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Rochester, NY, United States

Cober M.P.,University of Michigan | Johnson C.E.,University of Michigan | Lee J.,CVS Pharmacy | Currie K.,Target Pharmacy
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy | Year: 2010

Purpose. The stability of extemporaneously prepared rifaximin oral suspensions was studied. Methods. An oral suspension of rifaximin 20 mg/mL was prepared by thoroughly grinding six 200-mg tablets of rifaximin in a glass mortar. Thirty milliliters of Ora-Plus and 30 mL of either Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF were mixed and added to the powder to make a final volume of 60 mL. Three identical samples of each formulation were prepared and placed in 2-oz amber plastic bottles with child-resistant caps and were stored at room temperature (23-25 °C). A 1-mL sample was withdrawn from each of the six bottles with a micropipette immediately after preparation and at 7, 15, 30, and 60 days. After further dilution to an expected concentration of 20 μg/mL with mobile phase, the samples were assayed in duplicate using stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. The samples were visually examined for any color change and pH was tested on each day of analysis. Stability was determined by evaluating the percentage of the initial concentration remaining at each time point and defined as retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration of rifaximin. Results. At least 99% of the initial rifaximin remained throughout the 60-day study period in both preparations. There were no detectable changes in color, odor, taste, or pH and no visible microbial growth in any sample. Conclusion. Extemporaneously prepared suspensions of rifaximin 20 mg/mL in 1:1 mixtures of Ora-Plus with either Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF were stable for at least 60 days when stored in 2-oz amber plastic bottles at room temperature. Copyright © 2010, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Baldwin J.N.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Scott D.M.,North Dakota State University | DeSimone II E.M.,Creighton University | Forrester J.H.,CVS Pharmacy | Fankhauser M.P.,University of Arizona
Substance Abuse | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to profile and compare alcohol and other drug (AOD) use attitudes and behaviors in three pharmacy colleges. Student surveys of AOD use attitudes and behaviors were conducted at one southwestern and two midwestern pharmacy colleges. Response was 86.5% (566/654). Reported past-year use included alcohol 82.8%, tobacco 25.4%, and marijuana 6.9%. Past-year AOD-associated events included blackouts 18.2%, class or work under influence 7.8%, patient care under influence 1.4%, lowered grades or job evaluations 5.8%, legal charges 2.7%, and heavy drinking 29.0%. Family histories of alcohol or drug problems were reported by 35.5% and 13.1%, respectively. A number of significant differences in AOD use attitudes and behaviors between the three colleges were identified. Pharmacy students reported a number of risky drug-use attitudes and behaviors in this survey. Student AOD prevention, assistance, and education should be proactively addressed by pharmacy colleges. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Lee K.P.,University of California at San Francisco | Nishimura K.,Kaiser Permanente | Ngu B.,Long Beach Memorial Medical Center | Tieu L.,CVS Pharmacy | Auerbach A.D.,University of California at San Francisco
Annals of Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2014

Background: Transfer of medication information during transitions in care is crucial to preventing medication errors. Few studies evaluate patients' self-reported personal medication lists. Objectives: To assess completeness of personal medication lists and identify factors associated with incomplete personal lists and discrepancies between personal and clinic medication lists. Methods: We analyzed patients' personal medication lists at an academic hospital preoperative clinic from January 2010 to October 2010. Completeness of personal medication lists was measured as reporting the name, dose, and frequency for all prescription and nonprescription medications or dietary supplements. Discrepancies between personal and clinic medication lists were measured as omitted medications or differing directions. Results: Among 94 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 82 (87%) personal medication lists were evaluated. Most personal lists were incomplete (56%; 46/82), missing information for at least one medication reported; 94% (77/82) of personal lists had at least one discrepancy with clinic medication lists (median 4 discrepancies per patient list). On multivariate analyses, taking 10 or more medications (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 3.52; 95% CI = 1.37 to 9.08) and being divorced, widowed, or single (adjusted OR = 3.10; 95% CI = 1.05 to 9.12) were independent predictors of incomplete personal medication lists. Taking 10 or more medications (adjusted OR = 3.44; 95% CI = 1.35 to 8.78) was also associated with higher rates of medication discrepancies. Conclusions: Patients' self-reported personal medication lists are often incomplete and have discrepancies with clinic medication lists. Interventions are needed to improve medication information transfer between patients, providers and healthcare systems. © The Author(s) 2013. Source

Gray-Winnett M.D.,CVS Pharmacy | Davis C.S.,University of Mississippi | Yokley S.G.,Alcoa | Franks A.S.,Alcoa
Journal of the American Pharmacists Association | Year: 2010

Objectives: To decrease the amount of pharmaceuticals present in our community's water supply, reduce the accidental and intentional ingestion of pharmaceuticals, and increase awareness of proper medication disposal. Setting: Knoxville, TN, from November 2008 to November 2009. Practice description: Medication and thermometer collection events were held at various community retail establishments. Community officials and students collaborated to plan advertising, implementation, and appropriate medication and thermometer disposal. Event volunteers set up easily accessible tents and tables in hightraffic areas to collect unused medications, mercury thermometers, and recyclable medication bottles. Practice innovation: Student pharmacists worked cooperatively with community partners to collect unused medications and exchange thermometers. Main outcome measures: Pounds of recyclables collected, pounds of medications collected, and number of thermometers exchanged. Results: The events increased community awareness of appropriate medication disposal and pharmacists' roles in safe use of medications. From November 2008 to November 2009, more than 1,100 pounds of unwanted medications were collected through events and the drop box. Additionally, more than 470 pounds of recyclable packaging material was collected and 535 mercury thermometers exchanged. Conclusion: Student pharmacists can partner with community officials and businesses to provide safe and appropriate medication and mercury thermometer disposal. Source

Smalls T.D.,CVS Pharmacy | Broughton A.D.,Walgreens Co. | Hylick E.V.,Childrens National Medical Center | Woodard T.J.,United Health Centers
Journal of Pharmacy Practice | Year: 2015

Nearly 50 years ago, the Surgeon General of the US Public Health Service released the first report of the Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health. The report concluded that cigarette smoking caused lung and laryngeal cancer as well as bronchitis. Today, smoking is one of the leading preventable causes of deaths in the United States. Research has shown that it potentially causes more deaths than human immunodeficiency virus, illegal drug use, alcohol use, motor vehicle injuries, and firearm-related incidents. Health care providers play a critical role in guiding and directing patients to quit smoking by introducing them to smoking-cessation options. This is due to the fact that if these patients quit, they can reduce their cardiovascular risk. Pharmacists, being one of the easily accessible health care providers, have an advantage over other clinicians when it comes to influencing patients to quit smoking and to modify their lifestyles. Pharmacists through medication therapy management directly interact with these patients to manage medications as well as behavioral factors. © The Author(s) 2014. Source

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