Mönchengladbach, Germany
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Astrin J.J.,ZFMK Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig | Stuben P.E.,Curculio Institute | Misof B.,ZFMK Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig | Wagele J.W.,ZFMK Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2012

Species boundaries are studied in a group of beetles, the western Palaearctic Cryptorhynchinae. We test for congruence of 'traditionally' identified morphospecies with species inferred through parsimony networks, distance-based clustering and the ultrametric tree-based generalized mixed yule-coalescent (GMYC) approach. For that purpose, we sequenced two variable fragments of mitochondrial DNA (CO1 and 16S) for a total of 791 specimens in 217 species of Cryptorhynchinae. Parsimony networks, morphology-calibrated distance clusters and the different tree-based species inferences all achieved low congruence with morphospecies, at best 60%. Although the degree of match with morphospecies was often similar for the different approaches, the composition of clusters partially varied. A barcoding gap was absent in morphospecies-oriented distances as well as for GMYC species clusters. This demonstrates that not only erroneous taxonomic assignments, incomplete lineage sorting, hybridization, or insufficient sampling can compromise distance-based identification, but also differences in speciation rates and uneven tree structure. The initially low match between morphospecies and the different molecular species delineation methods in this case study shows the necessity of combining the output of various methods in an integrative approach. Thereby we obtain an idea about the reliability of the different results and signals, which enables us to fine-tune sampling, delineation technique and data collection, and to identify species that require taxonomic revision. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Molecular systematics and morphological study of the monophyletic weevil genus Acalles Schoenherr, 1825 are presented. Based on the mitochondrial CO1 barcoding gene and 16S ribosomal RNA gene, we discuss three difficult species complexes in the framework of a molecular phylogenetic reconstruction of 37 of 47 Western Palaearctic Acalles species or subspecies: the A. echinatus, A. maraoensis and A. sierrae complexes. Two results are given: 1. An exclusive focus on morphological, exoskeletal methods reach their limits in the case of many cryptic Cryptorhynchinae. In these cases molecular analysis is indispensable to resolve species level questions. 2. By using a combination of phenotypic and genotypic characters it is not only possible to ascertain phylogenetic relationships, but also to uncover new morphological, non-intraspecifical characteristics. Digital photography with image stacking makes this possible: for the first time we present photo key for Acalles species, a reliable, less costly and quick method for identification alongside DNA barcoding. The following taxonomic changes are given: Coloracalles edoughensis Desbrochers, 1892 comb. nov. (formerly Acalles edoughensis) from North Africa and Spain change to Coloracalles Astrin & Stüben, 2008 and Pseudodichromacalles xerampelinus Wollaston, 1864 comb. nov. from the Canarian Island Tenerife, Acalles bazaensis Stüben, 2001 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of Acalles sierrae H. Brisout, 1865. Two new species of Acalles s. str., A. iblanensis Stüben sp. nov. from Morocco and A. vorsti Stüben sp. nov. from Spain (Mallorca), and a new species of the subgenus Origoacalles Stüben & Astrin 2010, A. granulimaculosus Stüben sp. nov. from La Gomera, are described. Acalles temperei Péricart, 1987 stat. nov. is a subspecies of A. parvulus Boheman, 1837. A catalogue of all 43 (+4 incertae sedis) species of Acalles is presented. Finally and for the first time we compare 9 of 12 known North American so-called "Acalles" species with the Western Palaearctic species of Acalles surrounding the type species Curculio camelus Fabricius, 1792. The morphological and molecular analysis for the New World Acalles show that none of the species from the United States actually belong to the genus Acalles or one of the other genera of Western Palaearctic Cryptorhynchinae. There is one exception: Acalles costifer Le Conte, 1884, is transferred to the phylogenetically basal genus Acallocrates Reitter, 1913 as Acallocrates costifer (Le-Conte, 1884) comb. nov. Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press.


Stuben P.E.,Curculio Institute | Schutte A.,Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig ZFMK | Astrin J.J.,Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig ZFMK
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

A molecular phylogeny of the western Palearctic weevil genus Dichromacalles Stüben, 1998, is presented, combining two mitochondrial genes, COI and 16S, and the nuclear gene 28S in a Bayesian analysis of up to 1528 combined nucleotide positions. Based on this data we point out the putative ancestor of the currently known extant Dichromacalles species that initiated the unique radiation within the species of the formerly Acalles s.l. on the Canary Islands around 10 to 20 million years ago. Where morphology reaches its limits in species differentiation, molecular analysis can provide deeper insight. By combining morphology and molecular biology into an integrative taxonomy, new characters can be found, making phe-notypic descriptions easier. Using this integrative taxonomy background, the new species Dichromacalles algecirasensis Stüben (Spain: Cádiz) is described here and D. lentisci (Chevrolat, 1861) is transferred into the subgenus Balcanacalles Stüben & Behne, 1998 following a molecular phylogenetic reconstruction. A catalogue of all 12 species of Dichromacall-es is given and a key is presented, combined with image stackings of the habitus and aedeagus for all species. © 2013 Magnolia Press.


