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Lages, Brazil

Rodrigues A.P.D.C.,Anhanguera-Uniderp University | Laura V.A.,Embrapa Gado de Corte | Pereira S.R.,Federal University of Sao Carlos | Deiss C.,Curso de Agronomia
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2012

The allelopathy is very common in grasses such as Brachiaria brizantha and Brachiaria decumbens, could represent a problem in pastures consortium with Stylosantes since, in this situation, the perpetuation of the legume dependent natural reseed. In spite of the great amount of estilosantes seed produced annually in those pastures consortium, it is observed in field, small amount of young plants, which can be attributed to a possible allelopathic effect of the grass. Considering the importance of allelopathy in the consortium of Brachiaria with estilosantes, we tested the allelopathic potential of extracts of B. brizantha and B. decumbens on seed germination of three estilosantes species. It was found that there allelopathic negative effect of B. brizantha and B. decumbens on seed germination of Stylosanthes guianensis and only of B. decumbens in seed S. capitata; there allelopathic positive effect of B. brizantha on germination of S. macrocephala; there is no allelopathic effect of B. brizantha on seed germination of S. capitata neither of B. decumbens in S. macrocephala.

Suitable soil management is one of the bases for sustainability in agricultural systems. The study aimed to evaluate chemical properties of a Humic Dystrudept for 12 years under two tillage systems, with crops rotation and succession. The experiment was carried out in Lages, SC, under conventional tillage (CT) and no-till (NT), with rotation (r) and succession (s) cropping systems, using crop sequences of beans-fallow-maize-fallow-soybean in CTr; maize-fallow in CTs; beans-oats-maize-fodder radish-soybean-vetch in NTr; and maize-vetch in NTs. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replicates. The soil samples were collected in the layers 0-2.5, 2.5-5, 5-10 and 10-20cm. The variables assessed were total organic carbon (TOC), calcium, magnesium, exchangeable aluminum, phosphorus, potassium, total nitrogen (TN) and water pH. The no-tillage system increased TOC and nutrient levels in comparison with conventional tillage, especially in the surface soil layer. Maize and vetch crop succession had higher TOC and TN contents in the surface soil layer compared to crop rotation under no-tillage.

Fischer D.L.D.O.,Instituto Federal Of Educacao | Rossarolla M.D.,Curso de Agronomia | Fischer C.,Frutplan Mudas Ltda | De Oliveira E.L.,Frutplan Mudas Ltda | Giacobbo C.L.,University Federal da Fronteira Sul
Revista Ciencia Agronomica | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to evaluate the germination and development of plants from two cultivars of the peach, 'Capdeboscq' and 'Okinawa', for different periods of storage, at the commercial nursery of the company Frutplan Mudas Ltda., in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, from May to December of 2009. The kernels of both cultivars were stored in paper wrappings for a period of 120 days, with the following procedures being carried out: 10 days at room temperature + 110 days of low temperature, 40 days at room temperature + 80 days of low temperature, 70 days at room temperature + 50 days of low temperature, 100 days at room temperature + 20 days of low temperature, and 120 days at room temperature, using a cold room programmed for 6 ± 2 °C. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design, with four replications and 25 seeds per plot, in a 5x2 factorial layout (two cultivars and five periods of stratification). The variables analyzed were: the percentage of seedling emergence; plant height; trunk diameter measured at 10 cm from the soil, speed of emergence in the field (SEF) and days taken to reach 70% emergence. The emergence of cv. Okinawa was close to zero and therefore it was not considered when evaluating the seedlings. For the cv. Capdeboscq, significant differences were found only for the variable of days taken to achieve 70% seedling-emergence, 112 to 123 days, except for that treatment with the greatest time at low-temperatures, which did not reach 70% emergence. It is concluded that periods of stratification and low temperatures offer no advantage to obtaining rootstocks of these peach cultivars, for the conditions under which the experiment was carried out.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the reaction of soybean (Glycine max) cultivars to brown spot (Septoria glycines) under different crop management methods. In this study the effects of the following crop management techniques were evaluated on five soybean cultivars (Msoy9001; Msoy8411; Con-quista; Emgopa313; A7002): (a) fungicides and hormones, and; (b) time of planting (October, November and December). The experiment was set in Cristalina, GO, Brazil, in a randomized complete block design with eight replications in a factorial scheme (5 × 3 × 4). The chemical control of brown spot was tested as following: 1) Tetraconazol (T) (0.35 L ha-1) Thiophanate methyl + (TM) (0.4 L ha-1); 2) Stimulate ® [indolbutiric acid 0.005%, kinetin 0009% and giberelic acid (GA3 0.005%) (0.10 L ha-1)] + T (0.35 L/ha) + TM (0.4 L ha-1); 3) T (0.5 L ha-1), and; 4) control without any product. For each plot was evaluated the disease severity and incidence, and yield of seeds. Msoy8411 and Emgopa-313 planted in November presented the lowest amount of disease, and the highest seed yield. Considering the analysis of all cultivars, the chemical treatments that significantly reduced disease were Tetraconazol (0.5 L ha-1) and the chemical combination [Stimulate ® (0.10 L ha-1) + Tetraconazol (0.35 L ha-1) + Thiophanate methyl (0.4 L ha-1)]. © 2014, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arid. All rights reserved.

Bitencourt D.G.B.,Capao do Leao | Pinto L.F.S.,Capao do Leao | Pauletto E.A.,Capao do Leao | Silva M.T.,Capao do Leao | Garcia G.F.,Curso de Agronomia
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2015

Soils rebuilt after coal strip mining is composed of topsoil and, or, overburden, and their chemical properties differ from those of natural soils mainly due to the sulfurization process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for acidification from sulfides and heavy metal contamination across profiles of soils rebuilt after coal mining, in areas of different ages, with and without concomitant environmental reclamation during mine operations. Mining areas of different ages were selected: areas I and II, without environmental reclamation during extraction and composed only from overburden, representing the oldest areas; and areas IV and VII, containing topsoil and, in some profiles, a clay layer (B and BC horizons from the natural soil) between the topsoil and the overburden, constituting the younger rebuilt mine soils. Soil pits were opened and disturbed samples were collected up to a depth of 2 m. Determinations were made of soil particle size, particle density, pH, Ca, Mg, Al, K, Na, P, H+Al, acidity potential, neutralization potential, net potential, organic C content, and electrical conductivity in saturated paste. In addition, potentially bioavailable metals were extracted by the USEPA 3050B method (Fe, Al, Mn, Ba, Cu, Zn, C, Cr, Co, Cd, Pb, Mo, As, and Se), and the results were compared to the guideline values of prevention and investigation for soils. In univariate analysis, descriptive statistics and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were applied. The degree of dispersion of each variable, expressed by the coefficient of variation, was qualitatively evaluated and classified as low, moderate, or high. Multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out for the constructed mine soils of areas I and II, and IV and VII, and then biplots were applied to the first principal components. The rebuilt mine soils from the oldest areas (I and II) showed lower pH (<3.2) and higher acidification potential. The topsoil and clay layers in areas IV and VII, in spite of providing favorable chemical conditions for surface vegetation, did not prevent acid mine drainage from developing in the subsurface. The sulfurization process and its relationship to release of metals was best characterized by principal component analysis performed in soils from areas IV and VII because the correlation between pH and base saturation in overburden layers is only expressed in base saturation above 40 %, which was not observed in rebuilt mine soils from areas I and II. © 2015, Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo. All rights reserved.

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