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Hunter College is an American public university and one of the constituent organizations of the City University of New York, located in the Lenox Hill neighborhood of Manhattan's Upper East Side. The college grants undergraduate and graduate degrees in over one-hundred fields of study in five schools: The School of Arts and science, The School of Education, The School of Social Work, The Hunter-Bellevue School of Nursing, and the CUNY School of Public Health at Hunter College. Hunter College also administers Hunter College High School and Hunter College Elementary School.Founded in 1870, originally as a women's college, Hunter is one of the oldest public colleges in the United States. The college assumed the location of its main campus on Park Avenue in 1873. Hunter began admitting men into its freshman class in 1964. In 1943 Eleanor Roosevelt dedicated the former home of herself and Franklin Delano Roosevelt to the college, which reopened in 2010 as the Roosevelt House Public Policy Institute at Hunter College. In 2012, a partnership was announced with Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center, with plans to develop a shared health science campus on East 74th Street.Hunter has been noted for the diversity of its students, being men and women from 150 countries. Hunter is the only college in the nation whose roster of alumni includes two female Nobel laureates in medicine. The Princeton Review has ranked Hunter among the nation's 377 best colleges and the school is consistently listed as a top producer of Fulbright Scholars. Wikipedia.

Schooling C.M.,CUNY - Hunter College
American Journal of Human Biology | Year: 2013

Objectives: Inflammation contributes to chronic diseases. Lower serum testosterone among men is associated with less inflammation, yet immune defense is thought to trade-off against reproduction with androgens adversely affecting immune function. Anti-androgens are effective at castrate levels of serum testosterone, suggesting serum testosterone may not capture all androgen activity. The association of two androgen biomarkers with key markers of inflammation was examined. Methods: The adjusted association of serum testosterone and androstanediol glucuronide with C-reactive protein, white blood cell, granulocyte and lymphocyte count, fibrinogen, and hemoglobin, as a control outcome because testosterone administration raises hemoglobin, were examined in a nationally representative sample of 1,490 US men from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III phase 1 (1988-1991) using multivariable linear regression. Results: Serum testosterone and androstanediol glucuronide were weakly correlated (0.13). Serum testosterone was associated with lower white blood cell count [-0.26 × 10-9 per standard deviation, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.37 to -0.14] and granulocyte count (-0.21 × 10-9, 95% CI -0.29 to -0.13) but not with hemoglobin (0.02 g/l, 95% CI -0.89 to 0.92), adjusted for age, education, race/ethnicity, smoking, and alcohol. Similarly adjusted, androstanediol glucuronide was not associated with white blood cell count (0.10 × 10-9, 95% CI -0.05 to -0.25), granulocyte count (0.12 × 10-9, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.25), or fibrinogen (0.05 g/l, 95% CI -0.004 to 0.11), but was with hemoglobin (0.70 g/l, 95% CI 0.07 to 1.32). Conclusions: Different androgen biomarkers had different associations with inflammatory markers, highlighting the need to consider several androgen biomarkers. The possibility remains that androgens may generate inflammatory processes with implications for chronic diseases. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Luine V.,CUNY - Hunter College
Hormones and Behavior | Year: 2015

This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and Cognition".Memory processing is presumed to depend on synaptic plasticity, which appears to have a role in mediating the acquisition, consolidation, and retention of memory. We have studied the relationship between estrogen, recognition memory, and dendritic spine density in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, areas critical for memory, across the lifespan in female rodents. The present paper reviews the literature on dendritic spine plasticity in mediating both short and long term memory, as well as the decreased memory that occurs with aging and Alzheimer's disease. It also addresses the role of acute and chronic estrogen treatments in these processes. © 2015. Source

Goss D.J.,CUNY - Hunter College | Theil E.C.,Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2011

Messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are emerging as prime targets for small-molecule drugs. They afford an opportunity to assert control over an enormous range of biological processes: mRNAs regulate protein synthesis rates, have specific 3-D regulatory structures, and, in nucleated cells, are separated from DNA in space and time. All of the many steps between DNA copying (transcription) and ribosome binding (translation) represent potential control points. Messenger RNAs can fold into complex, 3-D shapes, such as tRNAs and rRNAs, providing an added dimension to the 2-D RNA structure (base pairing) targeted in many mRNA interference approaches. In this Account, we describe the structural and functional properties of the IRE (iron-responsive element) family, one of the few 3-D mRNA regulatory elements with known 3-D structure. This family of related base sequences regulates the mRNAs that encode proteins for iron metabolism.We begin by considering the IRE-RNA structure, which consists of a short (∼30-nucleotide) RNA helix. Nature tuned the structure by combining a conserved AGU pseudotriloop, a closing C-G base pair, and a bulge C with various RNA helix base pairs. The result is a set of IRE-mRNAs with individual iron responses. The physiological iron signal is hexahydrated ferrous ion; in vivo iron responses vary over 10-fold depending on the individual IRE-RNA structure.We then discuss the interaction between the IRE-RNA structure and the proteins associated with it. IRE-RNA structures, which are usually noncoding, tightly bind specific proteins called IRPs. These repressor proteins are bound to IRE-RNA through C-bulge and AGU contacts that flip out a loop AG and a bulge C, bending the RNA helix. After binding, the exposed RNA surface then invites further interactions, such as with iron and other proteins. Binding of the IRE-RNA and the IRP also changes the IRP conformation. IRP binding stabilities vary 10-fold within the IRE family, reflecting individual IRE-RNA paired and unpaired bases. This variation contributes to the graded (hierarchical) iron responses in vivo.We also consider the mechanisms of IRE-mRNA control. The binding of Fe 2+ to IRE-RNA facilitates IRP release and the binding of eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs), which are proteins that assemble mRNA, ribosomes, and tRNA for translation. IRE-RNAs are riboregulators for the inorganic metabolic signal, Fe 2+; they control protein synthesis rates by changing the distribution of the iron metabolic mRNAs between complexes with enhancing eIFs and inhibitory IRPs.The regulation of mRNA in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells is a burgeoning frontier in biomedicine. The evolutionarily refined IRE-RNAs, although absent in plants and bacteria, constitute a model system for 3-D mRNAs in all organisms. IRE-mRNAs have yielded "proof of principle" data for small-molecule targeting of mRNA structures, demonstrating tremendous potential for chemical manipulation of mRNA and protein synthesis in living systems. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

Pontzer H.,CUNY - Hunter College
Journal of Theoretical Biology | Year: 2012

Ecomorphological analyses have identified a number of important evolutionary trends in vertebrate limb design, but the relationships between daily travel distance, locomotor ecology, and limb length in terrestrial animals remain poorly understood. In this paper I model the net rate of energy intake as a function of foraging efficiency, and thus of locomotor economy; improved economy leads to greater net energy intake. However, the relationship between locomotor economy and net intake is highly dependent on foraging efficiency; only species with low foraging efficiencies experience strong selection pressure for improved locomotor economy and increased limb length. Examining 237 terrestrial species, I find that nearly all taxa obtain sufficiently high foraging efficiencies that selection for further increases in economy is weak. Thus selection pressures for increased economy and limb length among living terrestrial animals may be relatively weak and similar in magnitude across ecologically diverse species. The Economy Selection Pressure model for locomotor economy may be useful in investigating the evolution of limb design in early terrestrial taxa and the coevolution of foraging ecology and locomotor anatomy in lineages with low foraging efficiencies. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Solecki W.,CUNY - Hunter College
Environment and Urbanization | Year: 2012

Climate change presents cities with significant challenges such as adaptation to dynamic climate risks and protection of critical infrastructure systems and residents' livelihoods. City governments and inhabitants must continually respond to a variety of urban environmental risks. Understanding how cities have begun to extend these experiences to the context of climate change adaptation as well as mitigation is crucial for the development and identification of climate action best practices. The focus of this paper will be to document and explore how the city of New York has begun to define and implement a set of climate actions over the past half decade. These actions are presented within a discussion of past and future climate risks and vulnerabilities, and of climate and sustainability programmes that the city government has developed recently. Even as a mature, mega-city in a developed country, lessons from the New York City experience can be transferred to a variety of other urban contexts. © 2012 International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). Source

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