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Galanaud D.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Perlbarg V.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Gupta R.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Stevens R.D.,Johns Hopkins University | And 18 more authors.
Anesthesiology | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND:: Existing methods to predict recovery after severe traumatic brain injury lack accuracy. The aim of this study is to determine the prognostic value of quantitative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS:: In a multicenter study, the authors prospectively enrolled 105 patients who remained comatose at least 7 days after traumatic brain injury. Patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging, including DTI in 20 preselected white matter tracts. Patients were evaluated at 1 yr with a modified Glasgow Outcome Scale. A composite DTI score was constructed for outcome prognostication on this training database and then validated on an independent database (n = 38). DTI score was compared with the International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials Score. RESULTS:: Using the DTI score for prediction of unfavorable outcome on the training database, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.75-0.91). The DTI score had a sensitivity of 64% and a specificity of 95% for the prediction of unfavorable outcome. On the validation-independent database, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.54-0.94). On the training database, reclassification methods showed significant improvement of classification accuracy (P < 0.05) compared with the International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials score. Similar results were observed on the validation database. CONCLUSIONS:: White matter assessment with quantitative DTI increases the accuracy of long-term outcome prediction compared with the available clinical/radiographic prognostic score. © 2012, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc. Source

Landsness E.,University of Liege | Landsness E.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Bruno M.-A.,University of Liege | Noirhomme Q.,University of Liege | And 8 more authors.
Brain | Year: 2011

The existence of normal sleep in patients in a vegetative state is still a matter of debate. Previous electrophysiological sleep studies in patients with disorders of consciousness did not differentiate patients in a vegetative state from patients in a minimally conscious state. Using high-density electroencephalographic sleep recordings, 11 patients with disorders of consciousness (six in a minimally conscious state, five in a vegetative state) were studied to correlate the electrophysiological changes associated with sleep to behavioural changes in vigilance (sustained eye closure and muscle inactivity). All minimally conscious patients showed clear electroencephalographic changes associated with decreases in behavioural vigilance. In the five minimally conscious patients showing sustained behavioural sleep periods, we identified several electrophysiological characteristics typical of normal sleep. In particular, all minimally conscious patients showed an alternating non-rapid eye movement/rapid eye movement sleep pattern and a homoeostatic decline of electroencephalographic slow wave activity through the night. In contrast, for most patients in a vegetative state, while preserved behavioural sleep was observed, the electroencephalographic patterns remained virtually unchanged during periods with the eyes closed compared to periods of behavioural wakefulness (eyes open and muscle activity). No slow wave sleep or rapid eye movement sleep stages could be identified and no homoeostatic regulation of sleep-related slow wave activity was observed over the night-time period. In conclusion, we observed behavioural, but no electrophysiological, sleep wake patterns in patients in a vegetative state, while there were near-to-normal patterns of sleep in patients in a minimally conscious state. These results shed light on the relationship between sleep electrophysiology and the level of consciousness in severely brain-damaged patients. We suggest that the study of sleep and homoeostatic regulation of slow wave activity may provide a complementary tool for the assessment of brain function in minimally conscious state and vegetative state patients. © 2011 The Author. Source

Javanainen A.,University of Jyvaskyla | Trzaska W.H.,University of Jyvaskyla | Trzaska W.H.,Helsinki Institute of Physics | Harboe-Sorensen R.,European Space Agency | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science | Year: 2010

Semi-empirical fitting based on classical Bohr theory has been applied to the experimental LET data in silicon of the RADEF heavy ion cocktail species. The parameterized LET descriptions to be used in the European Component Irradiation Facilities are introduced and compared with the commonly used estimations from SRIM-code. Also, a new user interface, ECIF Cocktail Calculator, based on this work, has been published under the RADEF webpages at http://www.jyu.fi/accelerator/radef/ECIFCalc. © 2010 IEEE. Source

Sohn M.-H.,Research Institute of Clinical Medicine | Sohn M.-H.,Cyclotron Research Center | Lim S.T.,Research Institute of Clinical Medicine | Lim S.T.,Cyclotron Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2010

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children. However, RMS rarely affects adults. A 68-year-old woman was admitted for evaluation of a huge mass in the left lower leg. A biopsy confirmed RMS. Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy was obtained to evaluate bone metastases, and diffusely increased uptake was noted in the huge soft tissue mass of the left lower extremity with linear increased uptake along the left tibia and fibula corresponding to the bony destructive lesion on the radiograph. This case presents extraosseous uptake of Tc-99m MDP by a giant RMS with bone invasion of the left lower extremity in an elderly woman. © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Henrottin J.,Cyclotron Research Center | Zervosen A.,Cyclotron Research Center | Lemaire C.,Cyclotron Research Center | Sapunaric F.,University of Liege | And 6 more authors.
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2015

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (hIDO) is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of the indole ring of l-tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway, thereby exerting immunosuppressive properties in inflammatory and tumoral tissues. The syntheses of 1-(2-fluoroethyl)-tryptophan (1-FETrp) and 1-((1-(2-fluoroethyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl)-tryptophan, two N1-fluoroalkylated tryptophan derivatives, are described here. In vitro enzymatic assays with these two new potential substrates of hIDO show that 1-FETrp is a good and specific substrate of hIDO. Therefore, its radioactive isotopomer, 1-[18F]FETrp, should be a molecule of choice to visualize tumoral and inflammatory tissues and/or to validate new potential inhibitors. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

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