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News Article | April 25, 2017
Site: en.prnasia.com

MANILA, Philippines, April 25, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- In just a week's time, the Philippines' security, fire and safety industry players will converge at the SMX Convention Centre, Metro Manila to get to know more about the latest technologies and products available in the industry. From 3 to 5 May 2017, the exhibition, organised by UBM, is open to industry professionals and trade visitors alike. Listen to the experts at IFSEC Philippines 2017 FREE-TO-ATTEND conference and seminar.   More than 120 global leading brands at IFSEC Philippines 2017.     The premier edition of IFSEC Philippines will showcase more than 120 world-renowned brands in CCTV, access control and biometrics, fire alarms, detection and protection, cyber security, home automation, physical security, perimeter protection and other product categories. Some of the leading participating brands are Axis Communications, Axxonsoft, Honeywell, Seagate, Dahua, Nemtek, Allied Telesis, Assa Abloy, HID Global, Kedacom, Microsoft, Samsung and more. With cutting-edge products available on the show floor, IFSEC Philippines expects to receive around 5,000 trade visitors and professionals during the three-day event. Aside from the wide range of products and brands, visitors will enjoy free seminars and learning sessions during the event. IFSEC Philippines 2017 is offering more than 18 free-to-attend sessions on the show floor. Visitors will have the opportunity to listen to hot topics presented by leading experts such as Undersecretary Catalino S. Cuy -- Officer in Charge of Department of the Interior and Local Government, Mr Raymund Liboro -- Chairman of the National Privacy Commission, Police Supt. Marni C. Marcos Jr -- Acting Director of the Anti-Cybercrime Group of the Philippine National Police, General Tan Sri Dato' Seri Admiral Mohamad Azumi (Rtd) -- Chairman of CyberSecurity Malaysia, and more. Philippine industry players, trade buyers, government officials and corporations are invited to visit IFSEC Philippines 2017. Admission to both the exhibition and conferences is free. For more information on IFSEC Philippines 2017, conference programme, list of exhibitors, product categories and to register, visit www.ifsecphilippines.com. We hope to meet you at IFSEC Philippines 2017 from 3 to 5 May 2017 at the SMX Convention Centre. See you there! About UBM Asia (www.ubmasia.com) Owned by UBM plc listed on the London Stock Exchange, UBM Asia is the largest trade show organiser in Asia and the largest commercial organiser in China, India and Malaysia. Established with its headquarters in Hong Kong and subsidiary companies across Asia and in the US, UBM Asia has a strong global network of 30 offices and 1,300 staff in 24 major cities. We operate in 20 market sectors with 230 exhibitions and conferences, 23 trade publications, 20 online products for over 1,000,000 quality exhibitors, visitors, conference delegates, advertisers and subscribers from all over the world. Photo - https://mma.prnewswire.com/media/493842/Experts_talk_at_IFSEC_Philippines_2017.jpgPhoto - https://mma.prnewswire.com/media/493844/Global_brands_at_IFSEC_Philippines_2017.jpg Logo - http://photos.prnasia.com/prnh/20170222/8521701055LOGO Logo - https://mma.prnewswire.com/media/493845/IFSEC_Philippines_Logo.jpg


Rahman A.F.A.,CyberSecurity Malaysia | Ahmad R.,University Technical Malaysia Melaka
International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology, ICACT | Year: 2014

Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a wireless network that can be attached or implanted onto the human body by using wireless sensor. Since WBAN developed for medical devices, the system should be design for a wide range of end user with different professional skill groups. This require WBAN system to be open, accurate and efficient. As from our previous experienced, any open system is vulnerable, similar to any other current available wireless systems such as Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). However, currently there were not many discussions on the WBAN security vulnerability and security threats and if there is any, the issues were discussed through theoretical, concept and simulation data. In this paper, we discuss potential WBAN security vulnerability and threats using Practical Impact Assessment (PIA) conducted in real environment so that we are able to identify the problem area in details and develop potential solutions to produce a forensics readiness secure network architecture for WBAN system. © 2014 Global IT Research Institute (GIRI).


