Currency Creek Arboretum

Currency Creek, Australia

Currency Creek Arboretum

Currency Creek, Australia
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Woodhams M.,University of Tasmania | Steane D.A.,Cooperative Research Center for Greenhouse Gas Technologies | Steane D.A.,University of Tasmania | Steane D.A.,University of The Sunshine Coast | And 4 more authors.
Systematic Biology | Year: 2013

We investigate distances on binary (presence/absence) data in the context of a Dollo process, where a trait can only arise once on a phylogenetic tree but may be lost many times. We introduce a novel distance, the Additive Dollo Distance (ADD), that applies to data generated under a Dollo model and show that it has some useful theoretical properties including an intriguing link to the LogDet/paralinear distance. Simulations of Dollo data are used to compare a number of binary distances including ADD, LogDet, a restriction-site-based distance, and some simple, but to our knowledge previously unstudied, variations on common binary distances. The simulations suggest that ADD outperforms other distances on Dollo data. Interestingly, we found that the LogDet distance performs poorly in the context of a Dollo process; this may have implications for its use in connection with conditioned genome reconstruction. We apply the ADD to two Diversity Arrays Technology data sets, one that broadly covers Eucalyptus species and one that focuses on the Eucalyptus series Adnataria. We also reanalyze gene family presence/absence data from bacterial genomes obtained from the COG database and compare the results with previous phylogenies estimated using the conditioned genome reconstruction approach. The results for these case studies are largely congruent with previous studies, in some cases giving more phylogenetic resolution. © 2012 The Author(s).


Nicolle D.,Currency Creek Arboretum | Ian Brooker M.I.H.,CSIRO | French M.E.,29 Stonesfield Court
Nuytsia | Year: 2014

Two subspecies are here recognised in the geographically rare and taxonomically isolated Eucalyptus insularis Brooker. Eucalyptus insularis subsp. insularis is known only from North Twin Peak Island in the Recherche Archipelago, about 90 km east-south-east of Esperance. Eucalyptus insularis subsp. continentalis D.Nicolle & Brooker subsp. nov. is known only from several small populations near Cape Le Grand on the mainland, about 25 km south-east of Esperance, and differs from the type subspecies in its low shrubby habit, smaller adult leaves with obscure tertiary venation and irregularly-shaped oil glands, more strongly pendulous inflorescences, and its generally smaller buds and fruits. © Department of Parks and Wildlife 2014.


Steane D.A.,University of Tasmania | Nicolle D.,Currency Creek Arboretum | Sansaloni C.P.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária | Sansaloni C.P.,University of Brasilia | And 9 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2011

A set of over 8000 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers was tested for its utility in high-resolution population and phylogenetic studies across a range of Eucalyptus taxa. Small-scale population studies of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus cladocalyx, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus pilularis and Eucalyptus urophylla demonstrated the potential of genome-wide genotyping with DArT markers to differentiate species, to identify interspecific hybrids and to resolve biogeographic disjunctions within species. The population genetic studies resolved geographically partitioned clusters in E. camaldulensis, E. cladocalyx, E. globulus and E. urophylla that were congruent with previous molecular studies. A phylogenetic study of 94 eucalypt species provided results that were largely congruent with traditional taxonomy and ITS-based phylogenies, but provided more resolution within major clades than had been obtained previously. Ascertainment bias (the bias introduced in a phylogeny from using markers developed in a small sample of the taxa that are being studied) was not detected. DArT offers an unprecedented level of resolution for population genetic, phylogenetic and evolutionary studies across the full range of Eucalyptus species. © 2011.


Nicolle D.,Currency Creek Arboretum | French M.E.,29 Stonesfield Court
Nuytsia | Year: 2012

Three taxa are recognised within the previously-accepted concept of E. erythronema Turcz. The taxon previously known as E. erythronema var. marginata (Benth.) Domin is regarded as specifically distinct and is here described as E. armillata D.Nicolle & M.E.French. The taxon previously known as E. erythronema var. erythronema has two variants: a north-eastern variant with conspicuously waxy branchlets and usually red flowers, which we recognise as E. erythronema subsp. erythronema, and a south-western variant with non-waxy branchlets and consistently pale creamy yellow flowers, which we describe as E. erythronema subsp. inornata D.Nicolle & M.E.French. A distribution map for the three taxa previously included in E. erythronema and a key to E. ser. Elongatae Blakely (in which the three taxa treated here are included) are provided. © Department of Environment and Conservation 2012.


