Curtin University Australia | Date: 2015-02-24
The present disclosure provides a fastener that has a body that has an axis. The body comprises a head portion and at least one body portion projecting from the head portion. The at least one body portion has an actuating surface portion and is arranged such that at least a part of the at least one body portion is urged away from the axis when an actuating member is received along the axis and urges against the actuating surface portion. The at least one body portion has a substantially flat surface portion facing away from the axis.
Agency: GTR | Branch: STFC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 879.19K | Year: 2016
How from a cloud of dust and gas did we arrive at a planet capable of supporting life? This is one of the most fundamental of questions, and engages everyone from school children to scientists. We now know much of the answer: We know that stars, such as our Sun, form by the collapse of interstellar clouds of dust and gas. We know that planets, such as Earth, are constructed in a disk around their host star known as the planetary nebula, formed by the rotation of the collapsing cloud of dust and gas. We know that 4.5 billion years ago in the solar nebula, surrounding the young Sun, all the objects in our Solar System were created through a process called accretion. And among all those bodies the only habitable world yet discovered on which life evolved is Earth. There is, however, much that we still do not know about how our Solar System formed. Why, for example, are all the planets so different? Why is Venus an inferno with a thick carbon dioxide atmosphere, Mars a frozen rock with a thin atmosphere, and Earth a haven for life? The answer lies in events that predated the assembly of these planets; it lies in the early history of the nebula and the events that occurred as fine-dust stuck together to form larger objects known as planetesimals; and in how those planetesimals changed through collisions, heating and the effects of water to become the building blocks of planets. Our research will follow the evolution of planetary materials from the origins of the first dust grains in the protoplanetary disk, through the assembly of planetesimals within the solar nebula to the modification of these objects as and after they became planets. Evidence preserved in meteorites provides a record of our Solar Systems evolution. Meteorites, together with cosmic dust particles, retain the fine-dust particles from the solar nebula. These dust grains are smaller than a millionth of a metre but modern microanalysis can expose their minerals and compositions. We will study the fine-grained components of meteorites and cosmic dust to investigate how fine-dust began accumulating in the solar nebula; how heating by an early hot nebula and repeated short heating events from collisions affected aggregates of dust grains; and whether magnetic fields helped control the distribution of dust in the solar nebula. We will also use numerical models to simulate how the first, fluffy aggregates of dust were compacted to become rock. As well as the rocky and metallic materials that make up the planets, our research will examine the source of Earths water and the fate of organic materials that were crucial to the origins of life. By analysing the isotopes of the volatile elements Zn, Cd and Te in meteorites and samples of Earth, Moon and Mars we will establish the source and timing of water and other volatiles delivered to the planets in the inner Solar System. In addition, through newly developed methods we can trace the history of organic matter in meteorites from their formation in interstellar space, through the solar nebula and into planetesimals. Reading the highly sensitive record in organic matter will reveal how cosmic chemistry furnished the Solar System with the raw materials for life. Once the planets finally formed, their materials continued to change by surface processes such as impacts and the flow of water. Our research will examine how impacts of asteroids and comets shaped planetary crusts and whether this bombardment endangered or aided the emergence of life. We will also study the planet Mars, which provides a second example of a planetary body on which life could have appeared. Imagery of ancient lakes on Mars will reveal a crucial period in the planets history, when global climate change transformed the planet into an arid wasteland, to evaluate the opportunity for organisms to adapt and survive and identify targets for future rover and sample return missions.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-22-2016 | Award Amount: 2.87M | Year: 2017
The STORIES project aims to contribute to a dynamic future of childrens ebooks evolution by a) developing user-friendly interfaces for young students (10-12 years old) to create their own multi-path stories expressing their imagination and creativity and b) by integrating the latest AR, VR and 3D printing technologies to visualize their stories in numerous innovative ways. In the heart of this intervention lies the vision for integrated curricula and deeper learning outcomes. The project will offer these innovations through a single environment, the STORIES Storytelling Platform which will be the place for students artistic expression and scientific inquiry at the same time. The creations of the students (paintings, models, dioramas and constructions, 3D objects and landscapes, animations, science videos and science theatre plays) will be captured and integrated in the form of interactive ebooks. The STORIES technical team will design advanced interfaces in which students will be able to augment characters, buildings, greenhouses and different 3D geometrical structures on a tablet or their computer and inspect their work using a mobile device. The outcome of their work will be detected and tracked, and the video stream is augmented with an animated 3D version of the character or the artefact. The platform will be tested in real settings in Germany, Greece, Portugal, France, Finland and Japan, involving 60 teachers and 3000 students (5th and 6th grade). To achieve this, the proposed project is developing a novel cooperation between creative industries and electronic publishing, educational research institutions in the field of STEM, schools and informal learning centres. The consortium includes 15 partners from Europe, USA, Japan and Australia. But STORIES is going beyond that: The consortium will cooperate in the design of the platform and in the development of the storyline mechanism with Eugene (Eugenios) Trivizas, well known writer of childrens books.