Stuben P.E.,Curculio Institute | Astrin J.J.,Curculio Institute
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2010

A molecular phylogeny and lineage age estimates are presented for the Macaronesian representatives of the weevil subfamily Cryptorhynchinae, using two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 16S). The Bayesian reconstruction is supplemented by observations on morphology, ecology, and reproductive biology. The present study often corroborates the groups previously outlined in higher-level informal taxonomies. These and further groups are now assigned new taxonomic status. The following genera and subgenera are described (formerly Acalles): Aeoniacalles. gen. nov., Canariacalles. gen. nov., Ficusacalles. gen. nov., Madeiracalles. gen. nov., Silvacalles gen. nov. (with Tolpiacalles. subgen. nov., Tagasastacalles. subgen. nov.), Sonchiacalles. gen. nov., Echiumacalles. gen. nov. (monotypic), Lauriacalles. gen. nov. (monotypic), and Pseudodichromacalles. gen. nov. (monotypic; formerly Dichromacalles). For the western Palaearctic genus Acalles Schoenherr, 1825 the first subgenus Origoacalles. subgen. nov. is described and for the genus Onyxacalles Stüben, 1999 the first subgenus Araneacalles. subgen. nov.; Paratorneuma Roudier 1956 resyn. Except for one species of Acalles (Origoacalles), all of these new higher taxa are endemic to the Macaronesian Islands. All new taxa are presented, together with their host plants and further data, in a synoptic tabular overview. Based on the results of our phylogenetic analysis, we advocate the hypothesis that the evolution of the species in the new genera (of which most group into a 'Macaronesian clade') began in the comparatively arid succulent bush zone and that the shady and humid laurel forest of the thermo-Canarian and thermo-Madeiran zone was entered much later. Our reconstruction implies that the Canarian and Madeiran archipelagos were colonized by Cryptorhynchinae at least seven times from the continent but saw only one considerable adaptive radiation. It also becomes apparent that it is the ancestor species of the genus Canariacalles- and not Pseudodichromacalles- that features a close connection to the south-western European and north-western African species of Dichromacalles s.s. Finally, a key is presented for all genera and subgenera of the Macaronesian Cryptorhynchinae. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London.


Astrin J.J.,Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig | Stuben P.E.,Curculio Institute
Invertebrate Systematics | Year: 2010

A molecular phylogeny for the western Palaearctic weevil genus Echinodera Wollaston, 1863 and the former genus Ruteria Roudier, 1954 is presented, combining two mitochondrial genes (CO1 and 16S) in a Bayesian analysis. Special consideration is given to the species of Echinodera from the Canary Islands. Between islands, these are represented by multiple vicariant species that have undergone parallel speciation along replicate environmental gradients on the respective islands. Based on the phylogenetic tree and further data, a number of taxonomic changes is presented: two new species are described, Echinodera montana, sp. nov. from the Canaries (Fuerteventura) and Echinodera bargouensis, sp. nov. from Tunisia. Five species are declared to be synonyms: Echinodera gomerensis Stben, 2000, syn. nov.=Echinodera praedicta Germann Stben, 2006, syn. nov.=Echinodera pseudohystrix Stben, 2000; Ruteria bellieri epirica Wolf, 2001, syn. nov.=Echinodera tyrrhenica Caldara, 1978, syn. nov.=Acalles bellieri Reiche, 1860; Echindera troodosi Wolf, 2010, syn. nov.=Echinodera cyprica Stben, 2010. The subgenus Echinodera (Dieckmannia) Stben, 1998 is a synonym of Echinodera s. str. The genus Ruteria is again declared a subgenus of Echinodera: Echinodera (Ruteria) Roudier, 1954 stat. rev. Two species are transferred to a different subgenus: Echinodera (Ruteria) incognita (Hoffmann, 1956) and Echinodera (Ruteria) cognita Stben, 2006 (both formerly Echinodera s. str.). © CSIRO.


Stuben P.E.,Curculio Institute | Astrin J.J.,ZFMK Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig
Zootaxa | Year: 2010

A molecular phylogeny of the western Palearctic weevil genus Kyklioacalles Stüben, 1999 is presented, combining two mitochondrial genes (CO1 and 16S) in a Bayesian analysis. Based on molecular data, the validity of the subspecies Kyklioacalles punctaticollis punctaticollis (Lucas, 1849) and Kyklioacalles punctaticollis meteoricus (Meyer, 1909) is discussed and the morphological differentiation of the endophalli and known distributions of both subspecies are verified. Glaberacalles subg. n. (formerly Kyklioacalles punctaticollis-group) and two new species are described,Kyklioacalles atlasicus sp.n. from Morocco and Kyklioacalles plantapilosus sp.n. from Spain. Kyklioacalles berberi(Stüben, 2005), comb. n. and Kyklioacalles olcesei (Tournier, 1873) comb. n. are transferred from Acalles Schoenherr. The molecular results further advocate a transfer of Onyxacalles pyrenaeus (Boheman, 1844) to Kyklioacalles; however this is not supported by morphological evidence. Kyklioacalles almadensis Stüben, 2004 syn. n. (Spain) is synonymized with Kyklioacalles bupleuri Stüben, 2004 (Tunisia). A catalogue of all 40 (sub-)species of Kyklioacalles is given and a key of the species of the subgenus Glaberacalles is presented. Copyright © 2010.


