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Cuttler J.M.,Cuttler and Associates Inc. | Sanders C.L.,New Hampshire Street
Dose-Response | Year: 2015

Cohen’s lung cancer mortality data, from his test of the LNT theory, do not extend to the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) above which inhaled radon decay products begin to induce excess lung cancer mortality. Since there is concern about the level of radon in homes, it is important to set the radon limit near the NOAEL to avoid the risk of losing a health benefit. Assuming that dogs model humans, data from a study on inhaled plutonium dioxide particulates in dogs were assessed, and the NOAEL for radon-induced lung tumors was estimated to be about 2100 Bq/m3. The US Environmental Protection Agency should consider raising its radon action level from 150 to at least 1000 Bq/m3. © The Author(s) 2015. Source

Cuttler J.M.,Cuttler and Associates Inc.
Health Physics | Year: 2016

Although almost 120 y of medical experience and data exist on human exposure to ionizing radiation, advisory bodies and regulators claim there are still significant uncertainties about radiation health risks that require extreme precautions be taken. Decades of evidence led to recommendations in the 1920s for protecting radiologists by limiting their daily exposure. These were shown in later studies to decrease both their overall mortality and cancer mortality below those of unexposed groups. In the 1950s, without scientific evidence, the National Academy of Sciences Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation (BEAR) Committee and the NCRP recommended that the linear no-threshold (LNT) model be used to assess the risk of radiation-induced mutations in germ cells and the risk of cancer in somatic cells. This policy change was accepted by the regulators of every country without a thorough review of its basis. Because use of the LNT model has created extreme public fear of radiation, which impairs vital medical applications of low-dose radiation in diagnostics and therapy and blocks nuclear energy projects, it is time to change radiation protection policy back into line with the data. © 2016 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Cuttler J.M.,Cuttler and Associates Inc.
Dose-Response | Year: 2014

Seeking a remedy for the radiation fear in Japan, the author re-examined an article on radiation hormesis. It describes the background for this fear and evidence in the first UNSCEAR report of a reduction in leukemia of the Hiroshima survivors in the low dose zone. The data are plotted and dose-response models are drawn. While UNSCEAR suggested the extra leukemia incidence is proportional to radiation dose, the data are consistent with a hormetic J-shape and a threshold at about 100 rem (1 Sv). UNSCEAR data on lifespan reduction of mammals exposed continuously to gamma rays indicate a 2 gray/year threshold. This contradicts the conceptual basis for radiation protection and risk determination established in 1956-58. In this paper, beneficial effects and thresholds for harmful effects are discussed, and the biological mechanism is explained. The key point: the rate of DNA damage (double-strand breaks) caused by background radiation is 1000 times less than the endogenous (spontaneous) rate. It is the effect of radiation on an organism's very powerful adaptive protection systems that determines the dose-response characteristic. Low radiation up-regulates the protection systems, while high radiation impairs these systems. The remedy for radiation fear is to expose and discard the politicized science. © 2014 University of Massachusetts. Source

Cuttler J.M.,Cuttler and Associates Inc. | Gill H.,Bruce Power | Scrannage R.,Bruce Power | Paquette P.,Bruce Power
Canadian Nuclear Society - 33rd Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society and 36th CNS/CNA Student Conference 2012: Building on Our Past... Building for the Future | Year: 2012

CANDUs are determining the dynamic responses of flux detectors by a method open to question. It ignores relative changes in local flux conditions, which are significant during trips. Calculated prompt fractions (PFs) are widespread. The SIR detector development calculated the PF change with irradiation on a physical basis. Measurements were made over many years. The current results do not agree with the 1996 predictions. Some values are below the safety analysis limit. This has resulted in detector replacement, imposition of CPPF penalties on trip margins, additional safety analyses and other actions. This paper shows that such measurements are not required. Source

Cuttler J.M.,Cuttler and Associates Inc.
Canadian Nuclear Society - 31st Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society and 34th CNS/CNA Student Conference 2010 | Year: 2010

This paper discusses the recent problems with Canadian supply of molybdenum-99 for medical diagnostic scanning. It proposes an alternate method that exploits the on-power refueling capability of CANDU reactors to produce large amounts of Mo-99. An extraction and refining plant near the used fuel bay of a multi-reactor station could process one standard fuel bundle per day (after irradiation for 5 days). This method avoids using enriched uranium. The plant might cost less than 50 million dollars and be constructed within several years. The radioactive residue would be managed in conjunction with the existing methods of used fuel management. Source

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