KUALA LUMPUR, Malaysia, Dec. 6, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- On November 25, 2016, 3,500 security industry players in Malaysia converged for a gala dinner, which was organised for the first time ever by Malaysia's Ministry of Home Affairs (MOHA) in collaboration with Security Service Association of Malaysia (PPKKM) and sponsored by UBM Malaysia. Almost 800 security companies attended the memorable event, making it the largest dinner in the security industry that ever took place in Malaysia. The gala dinner was graced by the Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia and Minister of Home Affairs, Y.A.B Dato' Seri Dr Ahmad Zahid Hamidi, along with Y.B Masir Kujat, MOHA Deputy Minister; Datuk Seri Mustafa Ibrahim, MOHA Deputy Secretary; General Tan Sri Dato' Sri Dr. Zulkiefli Bin Mohd Zin, Chief of Malaysian Armed Forces; Dato' Sri Haji Mustapa Bin Haji Ali, PPKKM President; Tan Sri Dato' Dr Mustaffa Babjee, Chairman, UBM Malaysia, and Mr M. Gandhi, Managing Director of ASEAN Business, UBM Asia. In his opening speech, Y.A.B Dato' Seri Dr Ahmad Zahid Hamidi stressed the importance of having 24-hour guards on duty in all banks, due to increased cases in the premises and advised the banks to invest more in security parameters, to help protect not only their property, but also the people around them. The Ministry of Home Affairs will announce about the mandatory training, monitored by Royal Malaysia Police for all security personnel and bodyguards. This step has to be taken in order to improve the quality of their services. With the dinner serving as the last big gathering for security companies in 2016, the next gathering will be at IFSEC Southeast Asia 2017 on 6-8 September 2017 at Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre. Being the largest security, fire and safety event in Southeast Asia, IFSEC SEA is the best platform for the industry players to converge and build international network, whilst obtaining the latest technology available in the market. Organised by UBM Malaysia, IFSEC SEA had attracted more than 7,000 security professionals from 51 countries in 2016. It is supported by Malaysia Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Urban Wellbeing, Housing and Local Government, Royal Malaysia Police, CyberSecurity Malaysia, Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) Malaysia, Asian Professional Security Association (APSA) Malaysia Chapter, International Workplace, National Examination Board of Occupational Safety and Health (NEBOSH), British Security Industry Association (BSIA), ASIS Malaysia Chapter and International Security Industry Organisation (ISIO). "This event is part of our global IFSEC series of exhibitions that aims to promote security for commercial, government and private sectors. It is crucial for everyone to understand the security technology that helps protect offices, infrastructures and homes. One of the crucial elements in IFSEC SEA is cybersecurity, since globally, cybersecurity threats have cost billions of dollars in losses. So, we bring together leading global experts to IFSEC SEA and hope the industry players will take advantage by building business network and witnessing the latest technology and solutions available," said Mr M Gandhi. IFSEC Southeast Asia will take place at Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre on September 6 - 8 2017, and it's open to trade visitors only. Entrance is free of charge. For more information on the list of exhibitors or seminars, please visit www.ifsecsea.com. Owned by UBM plc listed on the London Stock Exchange, UBM Asia is the largest trade show organiser in Asia and the largest commercial organiser in China, India and Malaysia. Established with its headquarters in Hong Kong and subsidiary companies across Asia and in the US, UBM Asia has a strong global network of 30 offices and 1,300 staff in 24 major cities. We operate in 20 market sectors with 230 exhibitions and conferences, 23 trade publications, 20 online products for over 1,000,000 quality exhibitors, visitors, conference delegates, advertisers and subscribers from all over the world.


