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Yazdani S.K.,CVPath Institute Inc.
JACC. Cardiovascular interventions | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to assess the pathological responses of atherosclerotic saphenous vein bypass grafts (SVBGs) to drug-eluting stents (DES) versus bare-metal stents (BMS). Repeat bypass surgery is typically associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Percutaneous coronary interventions have emerged as the preferred treatment; however, only limited data are available on SVBGs pathological responses to DES and BMS. Formalin-fixed SVBG of >2 years duration (n = 31) were collected to histologically characterize advanced atherosclerotic lesions in native SVBG. In a separate group, SVBGs treated with DES (n = 9) and BMS (n = 9) for >30 days duration were assessed for morphological and morphometric changes. Necrotic core lesions were identified in 25% of SVBG sections, and plaque rupture with luminal thrombosis was observed in 6.3% of histological sections (32% [10 of 31] vein grafts examined). Morphometry of DES demonstrated reduction in neointimal thickening versus BMS (0.13 mm [interquartile range: 0.06 to 0.16 mm] vs. 0.30 mm [interquartile range: 0.20 to 0.48 mm], p = 0.004). DES lesions also showed greater delayed healing characterized by increased peristrut fibrin deposition, higher percentage of uncovered struts, and less endothelialization compared with BMS. Stent fractures (DES 56% vs. BMS 11%, p = 0.045) and late stent thrombosis (DES 44% vs. BMS 0%, p = 0.023) were more common in DES versus BMS. Advanced SVBG atherosclerotic lesions are characterized by large hemorrhagic necrotic cores. Stenting of such lesions is associated with delayed vascular healing and late thrombosis particularly following DES implantation, which may help explain the higher rates of cardiovascular events observed in SVBG stenting as compared with native coronary arteries. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Michel J.-B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Virmani R.,CVPath Institute Inc. | Arbustini E.,Centro Malattie Genetiche Cardiovascolari | Pasterkamp G.,Experimental Cardiology Laboratory
European Heart Journal | Year: 2011

Atherothrombosis remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the western countries. Human atherothrombotic disease begins early in life in relation to circulating lipid retention in the inner vascular wall. Risk factors enhance the progression towards clinical expression: dyslipidaemia, diabetes, smoking, hypertension, ageing, etc. The evolution from the initial lipid retention in the arterial wall to clinical events is a continuum of increasingly complex biological processes. Current strategies to fight the consequences of atherothrombosis are orientated either towards the promotion of a healthy life style 1 and preventive treatment of risk factors, or towards late interventional strategies. 2 Despite this therapeutic arsenal, the incidence of clinical events remains dramatically high, 3 dependent, at least in part, on the increasing frequency of type 2 diabetes and ageing. But some medical treatments, focusing only on prevention of the metabolic risk, have failed to reduce cardiovascular mortality, thus illustrating that our understanding of the pathophysiology of human atherothrombosis leading to clinical events remain incomplete. New paradigms are now emerging which may give rise to novel experimental strategies to improve therapeutic efficacy and prediction of disease progression. Recent studies strengthen the concept that the intraplaque neovascularization and bleeding (Figure 1, upper panel) are events that could play a major role in plaque progression and leucocyte infiltration, and may also serve as a measure of risk for the development of future events. The recent advances in our understanding of IntraPlaque Hemorrhage as a critical event in triggering acute clinical events have important implications for clinical research and possibly future clinical practice. Figure 1Macroscopic view and schematic representation of the detrimental consequences of intraplaque haemorrhages on plaque biology and stability. © 2009 The Author. Source


Nakazawa G.,CVPath Institute Inc. | Finn A.V.,Emory University | Vorpahl M.,CVPath Institute Inc. | Ladich E.R.,CVPath Institute Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2011

Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the mechanism(s) of late stent thrombosis (LST) and vascular healing responses in first-generation polymeric drug-eluting stents (DES). Background Recent clinical trials have reported variations in late lumen loss between first-generation sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) and paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES). Little is known, however, about the vascular responses, time course of healing, and underlying mechanism(s) of complications of LST between platforms in human coronary implants. Methods The overall analysis included 174 cases (230 DES lesions) from the CVPath Institute's stent registry. Histomorphometry was performed on coronary stents from 127 patients (171 lesions) who died <30 days after receiving stent implants in which fibrin deposition, endothelial strut coverage, inflammatory response, and mechanism(s) of in-stent thrombosis were assessed. Results Both platforms demonstrated increased neointimal thickness over time where values were greater in PES (mean 0.13 mm; range 0.03 to 0.20 mm) than SES (mean 0.10 mm; range 0.04 to 0.15 mm; p = 0.04). The percentage of uncovered struts was similar between SES and PES including stents with LST (SES = 21% vs. PES = 27%; p = 0.47). The underlying mechanism(s) of LST, however, was strikingly different between platforms; localized strut hypersensitivity was exclusive to SES, whereas malapposition secondary to excessive fibrin deposition was the underlying cause in PES. Moreover, although both PES and SES showed nearly complete strut coverage after 12 months for on-label use, the majority of stents placed for off-label indications remained unhealed after 12 months in both types of DES. Conclusions Differential mechanisms of LST involving either hypersensitivity or excessive fibrin were identified between first-generation DES in which overall stent healing was further delayed in DES placed for off-label indications. © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source


Park S.-J.,University of Ulsan | Kang S.-J.,University of Ulsan | Virmani R.,CVPath Institute Inc. | Nakano M.,CVPath Institute Inc. | Ueda Y.,Osaka Police Hospital
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2012

Percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting is the most widely performed procedure for the treatment of symptomatic coronary disease, and drug-eluting stents (DES) have minimized the limitations of bare-metal stents (BMS). Nevertheless, there remain serious concerns about late complications such as in-stent restenosis and late stent thrombosis. Although in-stent restenosis of BMS was considered as a stable condition with an early peak of intimal hyperplasia, followed by a regression period beyond 1 year, recent studies have reported that one-third of patients with in-stent restenosis of BMS presented with acute coronary syndrome that is not regarded as clinically benign. Furthermore, both clinical and histologic studies of DES have demonstrated evidence of continuous neointimal growth during long-term follow-up, which is designated as "late catch-up" phenomenon. Here, we present emerging evidence of de novo neoatherosclerosis based on histology, angioscopy, and intravascular images that provide a new insight for the mechanism of late stent failure. In-stent neoatherosclerosis is an important substrate for late stent failure for both BMS and DES, especially in the extended phase. In light of the rapid progression in DES, early detection of neoatherosclerosis may be beneficial to improving long-term outcome of patients with DES implants. © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source


Juni R.P.,Maastricht University | Duckers H.J.,Erasmus Medical Center | Virmani R.,CVPath Institute Inc. | Moens A.L.,Maastricht University
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Oxidative stress greatly influences the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular disorders. Coronary interventions, including balloon angioplasty and coronary stent implantation, are associated with increased vascular levels of reactive oxygen species in conjunction with altered endothelial cell and smooth muscle cell function. These alterations potentially lead to restenosis, thrombosis, or endothelial dysfunction in the treated artery. Therefore, the understanding of the pathophysiological role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during or after coronary interventions, or both, is essential to improve the success rate of these procedures. Superoxide O2 ·- anions, whether derived from uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, xanthine oxidase, or mitochondria, are among the most harmful ROS. O2 ·- can scavenge nitric oxide, modify proteins and nucleotides, and induce proinflammatory signaling, which may lead to greater ROS production. Current innovations in stent technologies, including biodegradable stents, nitric oxide donor-coated stents, and a new generation of drug-eluting stents, therefore address persistent oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide bioavailability after percutaneous coronary interventions. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms of ROS generation after coronary interventions, the related pathological events - including restenosis, endothelial dysfunction, and stent thrombosis - and possible therapeutic ways forward. © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source

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