Curtin Biosciences Research Precinct

Bentley, Australia

Curtin Biosciences Research Precinct

Bentley, Australia
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Wong C.Y.,Curtin University Australia | Martinez J.,Curtin University Australia | Dass C.R.,Curtin University Australia | Dass C.R.,Curtin Biosciences Research Precinct
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology | Year: 2016

Objectives: Diabetes mellitus is characterised by progressive β-cell destruction and loss of function, or loss of ability of tissues to respond to insulin. Daily subcutaneous insulin injection is standard management for people with diabetes, although patient compliance is hard to achieve due to the inconvenience of injections, so other forms of delivery are being tested, including oral administration. This review summarises the developments in oral insulin administration. Methods: The PubMed database was consulted to compile this review comparing conventional subcutaneous injection of insulin to the desired oral delivery. Key findings: Oral administration of insulin has potential benefits in reducing pain and chances of skin infection, improving the portal levels of insulin and avoiding side effects such as hyperinsulinemia, weight gain and hypoglycaemia. Although oral delivery of insulin is an ideal administration route for patients with diabetes, several physiological barriers have to be overcome. An expected low oral bioavailability can be attributed to its high molecular weight, susceptibility to enzymatic proteolysis and low diffusion rate across the mucin barrier. Conclusions: Strategies for increasing the bioavailability of oral insulin include the use of enzyme inhibitors, absorption enhancers, mucoadhesive polymers and chemical modification for endogenous receptor-mediated absorption. These may help significantly increase patient compliance and disease management. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society


Meredith A.-M.,Curtin University Australia | Dass C.R.,Curtin University Australia | Dass C.R.,Curtin Biosciences Research Precinct
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology | Year: 2016

Objectives The use of doxorubicin, a drug utilised for many years to treat a wide variety of cancers, has long been limited due to the significant toxicity that can occur not only during, but also years after treatment. It has multiple mechanisms of action including the intercalation of DNA, inhibition of topoisomerase II and the production of free radicals. We review the literature, with the aim of highlighting the role of drug concentration being an important determinant on the unfolding cell biological events that lead to cell stasis or death. Methods The PubMed database was consulted to compile this review. Key findings It has been found that the various mechanisms of action at the disposal of doxorubicin culminate in either cell death or cell growth arrest through various cell biological events, such as apoptosis, autophagy, senescence and necrosis. Which of these events is the eventual cause of cell death or growth arrest appears to vary depending on factors such as the patient, cell and cancer type, doxorubicin concentration and the duration of treatment. Conclusions Further understanding of doxorubicin's influence on cell biological events could lead to an improvement in the drug's efficacy and reduce toxicity. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.


Wong C.Y.,Curtin University Australia | Martinez J.,Curtin University Australia | Carnagarin R.,Curtin University Australia | Carnagarin R.,Curtin Biosciences Research Precinct | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology | Year: 2017

Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop an enteric coated insulin tablet formulation using polymers, absorption enhancer and enzyme inhibitor, which protect the tablets in acidic pH and enhance systemic bioavailability. Methods: In this study, the influence of coating by cellulose acetate hydrogen phthalate solution and chosen excipients on Glut-4 transporter translocation in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells was examined. Following the determination of optimum number of coating layers, two dissolution buffers such as 0.01 m hydrochloric acid, pH 2, and 50 mm phosphate, pH 7.4, were employed to determine the in-vitro release of insulin. Key findings: Insulin was protected by the coating during the dissolution process. Five (5-CL) coating layers and eight (8-CL) coating layers had minimal insulin release in hydrochloric acid, but not three (3-CL) coating layers. Glut-4 translocation in C2C12 cells was promoted by the chosen excipients. No detrimental metabolic effects were observed in these cells. Conclusion: To date, limited studies combine the overall effectiveness of multiple excipients. Our study showed that the coated tablets have an immediate release effect in phosphate buffer. In Glut-4 translocation assay, insulin was still functional after releasing from the tablet. Such tablet formulation can be potentially beneficial to type 1 diabetes patients. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society


Poon B.,Curtin University Australia | Kha T.,Curtin University Australia | Tran S.,Curtin University Australia | Dass C.R.,Curtin University Australia | Dass C.R.,Curtin Biosciences Research Precinct
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology | Year: 2016

Objectives Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), more specifically BMP-2, are being increasingly used in orthopaedic surgery due to advanced research into osteoinductive factors that may enhance and improve bone therapy. There are many areas in therapy that BMP-2 is being applied to, including dental treatment, open tibial fractures, cancer and spinal surgery. Within these areas of treatment, there are many reports of successes and pitfalls. This review explores the use of BMP-2 and its successes, pitfalls and future prospects in bone therapy. Methods The PubMed database was consulted to compile this review. Key findings With successes in therapy, there were descriptions of a more rapid healing time with no signs of rejection or infection attributed to BMP-2 treatment. Pitfalls included BMP-2 'off-label' use, which lead to various adverse effects. Conclusions Our search highlighted that optimising treatment with BMP-2 is a direction that many researchers are exploring, with areas of current research interest including concentration and dose of BMP-2, carrier type and delivery. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.


Alcantara M.B.,Victoria University | Dass C.R.,Curtin Biosciences Research Precinct | Dass C.R.,Curtin University Australia
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Objectives In the 1990s, the discovery of the important role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in cancer angiogenesis, growth and metastasis galvanised research efforts to search for ways to inhibit these MMPs. To date, this has resulted in the investigation of approximately 50 MMPIs which have undergone various phases of clinical trials. However, despite a large body of research being devoted to discovery and development of MMPIs, results have largely not been supportive of this approach to anticancer treatment. Key findings The reasons for the general failure of these drugs in clinical trials include various unwanted side-effects, the use of healthy volunteers to provide drug dosages which did not correctly reflect dosages for cancer patients, and the exclusion of patients with early stage cancer in clinical trials despite MMPs being determined to be critical for the angiogenic switch, a process associated with early tumour growth. In contrast, a naturally-occurring endogenous protein and a non-functional serine protease inhibitor (serpin), pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), has been proposed for cancer therapy partly due to its ability to regulate specific MMPs central to cancer progression. Summary PEDF has been found to specifically downregulate membrane-type I matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) and furthermore, potentially matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), two of the most commonly implicated MMPs in neoplasia. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.


