CV Dynamics Inc.

New Brunswick, NJ, United States

CV Dynamics Inc.

New Brunswick, NJ, United States
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de Lorenzo M.S.,Rutgers University | Baljinnyam E.,Rutgers University | Vatner D.E.,Rutgers University | Vatner D.E.,CV Dynamics Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2011

We investigated the effects of caloric restriction (CR) on growth of tumors and metastases in the 4T1 mammary tumor model and found that CR, compared with normal diet, reduced the growth of mammary tumors and metastases and the total number of metastases that originated both spontaneously from the primary tumor and also experimentally from i.v. injection of the tumor cells. CR also decreased proliferation and angiogenesis and increased apoptosis in tumors. CR reduced levels of insulin, leptin, insulin-like growth factor 1, insulinlike growth factor binding protein 3 and increased adiponectin in tumors. We also demonstrated that tumors from CR mice possessed lower levels of transforming growth factor-β, lower intratumor deposition of collagen IVand reduced invasiveness due to a decrease in tumor secretion of active matrix metalloproteinase 9. Our results suggest that CR-induced metabolic and signaling changes affect the stroma and the tumor cells resulting in a microenvironment that prevents proliferation of breast tumors and their metastases. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Shen Y.-T.,CV Dynamics Inc | Malik F.I.,Cytokinetics Inc. | Dhar S.K.,New Jersey Institute of Technology | Abarzua P.,CV Dynamics Inc | And 2 more authors.
Circulation: Heart Failure | Year: 2010

Background-Therapy for chronic systolic heart failure (sHF) has improved over the past 2 decades, but the armamentarium of drugs is limited and consequently sHF remains a leading cause of death and disability. In this investigation, we examined the effects of a novel cardiac myosin activator, omecamtiv mecarbil (formerly CK-1827452) in 2 different models of heart failure. Methods and Results-Two different models of sHF were used: (1) pacing-induced sHF after myocardial infarction (MI-sHF) and (2) pacing-induced sHF after 1 year of chronic pressure overload left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH-sHF). Omecamtiv mecarbil increased systolic function in sHF dogs, chronically instrumented to measure LV pressure, wall thickness, and cardiac output. Omecamtiv mecarbil, infused for 24 hours, induced a sustained increase without desensitization (P≤0.05) in wall thickening (25±6.2%), stroke volume (44±6.5%) and cardiac output (22±2.8%), and decreased heart rate (15±3.0%). The major differences between the effect of omecamtiv mecarbil on cardiac function and the effect induced by a catecholamine, for example, dobutamine, is that omecamtiv mecarbil did not increase LV dP/dt but rather increased LV systolic ejection time by 26±2.9% in sHF. Another key difference is that myocardial O2 consumption (MVO2), which increases with catecholamines, was not significantly affected by omecamtiv mecarbil. Conclusions-These results demonstrate that chronic infusion of the cardiac myosin activator, omecamtiv mecarbil, improves LV function in sHF without the limitations of progressive desensitization and increased MVO2. This unique profile may provide a new therapeutic approach for patients with sHF. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.

Ho D.,Rutgers University | Chen L.,Rutgers University | Zhao X.,Rutgers University | Durham N.,Cytokinetics Inc. | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Objective: Pulmonary hypertension remains a major clinical problem despite current therapies. In this study, we examine for the first time a novel pharmacological target, smooth muscle myosin, and determine if the smooth muscle myosin inhibitor, CK-2019165 (CK-165) ameliorates pulmonary hypertension. Materials and Methods: Six domestic female pigs were surgically instrumented to measure pulmonary blood flow and systemic and pulmonary vascular dynamics. Pulmonary hypertension was induced by hypoxia, or infusion of the thromboxane analog (U-46619, 0.1 μg/kg/min, i.v.). In rats, chronic pulmonary hypertension was induced by monocrotaline. Results: CK-165 (4 mg/kg, i.v.) reduced pulmonary vascular resistance by 22±3 and 28±6% from baseline in hypoxia and thromboxane pig models, respectively (p<0.01 and 0.01), while mean arterial pressure also fell and heart rate rose slightly. When CK-165 was delivered via inhalation in the hypoxia model, pulmonary vascular resistance fell by 17±6% (p<0.05) while mean arterial pressure and heart rate were unchanged. In the monocrotaline model of chronic pulmonary hypertension, inhaled CK-165 resulted in a similar (18.0±3.8%) reduction in right ventricular systolic pressure as compared with sildenafil (20.3±4.5%). Conclusion: Inhibition of smooth muscle myosin may be a novel therapeutic target for treatment of pulmonary hypertension. © 2012 Ho et al.

Zhao X.,Rutgers University | Ho D.,Rutgers University | Abarzua P.,CV Dynamics Inc. | Dhar S.K.,New Jersey Institute of Technology | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics | Year: 2011

We examined a novel therapeutic approach for hypertension, a small-molecule direct inhibitor of smooth muscle myosin, CK- 2018448 (CK-448), which is an N,N′-alkylurea (U.S. Patent Publication 2009-0275537 A1) in conscious dogs with renal hypertension and compared its efficacy with that of a calcium channel blocker, amlodipine. Dogs were instrumented with a miniature left ventricular pressure gauge, an aortic pressure catheter, and ultrasonic flow probes in the ascending aorta and renal and iliac arteries for measurement of cardiac output and regional blood flow. In the hypertensive state, mean arterial pressure increased from 101 ± 3.8 to 142 ± 1.9 mm Hg. At the doses selected, CK-448 and amlodipine increased cardiac output similarly (30 ± 11% versus 33 ± 6.4%) and similarly reduced mean arterial pressure (-22 ± 3.6% versus -16 ± 3.4%) and total peripheral resistance (-36 ± 5.9% versus -37 ± 5.8%). CK-448 had the greatest vasodilator effect in the renal bed, where renal blood flow increased by 46 ± 9.0%, versus 11 ± 3.4% for amlodipine (p < 0.01). CK-488 produced significantly less vasodilation in the limb, where iliac blood flow did not change; in contrast, it rose by 48 ± 12% with amlodipine (p < 0.01). The minimal effects on limb blood flow could limit the development of peripheral edema, an adverse side effect of Ca 2+ channel blockers. In addition, in a rodent model of hypertension, oral administration of a smooth muscle myosin inhibitor resulted in a sustained antihypertensive effect. Thus, the smooth muscle myosin inhibitor's preferential effect on renal blood flow makes this drug mechanism particularly appealing, because many patients with hypertension have renal insufficiency, and patients with heart failure could benefit from afterload reduction coupled with enhanced renal blood flow. Copyright © 2011 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

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