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Tanabe T.,Washington University in St. Louis | Bi B.,Washington University in St. Louis | Hu L.,Washington University in St. Louis | Maurer K.,CustomArray, Inc. | Moeller K.D.,Washington University in St. Louis
Langmuir | Year: 2012

A new amino acid derived fluorescent linker for attaching molecules to the surface of a microelectrode array has been developed. Molecules to be monitored on an array are attached to the C-terminus of the linker, the N-terminus is then used to attach the linker to the array, and the side chain is used to synthesize a fluorescent tag. The fluorescent group is made with a one-step oxidative cycloaddition reaction starting from a hydroxyindole group. The linker is compatible with site-selective Cu(I)-chemistry on the array, it allows for quality control assessment of the array itself, and it is compatible with the electrochemical impedance experiments used to monitor binding events on the surface of the array. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Bi B.,Washington University in St. Louis | Huang R.Y.-C.,Washington University in St. Louis | Maurer K.,CombiMatrix | Maurer K.,CustomArray, Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2011

A "safety-catch" linker strategy has been used to release a portion of the products of a Diels-Alder reaction conducted on a microelectrode array for characterization of stereochemistry. The attachment and cleavage of organic compounds from the surface of selected electrodes in the array can be accomplished by site-selective generation of base or acid at the electrode. It was found that the surface of the array had a minor influence on the stereochemistry of the Diels-Alder reaction, leading to slightly more of the exo-product relative to a similar solution-phase reaction. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source


Chamberlain J.W.,University of Washington | Maurer K.,CombiMatrix | Cooper J.,CombiMatrix | Cooper J.,CustomArray, Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2012

Carbohydrate-mediated host-pathogen interactions are essential to bacterial and viral pathogenesis, and represent an attractive target for the development of antiadhesives to prevent infection. We present a versatile microelectrode array-based platform to investigate carbohydrate-mediated protein and bacterial binding, with the objective of developing a generalizable method for screening inhibitors of host-microbe interactions. Microelectrode arrays are well suited for interrogating biological binding events, including proteins and whole-cells, and are amenable to electrochemical derivitization, facilitating rapid deposition of biomolecules. In this study, we achieve microelectrode functionalization with carbohydrates via controlled polymerization of pyrrole to individual microelectrodes, followed by physisorption of neoglycoconjugates to the polypyrrole-coated electrodes. Bioactivity of the immobilized carbohydrates was confirmed with carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins) detected by both fluorescent and electrochemical means. The platform's ability to analyze whole-cell binding was demonstrated using strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, and the dose-dependent inhibition of S. enterica by a soluble carbohydrate antiadhesive. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Bi B.,Washington University in St. Louis | Maurer K.,CustomArray, Inc. | Moeller K.D.,Washington University in St. Louis
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2010

A "safety-catch" linker strategy has been used to site-selectively cleave and characterize molecules from a microelectrode array. The linkers are attached to the array by means of an ester and contain either a protected amine or protected alcohol nucleophile that can be released using acid generated at the microelectrodes. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source


Hu L.,Washington University in St. Louis | Stuart M.,Washington University in St. Louis | Tian J.,Washington University in St. Louis | Maurer K.,CombiMatrix | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2010

Site-selective Pd(0)-catalyzed reactions have been developed to functionalize a microelectrode array. Heck, Suzuki, and allylation reactions have all been accomplished. The reactions are compatible with both 1K and 12K arrays and work best when a nonsugar porous reaction layer is used. Suzuki reactions are faster than the Heck reactions and thus require more careful control of the reactions in order to maintain confinement. The allylation reaction requires a different confining agent than the Heck and Suzuki reactions but can be accomplished nicely with quinone as an oxidant for Pd(0). © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

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