Rong Y.,Curtin University Australia
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2011
In this correspondence, we address statistically robust multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay design problems under two imperfect channel state information (CSI) scenarios: 1) a ll nodes have imperfect CSI and 2) the destination node knows the exact CSI, while the other nodes have imperfect CSI. For each scenario, we develop robust source and relay matrices by considering a broad class of frequently used objective functions in MIMO system design and the averaged transmission power constraints. Simulation results demonstrate the improved robustness of the proposed algorithms against CSI errors. © 2011 IEEE.
Rong Y.,Curtin University Australia
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2012
In this paper, we investigate the challenging problem of joint source and relay optimization for two-way linear non-regenerative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay communication systems. We derive the optimal structure of the source and relay precoding matrices when linear minimal mean-squared error (MMSE) receivers are used at both destinations in the relay system. We show that for a broad class of frequently used objective functions for MIMO communications such as the MMSE, the maximal mutual information (MMI), and the minimax MSE, the optimal relay and source matrices have a general beamforming structure. This result includes existing works as special cases. Based on this optimal structure, a new iterative algorithm is developed to jointly optimize the relay and source matrices. We also propose a novel suboptimal relay precoding matrix design which significantly reduces the computational complexity of the optimal design with only a marginal performance degradation. Interestingly, we show that this suboptimal relay matrix is indeed optimal for some special cases. The performance of the proposed algorithms are demonstrated by numerical simulations. It is shown that the novel minimax MSE-based two-way relay system has a better bit-error-rate (BER) performance compared with existing two-way relay systems using the MMSE and the MMI criteria. © 1991-2012 IEEE.
Jiang S.P.,Curtin University Australia
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2012
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the most efficient devices for the direct conversion of the chemical energy stored in fuels such as hydrogen and hydrocarbons into electricity. The development of highly efficient and robust SOFCs requires cathodes and anodes with high electrocatalytic activity for O 2 reduction and direct oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels, respectively. Nanoscale engineering of electrode structures via metal salt solution impregnation or infiltration attracts increasing attention as the most effective way to develop highly active and advanced electrode structures for SOFCs. The infiltration method opens a new horizon in the advanced electrode development as the method expands the set of variable electrode materials combinations with the elimination of thermal expansion mismatch and the suppression of potential detrimental reactions between electrode and electrolyte materials. In this article, the advances and challenges in the development of nanoscale and nano-structured electrodes and the fundamental understanding of the remarkable enhancement in the electrode performance are reviewed and discussed with primary focus on the progress and status of the field in the last 5 years. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Evans K.A.,Curtin University Australia
Earth-Science Reviews | Year: 2012
Elements that can occur in more than one valence state, such as Fe, C and S, play an important role in Earth's systems at all levels, and can drive planetary evolution as they cycle through the various geochemical reservoirs. Subduction introduces oxidised Fe, C and S in sediments, altered ocean crust, and partially serpentinised lithospheric mantle to the relatively reduced mantle, with short- and long-term consequences for the redox state of the mantle. The distribution of redox-sensitive elements in the mantle controls the redox state of mantle-derived material added to the lithosphere and atmosphere, such as arc volcanic gases and the magmas that form arc-related ore deposits.The extent of mantle oxidation induced by subduction zone cycling can be assessed, albeit with large uncertainties, with redox budget calculations that quantify the inputs and outputs to subduction zones. Literature data are augmented by new measurements of the chemical composition of partially serpentinised lithospheric mantle from New Caledonia and ODP 209. Results indicate that there is a net addition of Fe (55±13×10 12molyear -1), C (4.6±4.0×10 12molyear -1), S (2.4±0.9×10 12molyear -1), and redox budget (5-89×10 12molyear -1) at subduction zones. Monte Carlo calculations of redox budget fluxes indicate that fluxes are 46±12×10 12molyear -1 entering subduction zones, if input and output parameters are assumed to be normally distributed, and 46-58×10 12molyear -1 if input and output parameters are assumed to be log-normally distributed.Thus, inputs into subduction zones for Fe, C, S and redox budget are in excess of subduction zone outputs. If MORB and plume-related fluxes are taken into account then Fe, C and S fluxes balance, within error. However, the redox budget does not balance, unless the very lowest