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Rehman T.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Khan M.N.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Abbas R.Z.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Babar W.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Helminthology | Year: 2015

A serological and coprological survey of fasciolosis was conducted in bovine hosts from the Sargodha district, Pakistan using excretory–secretory (ES) antigens of Fasciola gigantica from cattle and buffaloes. Livers, faecal and blood samples of 146 cattle and 184 buffaloes were collected from slaughterhouses and examined for the presence of any Fasciola in bile ducts and ova in faeces. Serum was separated. ES antigens were prepared by incubating adult Fasciola in phosphate-buffered saline for 6–8 h and then filtering using a 0.22-μm syringe filter. Checkerboard titration was performed and optimum concentrations of antigen and serum were determined. Sero-prevalence was found to be 50.00 and 38.35% in buffalo and cattle, respectively. Using liver examination as the gold standard, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) sensitivity was found to be 100% in both buffalo and cattle as compared with that of coprological examination in buffalo (61.79%) and cattle (54.54%). This indigenous ELISA was also highly specific, with values of 96.84 and 98.90% in buffalo and cattle, respectively. Positive predictive values were calculated as 96.74 and 98.21% in buffalo and cattle, respectively, while negative predictive values were 100%. For the validation of indigenous ELISA in field surveys, faecal and blood samples were collected from six sub-districts (tehsils) in the district of Sargodha. Sera were screened for the presence of anti-fasciola antibodies using both the indigenous and commercial ELISA kits. While both kits were equally sensitive, the indigenous ELISA was found to be more specific. The highest prevalence of fasciolosis was found in December, as ascertained using both serological and coprological examination. Significant differences were found in prevalences of fasciolosis in different sub-districts and age groups, together with feeding and watering systems. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 Source


Hemlata,Veterinary Officer | Rao R.,CVAS | Joshi R.,CVAS | Maherchandani S.,CVAS | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2015

The present study was aimed to enumerate Staphylococcus aureus in raw chicken samples sold in Bikaner city (Rajasthan) and to study antibiotic sensitivity pattern of isolated S. aureus. For this a total 50 chicken samples were collected from various meat shops out of which 48 (96%) samples were found to be contaminated with S. aureus. S. aureus counts from all the positive samples ranged between 2.699 to 6.732 log 10 cfu/g, with average counts of 4.587 log 10 cfu/g. Out of these 48 isolates 20 (41.66%) were found coagulase positive. Antibiotic sensitivity test for the isolates revealed that all isolates of chicken meat samples (n = 48) were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and doxycycline (100%). S. aureus isolates were also found highly sensitive to gentamycin. In contrast, all isolates of S. aureus (100%) were resistant to ampicillin and cloxacillin while most of the isolates were also highly resistant to tetracycline. Multidrug resistance was also found in most of the isolates in the present study. The study revealed high prevalence of S. aureus in raw chicken meat samples and also evidenced antibiotic resistance of the organism. The study reflects the poor hygienic condition of slaughtering and handling of chicken meat. Source


Hemlata,Veterinary Officer | Rao R.,CVAS | Maherchandani S.,CVAS | Joshi R.,CVAS | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2015

A total of 50 chevon samples were collected from various meat shops of Bikaner city (Rajasthan) to examine the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and study antibiotic sensitivity pattern of isolated S. aureus. 46 (92%) samples were found to be contaminated with average counts of S. aureus 4.347 log 10 cfu/g. Half of the observed values to be in the potentially hazardous category. Among these 46 S. aureus isolates, 21 (45.65%) were coagulase positive. The results of antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed all S. aureus isolates (100%) sensitive to ciprofloxacin and doxycycline. In contrast, all isolates of S. aureus (100%) were resistant to ampicillin and cloxacillin. Moreover, S. aureus isolates were highly sensitive to gentamycin while most of the isolates were highly resistant to tetracycline and ofloxacin. Multidrug resistance was also found in most of the isolates. This study revealed high prevalence of S. aureus in raw chevon samples and also evidenced antibiotic resistance of the organism. The study reflects the poor hygienic condition of slaughtering and handling of chevon meat. Source

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