KUALA LUMPUR, Malaysia, Dec. 6, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- On November 25, 2016, 3,500 security industry players in Malaysia converged for a gala dinner, which was organised for the first time ever by Malaysia's Ministry of Home Affairs (MOHA) in collaboration with Security Service Association of Malaysia (PPKKM) and sponsored by UBM Malaysia. Almost 800 security companies attended the memorable event, making it the largest dinner in the security industry that ever took place in Malaysia. The gala dinner was graced by the Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia and Minister of Home Affairs, Y.A.B Dato' Seri Dr Ahmad Zahid Hamidi, along with Y.B Masir Kujat, MOHA Deputy Minister; Datuk Seri Mustafa Ibrahim, MOHA Deputy Secretary; General Tan Sri Dato' Sri Dr. Zulkiefli Bin Mohd Zin, Chief of Malaysian Armed Forces; Dato' Sri Haji Mustapa Bin Haji Ali, PPKKM President; Tan Sri Dato' Dr Mustaffa Babjee, Chairman, UBM Malaysia, and Mr M. Gandhi, Managing Director of ASEAN Business, UBM Asia. In his opening speech, Y.A.B Dato' Seri Dr Ahmad Zahid Hamidi stressed the importance of having 24-hour guards on duty in all banks, due to increased cases in the premises and advised the banks to invest more in security parameters, to help protect not only their property, but also the people around them. The Ministry of Home Affairs will announce about the mandatory training, monitored by Royal Malaysia Police for all security personnel and bodyguards. This step has to be taken in order to improve the quality of their services. With the dinner serving as the last big gathering for security companies in 2016, the next gathering will be at IFSEC Southeast Asia 2017 on 6-8 September 2017 at Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre. Being the largest security, fire and safety event in Southeast Asia, IFSEC SEA is the best platform for the industry players to converge and build international network, whilst obtaining the latest technology available in the market. Organised by UBM Malaysia, IFSEC SEA had attracted more than 7,000 security professionals from 51 countries in 2016. It is supported by Malaysia Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Urban Wellbeing, Housing and Local Government, Royal Malaysia Police, CyberSecurity Malaysia, Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) Malaysia, Asian Professional Security Association (APSA) Malaysia Chapter, International Workplace, National Examination Board of Occupational Safety and Health (NEBOSH), British Security Industry Association (BSIA), ASIS Malaysia Chapter and International Security Industry Organisation (ISIO). "This event is part of our global IFSEC series of exhibitions that aims to promote security for commercial, government and private sectors. It is crucial for everyone to understand the security technology that helps protect offices, infrastructures and homes. One of the crucial elements in IFSEC SEA is cybersecurity, since globally, cybersecurity threats have cost billions of dollars in losses. So, we bring together leading global experts to IFSEC SEA and hope the industry players will take advantage by building business network and witnessing the latest technology and solutions available," said Mr M Gandhi. IFSEC Southeast Asia will take place at Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre on September 6 - 8 2017, and it's open to trade visitors only. Entrance is free of charge. For more information on the list of exhibitors or seminars, please visit www.ifsecsea.com. Owned by UBM plc listed on the London Stock Exchange, UBM Asia is the largest trade show organiser in Asia and the largest commercial organiser in China, India and Malaysia. Established with its headquarters in Hong Kong and subsidiary companies across Asia and in the US, UBM Asia has a strong global network of 30 offices and 1,300 staff in 24 major cities. We operate in 20 market sectors with 230 exhibitions and conferences, 23 trade publications, 20 online products for over 1,000,000 quality exhibitors, visitors, conference delegates, advertisers and subscribers from all over the world.


Yunos Z.,CyberSecurity Malaysia | Suid S.H.,CyberSecurity Malaysia
ISI 2010 - 2010 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics: Public Safety and Security | Year: 2010

Critical National Information Infrastructure (CNII) is crucial to the survivability of a nation that the destruction or disruption of these systems and communication networks would significantly affect the economic strength, image, defense and security, government capabilities to function, and public health and safety. CNII would probably become an attractive target for terrorists. There is a need to have a strategy at the national level for the protection of CNII from cyber terrorism activities. © 2010 IEEE.