Tacar O.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Indumathy S.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Tan M.L.,St Vincents Health | Baindur-Hudson S.,Victoria University of Melbourne | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Objective Doxorubicin (Dox) is a frontline chemotherapeutic against osteosarcoma (OS) that is plagued by side effects, particularly in the heart. The specific objective of this article is to investigate whether low-dose Dox treatment had pro-autophagic effects in cardiomyocytes as well as osteosarcoma cells. Methods This study characterises apoptotic (Bax) and autophagic (Beclin-1) biomarker levels in human OS and cardiomyocyte cell lines as well as in various tissues when mice are exposed to low (1-mg/kg, thrice weekly) and high (3-mg/kg thrice weekly) dose Dox for a month. Key findings There was a decrease in Bax and increase in Beclin-1 in cardiac tissue in the high-dose group. Dox decreased Beclin-1 in the skin and liver, with no clear indication in the stomach, small intestine and testis. At low Dox doses of 10 and 100-nm in cardiomyocytes and OS cells, there is a pro-apoptotic effect, with a quicker response in the 100-nm condition, and a slower but steady increase of a pro-apoptotic response at the lower 10-nm dose. However, electron microscopy images revealed changes to human OS cells that resembled autophagy. Human prostate, breast and colorectal cells treated with 10-nm Dox showed ∼ 40% reduction in cell viability after 24-h. Conclusion In culture, cells of both cardiomyocytes and OS revealed a predominant pro-apoptotic response at the expense of autophagy, although both seemed to be occurring in vivo. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.


Carnagarin R.,Curtin Biosciences Research Precinct | Carnagarin R.,Curtin University Australia | Dharmarajan A.M.,Curtin Biosciences Research Precinct | Dharmarajan A.M.,Curtin University Australia | And 2 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2015

Among all the varied actions of insulin, regulation of glucose homeostasis is the most critical and intensively studied. With the availability of glucose from nutrient metabolism, insulin action in muscle results in increased glucose disposal via uptake from the circulation and storage of excess, thereby maintaining euglycemia. This major action of insulin is executed by redistribution of the glucose transporter protein, GLUT4 from intracellular storage sites to the plasma membrane and storage of glucose in the form of glycogen which also involves modulation of actin dynamics that govern trafficking of all the signal proteins of insulin signal transduction. The cellular mechanisms responsible for these trafficking events and the defects associated with insulin resistance are largely enigmatic, and this review provides a consolidated overview of the various molecular mechanisms involved in insulin-dependent glucose homeostasis in skeletal muscle, as insulin resistance at this major peripheral site impacts whole body glucose homeostasis. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Carnagarin R.,Curtin Biosciences Research Precinct | Carnagarin R.,Curtin University Australia | Dharmarajan A.M.,Curtin Biosciences Research Precinct | Dharmarajan A.M.,Curtin University Australia | And 2 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2015

Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an anti-angiogenic, immunomodulatory, and neurotrophic serine protease inhibitor protein. PEDF is evolving as a novel metabolic regulatory protein that plays a causal role in insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is the central pathogenesis of metabolic disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovarian disease, and metabolic syndrome, and PEDF is associated with them. The current evidence suggests that PEDF administration to animals induces insulin resistance, whereas neutralisation improves insulin sensitivity. Inflammation, lipolytic free fatty acid mobilisation, and mitochondrial dysfunction are the proposed mechanism of PEDF-mediated insulin resistance. This review summarises the probable mechanisms adopted by PEDF to induce insulin resistance, and identifies PEDF as a potential therapeutic target in ameliorating insulin resistance. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Carnagarin R.,Curtin Biosciences Research Precinct | Carnagarin R.,Curtin University Australia | Dharmarajan A.M.,Curtin Biosciences Research Precinct | Dharmarajan A.M.,Curtin University Australia | And 2 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2016

Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an anti-angiogenic serpin associated with insulin resistance in metabolic disorders such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity and polycystic ovarian syndrome. While the mechanism of PEDF induced-insulin resistance of metabolic disorders has been attributed to its inflammatory and lipolytic effects, little evidence exists to support a direct role of PEDF in mediating insulin resistance. Here, we seminally provide evidence that PEDF can inhibit insulin signal transduction governing glucose homeostasis from the receptor to the effector phosphorylation through Akt/PKB-dependent and -independent pathways in mouse and human skeletal muscle cell lines. PEDF attenuates the insulin-dependent molecular axes of glucose metabolism. Exposure of skeletal myocytes to PEDF attenuates insulin-dependent insulin receptor autophosphorylation, tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1, and dual loop phosphorylation-activation of Akt. PEDF significantly inhibits the downstream effector - glycogen synthase kinase (and thereby the glycogenic axis of insulin signalling). PEDF turned off both the molecular switches of GLUT4 translocation: IRS-Akt/PKB-AS160 mediated and IR-pCbl-dependent GLUT4 translocation (the molecular axis of glucose uptake). These findings implicate a direct effect of PEDF on multiple insulin-dependent molecular mechanisms of glucose homeostasis in skeletal muscle cells, thereby enabling it to contribute to peripheral insulin resistance at the cellular level. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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