Von Der Dunk F.G.,Cyber University
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2013
The 2004 Commercial Space Launch Amendments Act provided the first national statute dedicated to private commercial spaceflight, further elaborated by a Chapter in the Code of Federal Regulations. A major element of that regulation concerns the 'informed consent' requirement, which constitutes the main condition upon which a private commercial spaceflight operator is allowed to fly paying passengers into the edge of outer space and back. The requirement as such does not automatically equate with a statutory waiver of passenger liability, which was a major reason for a handful of individual US states to add by way of statutes such immunity from liability in order to attract private commercial spaceflight operators. Notably, this concerns so far Virginia, Florida, New Mexico, Texas, Colorado and California. The present paper summarizes and compares the key provisions of the federal and state statutes on this key issue of (lack of) contractual liability, and addresses some of the issues possibly following from the divergences which inevitably exist between these statutes. ©2013 by the International Astronautical Federation. All rights reserved.
Kamide N.,Cyber University
International Journal of Uncertainty, Fuzziness and Knowlege-Based Systems | Year: 2014
Verifying and specifying multi-agent systems in an appropriate inconsistency-tolerant logic are of growing importance in Computer Science since computer systems are generally used by or composed of inconsistency-tolerant multi-agents. In this paper, an inconsistency-tolerant logic for representing multi-agents is introduced as a Gentzen-type sequent calculus. This logic (or calculus) has multiple negation connectives that correspond to each agent, and these negation connectives have the property of paraconsistency that guarantees inconsistency-tolerance. The logic proposed is regarded as a modified generalization of trilattice logics, which are known to be useful for expressing fine-grained truth-values in computer networks. The completeness, cut-elimination and decidability theorems for the proposed logic (or sequent calculus) are proved as the main results of this paper. © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company.
Schaefer M.,Cyber University
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2014
The intersection of insurance markets and liability regimes regarding third-parties and space flight participants (SFPs) in commercial space activities is important because of the potential impact on the development of an industry that is important for national economic and security reasons. Third-parties are those not involved with the space activity while SFPs are those aboard space craft that are not crew. Commercial human space flight is set to begin on a large scale in earnest soon and this will increase the number of launches taking place. The U.S. third-party liability regime is under pressure for change. If the U.S. Congress enacted third-party liability caps, or, alternatively, a long-term extension of the promise of government indemnification for large loss events, this would benefit industry and not impact insurance capacity or prices to any significant degree. However, if the U.S. government revisits its Maximum Probable Loss (MPL) calculation - MPL being the amount that space launch companies are required to obtain in third-party liability insurance - and adjusts it upward, this could have a negative impact on industry. Insurance premium outlays would increase, particularly for sub-orbital companies anticipating significant frequency of launches and that pay higher premium rates due to their lower per launch MPLs, at least until vehicle track records are established and discounted bulk buying is possible. The United States is the only country to date addressing SFP liability issues, but most legislation is at the state-level. U.S. state laws, while seemingly intended to protect space operators from negligence suits, suffer from drafting ambiguities, potential gaps and loopholes, and, collectively, leave an inconsistent patchwork of rules. In spite of the uncertainty, at least one company has begun offering $5 million life and health policies for SFPs, although many of the SFPs in the early stages of the industry will be high-net-worth individuals that may choose to self-insure. A clear federal rule establishing immunity for space operators from negligence suits by SFPs will likely create a more efficient insurance market. A uniform rule placing the liability on industry for SFP death and injuries should be avoided given it would greatly increase the cost of tickets leaving the United States at risk of the nascent industry making future investments in more favorable regulatory jurisdictions. Copyright ©2014 by the International Astronautical Federation. All rights reserved.
Kamide N.,Cyber University
Theoretical Computer Science | Year: 2013
The logic BI of bunched implications is a combination of intuitionistic logic and multiplicative intuitionistic linear logic. In this paper, a temporal extension tBI of BI is introduced and studied. A Gentzen-type sequent calculus GtBI for tBI is introduced, and the cut-elimination and decidability theorems for GtBI are proved using a theorem for syntactically embedding GtBI into a sequent calculus GBI for BI. A semantics for GtBI is introduced extending the Grothendieck topological semantics for BI, and the completeness theorem with respect to this semantics is proved using a theorem for semantically embedding tBI into BI. A semantics for GtBI without additive falsity constant is introduced extending the Kripke resource semantics for BI without additive falsity constant, and the completeness theorem with respect to this semantics is proved in a similar way. Moreover, an intuitionistic temporal linear logic, ITLL, is introduced as a Gentzen-type sequent calculus, and a theorem for embedding GtBI into ITLL is proved using a temporal extension of the Girard translation of intuitionistic logic into intuitionistic linear logic. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kamide N.,Cyber University
Proceedings of The International Symposium on Multiple-Valued Logic | Year: 2013
Shramko-Wansing's trilattice logics are sixteen-valued logics based on the algebraic structures of trilattices that can suitably represent generalized truth values. In this paper, an alternative new proof of the cut-elimination and completeness theorems for such a trilattice logic is obtained using two embedding theorems. Moreover, the Craig interpolation and Maksimova separation theorems for this logic are proved using the same embedding theorems. The results on Craig interpolation and Maksimova separation are new results of this paper. © 2013 IEEE.