Curtin Biosciences Research Precinct

Bentley, Australia

Curtin Biosciences Research Precinct

Bentley, Australia

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Alcantara M.B.,Victoria University | Dass C.R.,Curtin Biosciences Research Precinct | Dass C.R.,Curtin University Australia
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Objectives In the 1990s, the discovery of the important role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in cancer angiogenesis, growth and metastasis galvanised research efforts to search for ways to inhibit these MMPs. To date, this has resulted in the investigation of approximately 50 MMPIs which have undergone various phases of clinical trials. However, despite a large body of research being devoted to discovery and development of MMPIs, results have largely not been supportive of this approach to anticancer treatment. Key findings The reasons for the general failure of these drugs in clinical trials include various unwanted side-effects, the use of healthy volunteers to provide drug dosages which did not correctly reflect dosages for cancer patients, and the exclusion of patients with early stage cancer in clinical trials despite MMPs being determined to be critical for the angiogenic switch, a process associated with early tumour growth. In contrast, a naturally-occurring endogenous protein and a non-functional serine protease inhibitor (serpin), pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), has been proposed for cancer therapy partly due to its ability to regulate specific MMPs central to cancer progression. Summary PEDF has been found to specifically downregulate membrane-type I matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) and furthermore, potentially matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), two of the most commonly implicated MMPs in neoplasia. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.


Tacar O.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Indumathy S.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Tan M.L.,St Vincents Health | Baindur-Hudson S.,Victoria University of Melbourne | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Objective Doxorubicin (Dox) is a frontline chemotherapeutic against osteosarcoma (OS) that is plagued by side effects, particularly in the heart. The specific objective of this article is to investigate whether low-dose Dox treatment had pro-autophagic effects in cardiomyocytes as well as osteosarcoma cells. Methods This study characterises apoptotic (Bax) and autophagic (Beclin-1) biomarker levels in human OS and cardiomyocyte cell lines as well as in various tissues when mice are exposed to low (1-mg/kg, thrice weekly) and high (3-mg/kg thrice weekly) dose Dox for a month. Key findings There was a decrease in Bax and increase in Beclin-1 in cardiac tissue in the high-dose group. Dox decreased Beclin-1 in the skin and liver, with no clear indication in the stomach, small intestine and testis. At low Dox doses of 10 and 100-nm in cardiomyocytes and OS cells, there is a pro-apoptotic effect, with a quicker response in the 100-nm condition, and a slower but steady increase of a pro-apoptotic response at the lower 10-nm dose. However, electron microscopy images revealed changes to human OS cells that resembled autophagy. Human prostate, breast and colorectal cells treated with 10-nm Dox showed ∼ 40% reduction in cell viability after 24-h. Conclusion In culture, cells of both cardiomyocytes and OS revealed a predominant pro-apoptotic response at the expense of autophagy, although both seemed to be occurring in vivo. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.


Carnagarin R.,Curtin Biosciences Research Precinct | Carnagarin R.,Curtin University Australia | Dharmarajan A.M.,Curtin Biosciences Research Precinct | Dharmarajan A.M.,Curtin University Australia | And 2 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2015

Among all the varied actions of insulin, regulation of glucose homeostasis is the most critical and intensively studied. With the availability of glucose from nutrient metabolism, insulin action in muscle results in increased glucose disposal via uptake from the circulation and storage of excess, thereby maintaining euglycemia. This major action of insulin is executed by redistribution of the glucose transporter protein, GLUT4 from intracellular storage sites to the plasma membrane and storage of glucose in the form of glycogen which also involves modulation of actin dynamics that govern trafficking of all the signal proteins of insulin signal transduction. The cellular mechanisms responsible for these trafficking events and the defects associated with insulin resistance are largely enigmatic, and this review provides a consolidated overview of the various molecular mechanisms involved in insulin-dependent glucose homeostasis in skeletal muscle, as insulin resistance at this major peripheral site impacts whole body glucose homeostasis. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Carnagarin R.,Curtin Biosciences Research Precinct | Carnagarin R.,Curtin University Australia | Dharmarajan A.M.,Curtin Biosciences Research Precinct | Dharmarajan A.M.,Curtin University Australia | And 2 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2015

Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an anti-angiogenic, immunomodulatory, and neurotrophic serine protease inhibitor protein. PEDF is evolving as a novel metabolic regulatory protein that plays a causal role in insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is the central pathogenesis of metabolic disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovarian disease, and metabolic syndrome, and PEDF is associated with them. The current evidence suggests that PEDF administration to animals induces insulin resistance, whereas neutralisation improves insulin sensitivity. Inflammation, lipolytic free fatty acid mobilisation, and mitochondrial dysfunction are the proposed mechanism of PEDF-mediated insulin resistance. This review summarises the probable mechanisms adopted by PEDF to induce insulin resistance, and identifies PEDF as a potential therapeutic target in ameliorating insulin resistance. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Carnagarin R.,Curtin Biosciences Research Precinct | Carnagarin R.,Curtin University Australia | Dharmarajan A.M.,Curtin Biosciences Research Precinct | Dharmarajan A.M.,Curtin University Australia | And 2 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2016

Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an anti-angiogenic serpin associated with insulin resistance in metabolic disorders such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity and polycystic ovarian syndrome. While the mechanism of PEDF induced-insulin resistance of metabolic disorders has been attributed to its inflammatory and lipolytic effects, little evidence exists to support a direct role of PEDF in mediating insulin resistance. Here, we seminally provide evidence that PEDF can inhibit insulin signal transduction governing glucose homeostasis from the receptor to the effector phosphorylation through Akt/PKB-dependent and -independent pathways in mouse and human skeletal muscle cell lines. PEDF attenuates the insulin-dependent molecular axes of glucose metabolism. Exposure of skeletal myocytes to PEDF attenuates insulin-dependent insulin receptor autophosphorylation, tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1, and dual loop phosphorylation-activation of Akt. PEDF significantly inhibits the downstream effector - glycogen synthase kinase (and thereby the glycogenic axis of insulin signalling). PEDF turned off both the molecular switches of GLUT4 translocation: IRS-Akt/PKB-AS160 mediated and IR-pCbl-dependent GLUT4 translocation (the molecular axis of glucose uptake). These findings implicate a direct effect of PEDF on multiple insulin-dependent molecular mechanisms of glucose homeostasis in skeletal muscle cells, thereby enabling it to contribute to peripheral insulin resistance at the cellular level. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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