Stuben P.E.,Curculio Institute | Astrin J.J.,Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig ZFMK
Psyche (New York) | Year: 2012

A molecular phylogeny of the western Palearctic weevil genus Onyxacalles Stben, 1999 is presented, combining two mitochondrial genes (COI and 16S) in a Bayesian analysis. Based on molecular data, Onyxacalles pyrenaeus Boheman, 1844 is transferred into the genus Kyklioacalles Stben 1999 (K. fausti group) and-in an integrative taxonomy framework-the interaction between morphology and molecular analysis is illustrated. The species of Onyxacalles s. str. are assigned to three new species groups, O. henoni, O. luigionii, and O. portusveneris groups. The distribution of the related species in the Mediterranean area is illustrated with values of COI and 16S p-distances. Three new species are described and distinguished from their related species: Onyxacalles nuraghi Stben sp.n. from Italy (Sardinia), Onyxacalles torre Stben and Astrin sp. n. from France (Corsica) and Onyxacalles vilae Stben sp. n. from Croatia (Velebit Mts.). A catalogue of all 20 species of Onyxacalles is given, and a key is finally presented combined with image stacking of the habitus and aedeagus for all species. © 2012 Peter E. Stben and Jonas J. Astrin.


PubMed | ZFMK Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig and Curculio Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zootaxa | Year: 2015

Molecular systematics and morphological study of the monophyletic weevil genus Acalles Schoenherr, 1825 are presented. Based on the mitochondrial CO1 barcoding gene and 16S ribosomal RNA gene, we discuss three difficult species complexes in the framework of a molecular phylogenetic reconstruction of 37 of 47 Western Palaearctic Acalles species or subspecies: the A. echinatus, A. maraoensis and A. sierrae complexes. Two results are given: 1. An exclusive focus on morphological, exoskeletal methods reach their limits in the case of many cryptic Cryptorhynchinae. In these cases molecular analysis is indispensable to resolve species level questions. 2. By using a combination of phenotypic and genotypic characters it is not only possible to ascertain phylogenetic relationships, but also to uncover new morphological, non-intraspecifical characteristics. Digital photography with image stacking makes this possible: for the first time we present photo key for Acalles species, a reliable, less costly and quick method for identification alongside DNA barcoding. The following taxonomic changes are given: Coloracalles edoughensis Desbrochers, 1892 comb. nov. (formerly Acalles edoughensis) from North Africa and Spain change to Coloracalles Astrin & Stben, 2008 and Pseudodichromacalles xerampelinus Wollaston, 1864 comb. nov. from the Canarian Island Tenerife, Acalles bazaensis Stben, 2001 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of Acalles sierrae H. Brisout, 1865. Two new species of Acalles s. str. , A. iblanensis Stben sp. nov. from Morocco and A. vorsti Stben sp. nov. from Spain (Mallorca), and a new species of the subgenus Origoacalles Stben & Astrin 2010, A. granulimaculosus Stben sp. nov. from La Gomera, are described. Acalles temperei Pricart, 1987 stat. nov. is a subspecies of A. parvulus Boheman, 1837. A catalogue of all 43 (+4 incertae sedis) species of Acalles is presented. Finally and for the first time we compare 9 of 12 known North American so-called Acalles species with the Western Palaearctic species of Acalles surrounding the type species Curculio camelus Fabricius, 1792. The morphological and molecular analysis for the New World Acalles show that none of the species from the United States actually belong to the genus Acalles or one of the other genera of Western Palaearctic Cryptorhynchinae. There is one exception: Acalles costifer Le Conte, 1884, is transferred to the phylogenetically basal genus Acallocrates Reitter, 1913 as Acallocrates costifer (LeConte, 1884) comb. nov.


A molecular phylogeny of the western Palearctic weevil genus Dichromacalles Stuben, 1998, is presented, combining two mitochondrial genes, COI and 16S, and the nuclear gene 28S in a Bayesian analysis of up to 1528 combined nucleotide positions. Based on this data we point out the putative ancestor of the currently known extant Dichromacalles species that initiated the unique radiation within the species of the formerly Acalles s.l. on the Canary Islands around 10 to 20 million years ago. Where morphology reaches its limits in species differentiation, molecular analysis can provide deeper insight. By combining morphology and molecular biology into an integrative taxonomy, new characters can be found, making phenotypic descriptions easier. Using this integrative taxonomy background, the new species Dichromacalles algecirasensis Stuben (Spain: Cadiz) is described here and D. lentisci (Chevrolat, 1861) is transferred into the subgenus Balcanacalles Stuben & Behne, 1998 following a molecular phylogenetic reconstruction. A catalogue of all 12 species of Dichromacalles is given and a key is presented, combined with image stackings of the habitus and aedeagus for all species.

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