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Nicosia, Cyprus

Izamis M.-L.,University of Cyprus | Efstathiades A.,Galway University Hospital | Keravnou C.,University of Cyprus | Georgiadou S.,Cyprus Veterinary Services | And 2 more authors.
Liver Transplantation | Year: 2014

The handling of donor organs frequently introduces air into the microvasculature, but little is known about the extent of the damage caused as a function of the embolism size and distribution. Here we introduced embolisms of different sizes into the portal vein, the hepatic artery, or both during the flushing stage of porcine liver procurement. The outcomes were evaluated during 3 hours of machine perfusion and were compared to the outcomes of livers with no embolisms. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCEUS) was used to assess the perfusion quality, and it demonstrated that embolisms tended to flow mostly into the left lobe, occasionally into the right lobe, and rarely into the caudate lobe. Major embolisms could disrupt the flow entirely, whereas minor embolisms resulted in reduced or heterogeneous flow. Embolisms occasionally migrated to different regions of the same lobe and, regardless of their size, caused a general deterioration in the flow over time. Histological damage resulted primarily when both vessels of the liver were compromised, whereas bile production was diminished in livers that had arterial embolisms. Air embolisms produced a dose-dependent increase in vascular resistance and a decline in oxygen consumption. This is the first article to quantify the impact of air embolisms on microcirculation in an experimental model, and it demonstrates that air embolisms have the capacity to degrade the integrity of donor organs. The extent of organ damage is strongly dependent on the size and distribution of air embolisms. The diagnosis of embolism severity can be safely and easily made with DCEUS. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Source


Botsaris G.,Cyprus University of Technology | Swift B.M.C.,University of Nottingham | Slana I.,Veterinary Research Institute | Liapi M.,Cyprus Veterinary Services | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2016

Surveys from different parts of the world have reported that viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) can be cultured from approximately 2% of samples of retail pasteurised milk samples. Pasteurised milk is used for the production of powdered infant formula (PIF) and therefore there is a concern that MAP may also be present in these products. Several studies have previously reported the detection of MAP in PIF using PCR-based assays. However, culture-based surveys of PIF have not detected viable MAP. Here we describe a phage amplification assay coupled with PCR (page-PCR) that can rapidly detect viable MAP in PIF. The results of a small survey showed that the phage-PCR assay detected viable MAP in 13% (4/32) of PIF samples. Culture detected viable MAP in 9% (3/32) PIF samples, all of which were also phage-PCR positive. Direct IS. 900 PCR detected MAP DNA in 22% (7/32) of PIF samples. The presence of viable MAP in PIF indicates that MAP either survived PIF manufacturing or that post-production contamination occurred. Irrespective of the route of MAP contamination, the presence of viable MAP in PIF is a potential public health concern. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Botsaris G.,University of Nottingham | Botsaris G.,Cyprus University of Technology | Liapi M.,Cyprus Veterinary Services | Kakogiannis C.,Cyprus Veterinary Services | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2013

Conventional culture and a rapid phage-PCR method were used to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in bulk tank milk (BTM) samples. Only two of 225 samples (0.9%) were found to contain MAP by culture whereas 50 (22%) MAP-positive samples were identified using the phage-PCR assay, including both samples that were MAP-culture positive. Results using the phage-based method for independently tested duplicate samples indicated that the assay is very reproducible (r2=0.897), especially when low levels of mycobacteria are present. A relationship was established between plaque number and the presence of MAP in a sample. A cut-off value was determined allowing identification of MAP-positive samples based on plaque number alone (90% sensitivity, 99% specificity; area under the curve=0.976). These results indicate that the assay is a robust method for screening BTM, providing results within 24h. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Botsaris G.,University of Nottingham | Slana I.,Veterinary Research Institute | Liapi M.,Cyprus Veterinary Services | Dodd C.,University of Nottingham | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2010

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) may have a role in the development of Crohn's disease in humans via the consumption of contaminated milk and milk products. Detection of MAP from milk and dairy products has been reported from countries on the European continent, Argentina, the UK and Australia. In this study three different methods (quantitative real time PCR, combined phage IS. 900 PCR and conventional cultivation) were used to detect the presence of MAP in bulk tank milk (BTM) and cheese originating from sheep, goat and mixed milks from farms and products in Cyprus. During the first survey the presence of MAP was detected in 63 (28.6%) of cows' BTM samples by quantitative real time PCR. A second survey of BTM used a new combined phage IS. 900 PCR assay, and in this case MAP was detected in 50 (22.2%) samples showing a good level of agreement by both methods. None of the herds tested were known to be affected by Johne's disease and the presence of viable MAP was confirmed by conventional culture in only two cases of cows BTM. This suggests that either rapid method used is more sensitive than the conventional culture when testing raw milk samples for MAP. The two isolates recovered from BTM were identified by IS. 1311 PCR REA as cattle and sheep strains, respectively. In contrast when cheese samples were tested, MAP DNA was detected by quantitative real time PCR in seven (25.0%) samples (n=28). However no viable MAP was detected when either the combined phage IS. 900 PCR or conventional culture methods were used. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Liapi M.,Cyprus Veterinary Services | Botsaris G.,Cyprus University of Technology | Slana I.,Veterinary Research Institute | Moravkova M.,Veterinary Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases | Year: 2015

Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic incurable infection of intestinal tract of animals. Molecular characterization of Map isolates classifies them into two major groups, 'Cattle' or Type II and 'Sheep' or Type I/III with a different phenotype, epidemiology, virulence and pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine 192 Map ELISA-positive sheep and goats from Cyprus using faecal culture and genotype Map isolates using IS1311 PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis (IS1311 PCR-REA) with HinfI restriction enzyme. Map was isolated from only four (4.6%) faecal samples out of 88 sheep and 15 (14.4%) faecal samples out of 104 goats. Genotyping of the isolates using IS1311 PCR-REA revealed that sheep and goat populations on the island are infected primarily by 'Sheep' strains. Only three Map isolates from goats originated from one farm were characterized as 'Cattle' strains. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

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