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Hsueh F.-K.,National Nano Device Laboratories | Hsueh F.-K.,National Chiao Tung University | Lee Y.-J.,National Nano Device Laboratories | Lee Y.-J.,National Chung Hsing University | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices | Year: 2011

Microwave annealing of dopants in Si has been reported to produce highly activated junctions at temperatures far below those needed for comparable results using conventional thermal processes. However, the details of the kinetics and mechanisms for microwave annealing are far from well understood. In this paper, 20-keV arsenic (As) and 15-keV phosphorus (P) implants, in a dose range from 1 to 5 × 10-15cm2, were annealed by microwave methods at temperatures below 500 °C. These junctions were characterized by profile studies with secondary ion mass spectrometry and spreading resistance profiling, sheet resistance with four-point probe, and extensive use of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy to follow the regrowth of the as-implanted amorphous layers created by the implantation. The amorphous-layer regrowth was observed to be uneven in time, with relatively little amorphous/crystalline interface motion for less than 50 s, followed by rapid regrowth for longer times. Sheet resistance values continued to drop for anneal times after the regrowth process was complete, with some evidence of dopant deactivation for anneal times of 600 s. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Lee Y.-J.,National Chung Hsing University | Tsai B.-A.,National Chung Hsing University | Lai C.-H.,Chung Hua University | Chen Z.-Y.,Chung Hua University | And 4 more authors.
IEEE Electron Device Letters | Year: 2013

In this letter, low-temperature (480 °C) microwave annealing (MWA) for MOS devices with high-k/metal gate-stacks is demonstrated. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of the MOS gate-stacks, TiN/HfO 2, and TaN/HfO2, after different annealing methods are discussed. The increases in equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of the MOS devices after dopant activation processing can be eliminated using low temperature MWA. In addition, the short channel effects in nMOSFETs annealed by MWA can be also improved because of the suppression of dopant diffusion and stabilization of EOT.. © 2013 IEEE. Source


Current M.I.,Current Scientific | Lukaszek W.,Wafer Charging Monitors | Farrens S.,Hidden Glenn Consulting | Fong T.,Silicon Genesis
2015 IEEE SOI-3D-Subthreshold Microelectronics Technology Unified Conference, S3S 2015 | Year: 2015

Preliminary studies of radiation damage and recovery of E2PROM sensor devices following exposure to a high-dose, 1 MeV proton beam give encouragement to the use of H-cut and layer transfer methods for vertical integration of 3D-IC's with fully-formed CMOS devices and metal interconnect. © 2015 IEEE. Source


Current M.,Current Scientific | Chism W.,Xitronix | Yoo W.S.,GIST Inc | Vartanian V.,SEMATECH
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2011

Photoreflectance (PR), using a uv (374 nm) diode laser probe beam, and Raman spectroscopy, using a multi-wavelength Ar + laser coupled to a high-resolution multi-wavelength spectrometer, were used to characterize the strain relaxation of Si top layers grown on a graded and relaxed SiGe buffer stack with a final Ge concentration of 20%. The Si top layer thicknesses ranged from 1.6 to 18 nm. Considerable radial variation in the strain relaxation was seen in all sampled wafers, highlighting the need for rapid, local strain characterization. Strong correlation between shift in the Si layer dielectric response, measured by uv-PR, and the Si top layer strain, measured by Raman, is reported. © 2011 American Institute of Physics. Source


Chism W.,Xitronix | Chism W.,SEMATECH | Current M.,Current Scientific | Current M.,SEMATECH | Vartanian V.,SEMATECH
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures | Year: 2010

Photoreflectance (PR) provides an optical means for rapid and precise measurement of near-surface electric fields in semiconductor materials. This article details the use of PR to characterize dopant activation in ultrashallow junction (USJ) structures formed using millisecond annealing processes. USJ structures were formed in silicon using 500 eV B implantation with a dose of 1015 /cm2, followed by flash anneals at 1250-1350 °C. Reference metrology was performed using secondary ion mass spectrometry and various sheet resistance (Rs) methods. Methods to calibrate PR signals to active carrier concentration in USJ structures, including halo-doped samples, are described. PR is shown to be highly sensitive to active dopant concentrations in USJ structures formed by millisecond annealing. © 2010 American Vacuum Society. Source

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