lewis H.A.,SGX Pharmaceuticals | Wang C.,Columbia University | Zhao X.,SGX Pharmaceuticals | Hamuro Y.,ExSAR Corporation | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

The ΔF508 mutation in nucleotide-binding domain 1 (NBD1) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is the predominant cause of cystic fibrosis. Previous biophysical studies on human F508 and ΔF508 domains showed only local structural changes restricted to residues 509-511 and only minor differences in folding rate and stability. These results were remarkable because ΔF508 was widely assumed to perturb domain folding based on the fact that it prevents trafficking of CFTR out of the endoplasmic reticulum. However, the previously reported crystal structures did not come from matched F508 and ΔF508 constructs, and the ΔF508 structure contained additional mutations that were required to obtain sufficient protein solubility. In this article, we present additional biophysical studies of NBD1 designed to address these ambiguities. Mass spectral measurements of backbone amide 1H/2H exchange rates in matched F508 and ΔF508 constructs reveal that ΔF508 increases backbone dynamics at residues 509-511 and the adjacent protein segments but not elsewhere in NBD1. These measurements also confirm a high level of flexibility in the protein segments exhibiting variable conformations in the crystal structures. We additionally present crystal structures of a broader set of human NBD1 constructs, including one harboring the native F508 residue and others harboring the ΔF508 mutation in the presence of fewer and different solubilizing mutations. The only consistent conformational difference is observed at residues 509-511. The side chain of residue V510 in this loop is mostly buried in all non-ΔF508 structures but completely solvent exposed in all ΔF508 structures. These results reinforce the importance of the perturbation ΔF508 causes in the surface topography of NBD1 in a region likely to mediate contact with the transmembrane domains of CFTR. However, they also suggest that increased exposure of the 509-511 loop and increased dynamics in its vicinity could promote aggregation in vitro and aberrant intermolecular interactions that impede trafficking in vivo. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Atwell S.,Eli Lilly and Company | Brouillette C.G.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Conners K.,Eli Lilly and Company | Emtage S.,Eli Lilly and Company | And 14 more authors.
Protein Engineering, Design and Selection | Year: 2010

Upon removal of the regulatory insert (RI), the first nucleotide binding domain (NBD1) of human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) can be heterologously expressed and purified in a form that remains stable without solubilizing mutations, stabilizing agents or the regulatory extension (RE). This protein, NBD1 387-646(Δ405-436), crystallizes as a homodimer with a head-to-tail association equivalent to the active conformation observed for NBDs from symmetric ATP transporters. The 1.7- resolution X-ray structure shows how ATP occupies the signature LSGGQ half-site in CFTR NBD1. The ΔF508 version of this protein also crystallizes as a homodimer and differs from the wild-type structure only in the vicinity of the disease-causing F508 deletion. A slightly longer construct crystallizes as a monomer. Comparisons of the homodimer structure with this and previously published monomeric structures show that the main effect of ATP binding at the signature site is to order the residues immediately preceding the signature sequence, residues 542-547, in a conformation compatible with nucleotide binding. These residues likely interact with a transmembrane domain intracellular loop in the full-length CFTR channel. The experiments described here show that removing the RI from NBD1 converts it into a well-behaved protein amenable to biophysical studies yielding deeper insights into CFTR function. © The Author 2010. Source

Wang C.,Columbia University | Protasevich I.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Yang Z.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Seehausen D.,Columbia University | And 11 more authors.
Protein Science | Year: 2010

The lethal genetic disease cystic fibrosis is caused predominantly by in-frame deletion of phenylalanine 508 in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). F508 is located in the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1) of CFTR, which functions as an ATP-gated chloride channel on the cell surface. The F508del mutation blocks CFTR export to the surface due to aberrant retention in the endoplasmic reticulum. While it was assumed that F508del interferes with NBD1 folding, biophysical studies of purified NBD1 have given conflicting results concerning the mutation's influence on domain folding and stability. We have conducted isothermal (this paper) and thermal (accompanying paper) denaturation studies of human NBD1 using a variety of biophysical techniques, including simultaneous circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence, and static light-scattering measurements. These studies show that, in the absence of ATP, NBD1 unfolds via two sequential conformational transitions. The first, which is strongly influenced by F508del, involves partial unfolding and leads to aggregation accompanied by an increase in tryptophan fluorescence. The second, which is not significantly influenced by F508del, involves full unfolding of NBD1. Mg-ATP binding delays the first transition, thereby offsetting the effect of F508del on domain stability. Evidence suggests that the initial partial unfolding transition is partially responsible for the poor in vitro solubility of human NBD1. Second-site mutations that increase the solubility of isolated F508del-NBD1 in vitro and suppress the trafficking defect of intact F508del-CFTR in vivo also stabilize the protein against this transition, supporting the hypothesize that it is responsible for the pathological trafficking of F508del-CFTR. © 2010 The Protein Society. Source

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