News Article | September 9, 2010
Site: www.zdnet.com

SINGAPORE--70 percent of Internet users in Singapore have fallen prey to cybercrimes, which is slightly higher than the global average of 65 percent. Four in 10 people have never fully resolved the issue, and many are suffering in silence, according to a new report by security vendor Symantec. Of the 455 adults surveyed in April this year, 49 percent were victims of viruses and malware, 17 percent were hit by online scams, 10 percent by phishing, while social network profile hacking and online credit card fraud each scored 8 percent of victims, said the report. Symantec labels online crime "a silent epidemic" as the majority of victims feel powerless and find it difficult to seek recourse. The security vendor's Internet safety advocate for Asia, Effendy Ibrahim, explained at a press briefing today that it is the lack of knowledge and faith in resolution that causes victims to be helpless in such situations. Currently, only Malaysia has a government body, CyberSecurity Malaysia, which the public can report incidents of online criminal activities to. The Internet Fraud Alert Centre, launched in June, is a union of security coalitions and vendors to whom virus and malware researchers can report to and alert about any potential threats they know of. "Cybercriminals purposely steal small amounts to remain undetected, but all of these add up. If you fail to report a loss, you might actually be helping the criminal stay under the radar," said Ibrahim."Ultimately, the cost of resolving financial crime is [in the loss of] money and time--one way or another, the victim is paying a 'price' and the impact is not just financial but emotional, too. Almost half of frauds in S'pore not resolved In the report released Thursday, 58 percent of victims said they were angered by the situation, 51 percent expressed frustration, while 45 percent felt cheated. Symantec also said the NCR is the first report to shed light on the human toll from cybercrime. The survey revealed that while it took an average of 24 days to resolve a cybercrime, the cost could be as high as US$1,202 (S$1,660) from the replacement of machines. This explains why 43 percent of victims have never fully resolved the matter, even as 26 percent said they do not have the time to do so. This compares with a global average of 28 days and US$334. In India, while the resolution time is the longest at 44 days, it costs just US$113 to do so. In advanced economies like Sweden, it takes only nine days and US$177 to settle the issue. Social media sites most targeted According to Effendy, the advent of social media has allowed cybercriminals to quickly gain access to computers through posing as "friends" on social-networking platforms, and it is usually these trust networks that rogues target. He further explained that with remote access, cybercriminals may not take action immediately but wait till they are able to amass a huge number of victims. These tricksters then proceed to obtain personal information and sell this for as little as US$0.85 per detail, with credit card information being the most popular target. With cybercrime becoming an "epidemic" and little action take by victims, it is no wonder the global underground economy is worth US$7 billion. As Symantec's regional consumer product marketing manager for Asia Pacific David Hall pointed out, all it takes is a US$700 Zeus toolkit for one to become a cybercriminal. The toolkit allows computer rogues to create unique malware individual to single users, which can then be sent out to steal confidential information. The press briefing also saw the launch of the Norton Internet Security and Norton Antivirus 2011 suite, which the security vendor claims is the only suite to achieve a 100 percent protection score in a new third-party test from Dennis Labs. Hall said the security vendor's unique "Reputation Based Security" instantly checks when and where programs originated to identify and stop new malicious programs. Together with information contributed by "community watch" members, users will be able determine whether their download behavior is risky. In a bid to provide even more protection to Web users, Symantec has also launched free tools such as the Norton Power Eraser, which targets and deletes fake antivirus and scareware programs that have become increasingly rampant. There is also a Facebook scanning tool that allows users to check links posted on "walls" to prevent clicking on malicious Web sites. Hall admitted that while consumers still face a higher risk of cybercrime, many are continuing to rely on free antivirus software, which may not be able to defend their computers adequately. Ibrahim added that public education is still key to maximizing protection and ensuring one's best Internet experience, but said this has to depend on other vendors and users contributing to the ecosystem to stamp out cybercrime. Legislation key to weeding out cybercrime Also speaking at the press briefing was lawyer Bryan Tan from Keystone Law Corporation, who specializes in technology cases. He revealed that the firm sees an average of five to 10 cases a year, with corporate to personal cases on a ratio of 1:4. However, it is the "personal" victims that suffer the most, as most do not have deep pockets to advance their case. Tan also said that a country's legislation is key to weeding out cybercrime, as cybercriminals tend to pick countries with little or no jurisdiction to launch attacks. "While Singapore has been strengthening its computer laws, Asia-Pacific countries are also moving toward improving legislation and cooperating on cross-border investigation," commented Tan. The U.S. version of the NCR is available here.


