Cypresvej 1

Brønderslev, Denmark

Cypresvej 1

Brønderslev, Denmark
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PubMed | University of Turku, CSIC - Estación Experimental De Zonas Áridas, Babes - Bolyai University, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology (Seewiesen) and 19 more.
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Climate change potentially has important effects on distribution, abundance, transmission and virulence of parasites in wild populations of animals.Here we analyzed paired information on 89 parasite populations for 24 species of bird hosts some years ago and again in 2010 with an average interval of 10 years. The parasite taxa included protozoa, feather parasites, diptera, ticks, mites and fleas. We investigated whether change in abundance and prevalence of parasites was related to change in body condition, reproduction and population size of hosts. We conducted analyses based on the entire dataset, but also on a restricted dataset with intervals between study years being 5-15 years. Parasite abundance increased over time when restricting the analyses to datasets with an interval of 5-15 years, with no significant effect of changes in temperature at the time of breeding among study sites. Changes in host body condition and clutch size were related to change in temperature between first and second study year. In addition, changes in clutch size, brood size and body condition of hosts were correlated with change in abundance of parasites. Finally, changes in population size of hosts were not significantly related to changes in abundance of parasites or their prevalence.Climate change is associated with a general increase in parasite abundance. Variation in laying date depended on locality and was associated with latitude while body condition of hosts was associated with a change in temperature. Because clutch size, brood size and body condition were associated with change in parasitism, these results suggest that parasites, perhaps mediated through the indirect effects of temperature, may affect fecundity and condition of their hosts. The conclusions were particularly in accordance with predictions when the restricted dataset with intervals of 5-15 years was used, suggesting that short intervals may bias findings.

Diaz M.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Moller A.P.,University Paris - Sud | Flensted-Jensen E.,Cypresvej 1 | Grim T.,Palacky University | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

All animals flee from potential predators, and the distance at which this happens is optimized so the benefits from staying are balanced against the costs of flight. Because predator diversity and abundance decreases with increasing latitude, and differs between rural and urban areas, we should expect escape distance when a predator approached the individual to decrease with latitude and depend on urbanization. We measured the distance at which individual birds fled (flight initiation distance, FID, which represents a reliable and previously validated surrogate measure of response to predation risk) following a standardized protocol in nine pairs of rural and urban sites along a ca. 3000 km gradient from Southern Spain to Northern Finland during the breeding seasons 2009-2010. Raptor abundance was estimated by means of standard point counts at the same sites where FID information was recorded. Data on body mass and phylogenetic relationships among bird species sampled were extracted from the literature. An analysis of 12,495 flight distances of 714 populations of 159 species showed that mean FID decreased with increasing latitude after accounting for body size and phylogenetic effects. This decrease was paralleled by a similar cline in an index of the abundance of raptors. Urban populations had consistently shorter FIDs, supporting previous findings. The difference between rural and urban habitats decreased with increasing latitude, also paralleling raptor abundance trends. Overall, the latitudinal gradient in bird fear was explained by raptor abundance gradients, with additional small effects of latitude and intermediate effects of habitat. This study provides the first empirical documentation of a latitudinal trend in anti-predator behavior, which correlated positively with a similar trend in the abundance of predators. © 2013 Díaz et al.

Soler J.J.,CSIC - Estación Experimental De Zonas Áridas | Soler J.J.,University of Granada | Peralta-Sanchez J.M.,CSIC - Estación Experimental De Zonas Áridas | Peralta-Sanchez J.M.,University of Granada | And 4 more authors.
Naturwissenschaften | Year: 2012

Parasite-mediated selection may affect the evolution of cognitive abilities because parasites may influence development of the brain, but also learning capacity. Here, we tested some predictions of this hypothesis by analyzing the relationship between complex behaviours (feeding innovations (as a measure of behavioural flexibility) and ability to detect foreign eggs in their nests (i.e. a measure of discriminatory ability)) and abundance of microorganisms in different species of birds. A positive relationship would be predicted if these cognitive abilities implied a larger number of visited environments, while if these skills favoured detection and avoidance of risky environments, a negative relationship would be the prediction. Bacterial loads of eggshells, estimated for mesophilic and potentially pathogenic bacteria (i.e. Enterococcus, Staphylococcus and Enterobacteriaceae), were used as a surrogate of probability of contact with pathogenic bacteria. We found that bird species with higher feeding innovation rates and rejection rates of experimental brood parasitic eggs had higher density of bacteria on their eggshells than the average species. Since the analysed groups of microorganisms include pathogenic bacteria, these results suggest that both feeding innovation and ability to recognize foreign eggs are costly and highlight the importance of parasite-mediated selection in explaining the evolution of cognitive abilities in animals. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Moller A.P.,University Paris - Sud | Diaz M.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Flensted-Jensen E.,Cypresvej 1 | Grim T.,Palacky University | And 6 more authors.
Oecologia | Year: 2012