estimates for the extent of slab oxidation are taken. Thus it is likely that subduction continuously increases the redox budget of the mantle, that is, there is addition of Fe, C and S that are oxidised relative to the Fe, C and S in the mantle.The fate of this redox budget can be constrained by consideration of element mobility under mantle conditions. If slab fluids are assumed to be dominantly aqueous and relatively low salinity then fluxes of Fe 3+, C 4+, and S 6+ are limited to less than 10 9, 2.3×10 12molyear -1 and 2×10 12molyear -1 respectively by the low solubility of these elements in slab-derived fluids. Nevertheless, such fluxes can produce the increased f O2 inferred for sub-arc mantle from arc lavas after around 10Ma subduction.The rest of the redox budget added by the subduction process is likely to be carried to the deep mantle by the slab, and mix slowly with the whole mantle reservoir, depending on the timescale of reincorporation of subducted lithosphere into the mantle. Simple mixing calculations indicate that these fluxes will only cause a measurable difference to mantle redox on a 1. Ga timescale, which is longer than the 550. Ma during which redox budget fluxes are likely to have been at present day levels. However, measurable effects, with potential consequences for the Earth's evolution may be expected in the future. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..
Pramanik A.,Curtin University Australia
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture | Year: 2014
The non-traditional machining of particulate reinforced metal matrix composites is relatively new. However, researchers seem to pay more attention in this field recently as the traditional machining of particulate reinforced metal matrix composites is very complex. This research investigates different non-traditional machining, such as electro-discharge, laser beam, abrasive water jet, electro-chemical and electro-chemical discharge machining of this composite materials. The machining mechanism, material removal rate/machining speed and surface finish have been analysed for every machining process. This analysis clearly shows that vaporisation, melting, chemical dissolution and mechanical erosion are the main material removal mechanisms during non-traditional machining. The thermal degradation and the presence of reinforcement particles mainly damage the machined surface. The understanding of electro-discharge, laser beam and abrasive water jet machining is more developed than that of electro-chemical and electro-chemical discharge machining for particulate reinforced MMC. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Zilkens R.R.,Curtin University Australia
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2013
Diabetes is a risk factor for dementia, but relatively little is known about the epidemiology of the association. A retrospective population study using Western Australian hospital inpatient, mental health outpatient, and death records was used to compare the age at index dementia record (proxy for onset age) and survival outcomes in dementia patients with and without preexisting diabetes (n = 25,006; diabetes, 17.3%). Inpatient records from 1970 determined diabetes history in this study population with incident dementia in years 1990-2005. Dementia onset and death occurred an average 2.2 years and 2.6 years earlier, respectively, in diabetic compared with nondiabetic patients. Age-specific mortality rates were increased in patients with diabetes. In an adjusted proportional hazard model, the death rate was increased with long-duration diabetes, particularly with early age onset dementia. In dementia diagnosed before age 65 years, those with a ≥15-year history of diabetes died almost twice as fast as those without diabetes (hazard ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.3, 2.9). These results suggest that, in patients with diabetes, dementia onset occurs on average 2 years early and survival outcomes are generally poorer. The effect of diabetes on onset, survival, and mortality is greatest when diabetes develops before middle age and after 15 years' diabetes duration. The impact of diabetes on dementia becomes progressively attenuated in older age groups. © 2013 © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Li C.-Z.,Curtin University Australia
Fuel | Year: 2013
Volatile-char interactions are an important phenomenon in almost all existing gasification processes. The volatile-char interactions can very significantly affect almost every aspect of low-rank fuel gasification, including the volatilisation of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species that are inherent catalysts for gasification, the evolution of char structure, the dispersion of inherent catalysts and thus the reactivity of char. The volatile-char interactions can also influence the formation of pollutant-forming species such as NH3. This paper provides an overview of our recent work in this area. The essence of volatile-char interactions appears to be the interactions between radicals, especially H radicals, and the char during pyrolysis and gasification. The volatile-char interactions must be an important consideration in the development of new gasification technologies for low-rank fuels such as brown coal and biomass to minimise the adverse effects and maximise the positive effects of volatile-char interactions during the gasification of low-rank fuels. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.