News Article | August 9, 2009
Site: www.zdnet.com

About a month ago, a friend of mine revealed that his bank account had been compromised and that an unknown person or persons had conducted a foreign telegraphic transfer to wire a significant amount of cash he had deposited in one of the country's leading banks into a foreign account. My heart went out to him as he had no inkling as to what had happened until he went to the bank last month to conduct some ATM transactions. As things unfolded, he discovered that some people almost cleaned out his account and the bank is now unwilling to cover his liabilities. Admittedly, the whole turn of events was quite intricately conducted and is still a little fuzzy in my mind. But the one thing that hit me about this unfortunate turn of events was that my friend was adamant that no one had known his username and password to his Internet banking account, and consequently, no one should have been able to transact without his knowledge, or so he thought. I then revealed to him the existence of malware known as keystroke loggers, which are programs that are designed to stealthily infiltrate a person's computer with the aim of stealing confidential keystrokes made by unsuspecting users. He was, unfortunately, quite surprised at the existence of such programs. As I kept up with the tech news over the past two weeks, I paid special attention notably to what security researchers were revealing at the recently concluded Black Hat Conference held in Las Vegas from July 25 to 30. Among those reports that generated great interest was the revelation of how security in the mega-popular Apple iphone can be compromised. According to tech portal V3, researchers found they could take complete control of the device and use it to hijack other devices by merely sending the right code via SMS to the phone. The only way to stop it is to shut the phone down completely. Another noteworthy one, says V3, was the revelation that the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) security could now be subverted using a process known as a "man in the middle" attack. The scary thing about it is that SSL is what persuades millions of Internet users to hand over their credit card details and engage in e-commerce on the browser interface. Yet another one was how software updates can be hijacked by using a Wi-Fi connection to detect computers looking for the updates. Hackers then jump onto the signal and tell the user that there is a code ready for upload (even if no updates are needed) and instead inject malware onto the target computer. It's an especially scary attack because patch management is vital for secure computing. Mulling over it the past week, I realized that there's just no escaping the eerie world of hacking. So unless you're prepared to be a "cyber-monk" living in a "cyber monastery", and dedicating yourself to "cyber asceticism", all of us should try and do something about this. As sympathetic as I am to my friend who suffered losses, and if he did indeed have his password stolen inadvertently without his knowledge, he might have needlessly suffered losses. I believe that had he known about such malware as keystroke loggers, then he might have been more wary of such methods to steal his money and consequently be more careful about his online activities. So the first thing that everyone must do in this increasingly cyber-driven world, is to get educated. No longer can anyone of us--tech-savvy or otherwise--say we've no clue about these kinds of issues, or that it's too complicated for us to learn. After all, many of us would not think twice to learn more about our hobbies or things that we like, and yet, we turn a blind eye to technology issues. If we are to survive smartly in this cyber world, we cannot afford to have this attitude any longer. In this respect, Malaysia is lucky in that it had the foresight and vision to establish not-for-profit organizations such as CyberSecurity Malaysia. Evolving from what was previously known as the National ICT Security and Response Center (Niser), the organization now coordinates all ICT security response on the national level for the country. Not many know this but Cybersecurity has some valuable resources that Joe Public can benefit from. Another thing that can be done is that the industry, particularly security players, government ministries and not-for-profit agencies, should come together and hatch better educational and awareness programs for Joe Public. In doing so, vendors have to ensure that the first goal on their agenda is to educate commoners of the threats and traps hackers use without pushing their respective products and services onto would-be paranoid Internet users. And while they are at it, they must do so in layman terms, minus all the jargon and intricacies that will inevitably scare techno-phobics away. Finally, we journalists too have a part to play. In the stories that we cover, we need to be sensitive to what our readers should know so that we can, to a certain extent, tailor our stories and educate them accordingly. And that's what I hope I've done with this posting--kick off something for all to think about and hopefully continue the task to educate the public at large.


News Article | December 20, 2012
Site: www.zdnet.com

A preliminary Microsoft security study shows that 63 percent of pirated software peddled in Southeast Asia--either through DVDs or preinstalled on computers--are laced with high-risk malware. In a statement Thursday, Redmond said its security forensics team had worked on 118 samples of pirated software purchased from resellers in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. They found about 2,000 instances of malware and virus infections in these samples which include "highly dangerous backdoors, hijackers, droppers, bots, crackers, password stealers, and Trojans", it noted. The study also found that among computers with bootleg copies of Windows operating systems (OSes), 77 percent of the Windows Update functionality has been disabled or re-routed to third-party services. The software giant said these PCs with disabled Windows Update bypass genuine software checks and are denied critical security patches which causes them to be defenseless against malicious cyberattacks. Jeff Bullwinkel, director of legal and corporate affairs for Asia-Pacific and Japan at Microsoft, said: "Pirated software is a breeding ground for cybercrime, and the cost of using it is potentially much higher than the price of buying genuine in the first place. We want to help consumers understand the risks involved and the steps they can take to ensure a safe and secure PC experience." Zahri Yunos, acting CEO of CyberSecurity Malaysia , added in the statement that having a computer with counterfeit software is like "moving into a high-crime neighborhood and leaving [the] doors open [which is] incredibly risky". "People with counterfeit software have no guarantee their sensitive data, activities and communications will be safe from cybercriminals that intend to do harm. As the results of this study show, the danger of counterfeit software is real and consumers should insist on genuine software when purchasing a new PC," said Zahri. Microsoft added it is currently expanding its research in Southeast Asia to increase the sample size of PCs and DVDs containing pirated software. It expects to publish the full study results and analysis during the first quarter of 2013. A separate May 2012 report by the Business Software Alliance (BSA) said about 63 percent of computer users in Asia-Pacific admitted to piracy , above the global average of 57 percent. Software piracy in 2011 resulted in a loss of nearly US$21 billion for software companies, it noted.