Living organisms generally occur at the highest population density in the most suitable habitat. Therefore, invasion of and adaptation to novel habitats imply a gradual increase in population density, from that at or below what was found in the ancestral habitat to a density that may reach higher levels in the novel habitat following adaptation to that habitat. We tested this prediction of invasion biology by analyzing data on population density of breeding birds in their ancestral rural habitats and in matched nearby urban habitats that have been colonized recently across a continental latitudinal gradient. We estimated population density in the two types of habitats using extensive point census bird counts, and we obtained information on the year of urbanization when population density in urban habitats reached levels higher than that of the ancestral rural habitat from published records and estimates by experienced ornithologists. Both the difference in population density between urban and rural habitats and the year of urbanization were significantly repeatable when analyzing multiple populations of the same species across Europe. Population density was on average 30 % higher in urban than in rural habitats, although density reached as much as 100-fold higher in urban habitats in some species. Invasive urban bird species that colonized urban environments over a long period achieved the largest increases in population density compared to their ancestral rural habitats. This was independent of whether species were anciently or recently urbanized, providing a unique cross-validation of timing of urban invasions. These results suggest that successful invasion of urban habitats was associated with gradual adaptation to these habitats as shown by a significant increase in population density in urban habitats over time. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Diaz M.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Cuervo J.J.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Grim T.,Palacky University | Flensted-Jensen E.,Cypresvej 1 | And 6 more authors.
Behavioral Ecology | Year: 2015

Animal populations are currently under pressure from multiple factors that include human land use and climate change. They may compensate for such effects by reducing, either by habituation or by natural selection, the distance at which they flee from humans (i.e., flight initiation distance), and this adaptation may improve their population trends. We analyzed population trends of common breeding birds in relation to flight initiation distance and geographical location (latitude, longitude, and marginality of the breeding distribution) across European countries from Finland in the north to Spain in the south while also considering other potential predictors of trends like farmland habitat, migration, body size, and brain size. We found evidence of farmland, migratory, and smaller-sized species showing stronger population declines. In contrast, there was no significant effect of relative brain size on population trends. We did not find evidence for main effects of flight initiation distance and geographical location on trends after accounting for confounding and interactive effects; instead, flight initiation distance and location interacted to generate complex spatial patterns of population trends. Trends were more positive for fearful populations northward, westward, and (marginally) toward the center of distribution areas and more negative for fearless populations toward the south, east, and the margins of distribution ranges. These findings suggest that it is important to consider differences in population trends among countries, but also interaction effects among factors, because such interactions can enhance or compensate for negative effects of other factors on population trends. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology.

Moller A.P.,University Paris - Sud | Flensted-Jensen E.,Cypresvej 1 | Laursen K.,University of Aarhus | Mardal W.,Legindvej 102
Ecosystems | Year: 2014

Leakage of nutrients from farmland to freshwater and marine environments results in fertilization that increases primary production with cascading effects in the ecosystem. Leakage of fertilizers may initially increase availability of food for primary and secondary consumers, although part of this effect may subsequently be followed by a reduction in food abundance caused by hypoxia. We hypothesized that leakage of nutrients from farmland increased primary and secondary production and subsequently the population size of waterbirds. The amount of phosphorus in the marine environment in Denmark during 1975–2010 increased with fertilizer use on farmland and this effect was stronger when winter precipitation was high. Leakage of fertilizer had ecosystem effects on phytoplankton, zooplankton, and ultimately biodiversity in the marine environment. We found linear relationships between fertilizer use and population size of breeding and wintering waterbirds, with additional quadratic relationships with fertilizer use and linear effects of temperature. The linear effect of fertilizer use depended on the diet of waterbirds with stronger effects in herbivorous and piscivorous species than in species eating benthos. These findings have implications for management of waterbird populations because a reduction in fertilizer use should result in increasing populations of herbivores and piscivores. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Soler J.J.,CSIC - Estación Experimental De Zonas Áridas | Soler J.J.,University of Granada | Peralta-Sanchez J.M.,CSIC - Estación Experimental De Zonas Áridas | Peralta-Sanchez J.M.,University of Granada | And 3 more authors.
Naturwissenschaften | Year: 2011