Twenty terminal taxa (including 18 species) are recognised in Eucalyptus ser. Falcatae. Brooker & Hopper. We include the monotypic E. ser. Cooperianae L.A.S.Johnson ex Brooker (E. cooperiana F.Muell.) in the series. The new species E. annettae D.Nicolle & M.E.French and E. opimiflora D.Nicolle & M.E.French and the new subspecies E. goniantha Turcz. subsp. kynoura D.Nicolle & M.E.French are described. New combinations made are E. adesmophloia (Brooker & Hopper) D.Nicolle & M.E.French, E. ecostata (Maiden) D.Nicolle & M.E.French and E. notactites (L.A.S.Johnson & K.D.Hill) D.Nicolle & M.E.French. The circumscription of some taxa is significantly modified from previous accounts, including that of E. falcata Turcz., E. goniantha and E. obesa Brooker & Hopper. The name E. dorrienii Domin is resurrected to accommodate populations of mallees previously erroneously called E. falcata. We reject the status of the following previously accepted taxa: E. argyphea L.A.S.Johnson & K.D.Hill (= E. falcata), E. balanites Grayling & Brooker (= E. decipiens × E. lane-poolei), E. balanopelex L.A.S.Johnson & K.D.Hill (= E. semiglobosa × E. kessellii subsp. eugnosta), E. communalis Brooker & Hopper (= E. adesmophloia - E. obesa intergrade), E. decipiens subsp. chalara Brooker & Hopper (= E. decipiens - E. adesmophloia intergrade) and E. phylacis L.A.S.Johnson & K.D.Hill (= E. decipiens × E. virginea). Distribution maps and representative images are provided where appropriate. A key to the taxa of E. ser. Falcatae is provided. © Department of Environment and Conservation 2012.


Nicolle D.,Currency Creek Arboretum | French M.E.,29 Stonesfield Court
Nuytsia | Year: 2012

Nicolle, D. & French, M.E. Two new mallee box species (Eucalyptus sect. Adnataria ser. Lucasianae; Myrtaceae) from the Pilbara region of WesternAustralia. Nuytsia 22(1): 17-29 (2012). Two new species are described, both which have previously been included in E. lucasii Blakely, viz: E.aridimontana D.Nicolle & M.E.French sp. nov., known from high mountain ridges of the Hamersley Range, and E.rowleyi D.Nicolle & M.E.French sp. nov., known from plains of the De Grey River catchment to the north-east of the Hamersley Range. Both species differ from E. lucasii in their adult leaves which age to green and/or glossy, and in their thickened pedicels and peduncles (among other characteristics). Eucalyptus lucasii, as now circumscribed, is a widespread species restricted to watercourses and flood-out plains south of the Pilbara region. A key to E. ser. Lucasianae Chippend. and distribution maps for E. lucasii, E. aridimontana and E. rowleyi are provided. © Department of Environment and Conservation 2012.


Nicolle D.,Currency Creek Arboretum | French M.E.,29 Stonesfield Court | Thiele K.,Bentley Delivery Center
Nuytsia | Year: 2012

A total of 27 phrase names in Corymbia K.D.Hill & L.A.S.Johnson (1) and Eucalyptus L'Hér. (25) which occur at least partly in Western Australia have been assessed with respect to their identity and status. Of these 27 phrase names, we recommend that 14 be removed from Western Australia's plant census because they either represent duplicate names (taxonomically matching another phrase name or published taxon), are taxonomically indistinct or very poorly understood, or are considered to represent hybrids. We erect eight new phrase names for Eucalyptus in Western Australia. © Department of Environment and Conservation 2012.


Goodger J.Q.D.,University of Melbourne | Seneratne S.L.,University of Melbourne | Nicolle D.,Currency Creek Arboretum | Woodrow I.E.,University of Melbourne
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands) embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the foliar glands of this taxonomically distinct group of plants are a rich source of a range of flavonoids and other biologically active compounds with great commercial potential. © 2016 Goodger et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Wallis I.R.,Australian National University | Nicolle D.,Currency Creek Arboretum | Foley W.J.,Australian National University
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2010

Many ecologists regard nitrogen as a key element in the life-histories of herbivore populations. Consequently, those studying interactions between plants and animals often attempt to link feeding to the concentration of nitrogen (N) in plants. This approach disregards the possibility that in many plants, especially those rich in tannins, animals cannot digest much of the N. The ubiquity of tannins in plants led us to hypothesise that the concentrations of available nitrogen may be more informative for ecologists than are measures of total N. Eucalypts provide a good model for examining this hypothesis because subgeneric differences in foliar chemistry cause dietary niche separation in marsupials.We used an in vitro assay that integrates fibre, digestibility, tannins and N into a single measure of " available nitrogen" (AvailN) to compare the concentrations of total and available nitrogen in the leaves of 138 eucalypt species. There were distinct differences between the subgenera. Most notably, even though differences in total N were minor, species within Eucalyptus contain half the AvailN of those within Symphyomyrtus (0.27% vs. 0.59% dry matter). Among all species (N=138), there was a relationship between AvailN and total N (r2=0.23; P<0.001). The relationship, however, was much stronger (r2=0.84; P<0.001) and the concentrations of AvailN much higher after inactivating tannins with polyethylene glycol (PEG).By integrating several measures, we showed that tannins defend eucalypts against herbivory but this is pronounced in species within Eucalyptus. This likely explains the different feeding niches of arboreal folivores and likely affects many other processes in eucalypt forests and woodlands. Furthermore, it suggests that ecologists should be far more careful in their measure of N; AvailN rather than total N is important, especially when diets contain tannins. © 2010.


PubMed | Currency Creek Arboretum and University of Melbourne
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands) embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone--triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free -triketones, -triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the foliar glands of this taxonomically distinct group of plants are a rich source of a range of flavonoids and other biologically active compounds with great commercial potential.

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