News Article | December 3, 2012
Site: www.zdnet.com

SINGAPORE-- The security industry is lagging behind cyberterrorists due to a lack of cooperation and communication between the public and private sectors and nation states. Speakers at Cyber Security Forum Asia 2012, hosted by security and defense firm IB Consultancy here Monday, reiterated the importance of collaboration among private and public organizations in fighting cybercrime , but noted such coordination has yet to be established despite the surge in cyberattacks. Cyberterrorists today are very organized and collaborative, leveraging ICT to promote their ideals, observed Zahri Yunos, CEO of CyberSecurity Malaysia. Citing research on cyberterrorism and the Internet, Zahri noted cyberterrorists have effectively and successfully used the Internet and social media for psychological warfare, publicity and propaganda, social networking, and even recruitment purposes. In comparison, nation states still are not collaborating with each other to battle cybercrime due to a lack of trust , noted Benjamin Ho, associate research fellow for the Center of Multilateralism Studies at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University (NTU). This mistrust is the result of the use of cyberweapons and cyberattacks between nation states, as well as the problem of attribution which has created a state of paranoia among countries, Ho said. Nation funding lead to cyberterrorism Costin Raiu, global research and analysis director at Kaspersky Labs, who was also a speaker at the forum agreed, noting that since the first known cyberweapon, Stuxnet , appeared in 2010, many other variations have surfaced including Duqu, Gauss, and Flame. These cyberweapons are sophisticated, complex, and expensive to construct, requiring investments of US$10 to $15 million, and only nation states have such capital to perpetrate them to others, Raiu noted. Such weapons have led to the inception of cyberterrorism or the use ICT to launch cyberattacks, he observed. While cyberterrorism is not proliferating yet and merely "at the top of the iceberg", it is an emerging threat which nations and the IT security industry will soon struggle against, he warned. Another communicative problem governments have yet to solve is failing to agree on a fixed definition of cyberterrorism, Zahri pointed out. This leads to confusion over the classification of such crimes because "one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter". This can ultimately hinder actions taken by governments to safeguard their nations against cyberterrorism, he explained. Internally, there are also communication roadblocks between the public and private sectors. Another speaker Carolyn Patteson, executive director of Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) Australia, revealed one of the challenges it faced was managing expectations from the private sector. CERT disseminates IT security related information to businesses. Many organizations thought of CERT Australia as "their personal internal CERT team" and failed to understand its actual role as a national IT security team, Patteson explained. Define security terms, update legislations With cyberterrorism, the biggest debate among governments is the difficulty in establishing whether cyberwar is part of cyberterrorism and vice versa, Raiu told ZDNet Asia at the sidelines of the event. He clarified that cyberwar is the work of nation states, while cyberterorrism is committed by individuals. From here, governments should define legislations, preventive measures, and take action against cyberterrorists. With the proliferation of cyberweapons , Raiu added there should also be agreements on the usage of such tools. He explained that, currently, while there are rules and regulations governing the use of nuclear and chemical weapons, there are none for cyberweapons to establish how they can be designed and used, and which nations they come from. Caitriona Heinl, research fellow at Center of Excellence for National Security at NTU's S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, observed the speed at which cyberattacks evolve has also posed challenges regarding cybercrime legislations , making it difficult to implement policies in a timely and effective manner. As such, governments should update legislations rapidly and work closely with related agencies and the security industry, to implement new laws on cyberattacks once they have taken place, Heinl explained. Above all, countries need to form alliances to combat cybercrime because it is not constrained by borders, she said, adding there should be clauses to aid each other if a member country is subjected to serious cyberattacks.

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