Fitness benefits associated with the development of a costly immune system would include not only selfprotection against pathogenic microorganisms but also protection of host offspring if it reduces the probability and the rate of vertical transmission of microorganisms. This possibility predicts a negative relationship between probabilities of vertical transmission of symbionts and level of immune response that we here explore inter-specifically. We estimated eggshell bacterial loads by culturing heterotrophic bacteria, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus and Enterobacteriaceae on the eggshells of 29 species of birds as a proxy of vertical transmission of bacteria from mother to offspring. For this pool of species, we also estimated innate immune response (natural antibody and complement (lysis)) of adults, which constitute the main defence against bacterial infection. Multivariate general linear models revealed the predicted negative association between natural antibodies and density of bacteria on the eggshell of 19 species of birds for which we sampled the eggs in more than one nest. Univariate analyses revealed significant associations for heterotrophic bacteria and for Enterobacteriaceae, a group of bacteria that includes important pathogens of avian embryos. Therefore, these results suggest a possible trans-generational benefit of developing a strong immune system by reducing vertical transmission of pathogens. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

Moller A.P.,University Paris - Sud | Flensted-Jensen E.,Cypresvej 1 | Mardal W.,Legindvej 102 | Soler J.J.,CSIC - Estación Experimental De Zonas Áridas
Oecologia | Year: 2013

Predator-prey and host-parasite interactions and mutualisms are common and may have profound effects on ecosystems. Here we analyze the parasitic and mutualistic associations between three groups of organisms: the plant Artemisia maritima, bacteria, and a colonial seabird (the sandwich tern Sterna sandvicensis) that breeds in dense colonies covered in feces produced by both adults and chicks. A disproportionately large fraction of colonies of the sandwich tern in Denmark were located in patches covered by A. maritima. This association was specific for the densely colonial sandwich tern, but was not present for four other sympatric species of terns that breed in much less dense colonies. A. maritima reduced the abundance of pathogenic Staphylococcus on chicken eggshells in a field experiment. Recruitment by sandwich terns breeding in patches of A. maritima was 18 % higher than for sandwich terns breeding in the absence of A. maritima. A. maritima benefitted from the association with sandwich terns due to the supply of nutrients from feces and uneaten food lost by young. These findings are consistent with sandwich terns exploiting the association with A. maritima and its antimicrobial properties to improve their reproductive success, while sandwich terns and A. maritima are involved in a mutualistic interaction. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Moller A.P.,University Paris - Sud | Moller A.P.,Center for Advanced Study | Flensted-Jensen E.,Cypresvej 1 | Klarborg K.,Skovvej 28 | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Ecology | Year: 2010

1. The duration of the reproductive season may depend on the duration of the growing season, with recent amelioration in spring temperatures allowing earlier start of reproduction. Earlier start of reproduction may allow a longer breeding season because of more broods a longer interval between broods for multi-brooded species. 2. We analysed extensive long-term data sets on timing of breeding in 20 species of birds from Denmark, based on records of over 100 000 individual offspring, showing considerable heterogeneity among species in temporal change in duration of the breeding season. 3. Multi-brooded species increased the duration of their breeding season by 0·43 days year-1 while single-brooded species decreased the duration of their breeding season by 0·44 days year-1. This implies that recent climate change has allowed more broods or better temporal spacing of broods in multi-brooded species, while the time window for reproduction has become narrower in single-brooded species. 4. The single-most important predictor of change in duration of the breeding season was change in the date breeding started; there was no change in the date of end of breeding. Species advancing their breeding date the most also expanded the duration of the breeding season. In contrast, longdistance migration and generation time did not predict change in duration of the breeding season. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 British Ecological Society.

Moller A.P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Flensted-Jensen E.,Cypresvej 1 | Nielsen J.T.,Espedal 4
Oecologia | Year: 2016

Predators account for lethal effects in their prey, but importantly also for non-lethal indirect effects through the presence and the activity of predators. Such non-lethal effects include altered timing of reproduction, incidence of reproduction, clutch size and quality of offspring produced. We investigated the effects of goshawks Accipiter gentilis on reproduction of the stock dove Columba oenas in 1723 breeding events during 2006–2015 in Northern Denmark, while simultaneously accounting for effects of climate on reproduction of stock doves. Stock doves were consumed by goshawks 36 times less frequently than expected from their abundance, showing that lethal effects of predation were negligible. Laying date advanced at higher temperatures and stronger winds. Laying was delayed when the population size of goshawks increased, and the effects of goshawks interacted wind speed. The frequency of eggs that did not hatch increased with the population size of goshawks, and with increasing temperatures. Recruitment rate of stock doves decreased with increasing population size of goshawks and stock doves. These findings show that indirect effects of predation by goshawks on stock doves were much larger than direct lethal effects and that climate change interacted with predator–prey interactions. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

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