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Zhao H.,PLA Fourth Military Medical University | Zhao H.,The Cultivation Project of Collaborative Innovation Center for Chinese Medicine in QinBa Mountains | Yang Q.,PLA Fourth Military Medical University | Yang Q.,The Cultivation Project of Collaborative Innovation Center for Chinese Medicine in QinBa Mountains | And 9 more authors.
Biomedical Chromatography | Year: 2015

Cinnamaldehyde (CA), an active ingredient isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Cortex Cinnamomi, has a wide range of bioactivities. To clarify the distribution characteristics of CA, a selective and sensitive method utilizing gas chromatography-mass spetrometry was initially developed for simultaneously determining the concentration of CA and its metabolite cinnamyl alcohol in rat tissues. Selected ion masses of m/z 131, 105 and 92 were chosen, and separation of the analytes was performed on a DB-5ms (30m×0.25mm, 0.25μm, thickness) capillary column by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The calibration curves demonstrated good linearity and reproducibility over the range of 20-2000 and 20-4000ng/mL for various tissue samples. Recoveries ranged from 86.8 to 107.5%, while intra- and interday relative standard deviations were all <11.3%. The analysis method was successfully applied in tissue distribution studies for CA and cinnamyl alcohol. As CA and cinnamyl alcohol may inter-convert to one another, simultaneous determination of both analytes provides a comparative and accurate data for tissue study. The concentrations of CA and cinnamyl alcohol remaining in spleen were the highest among the main organs, including heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and brain. In addition, there was no long-term accumulation of CA in rat tissues. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Zhao H.,PLA Fourth Military Medical University | Zhao H.,The Cultivation Project of Collaborative Innovation Center for Chinese Medicine in QinBa Mountains | Xie Y.,PLA Fourth Military Medical University | Xie Y.,The Cultivation Project of Collaborative Innovation Center for Chinese Medicine in QinBa Mountains | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2014

A selective and sensitive method utilizing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for simultaneous determination of cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol, and methyl cinnamate in rat plasma. Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamyl alcohol can inter-convert to one another in rats, thus simultaneous quantifying both analytes provided a reliable and accurate method of assessment. Three qualifying ions (131 m/z, 105 m/z and 92 m/z) were chosen for simultaneous quantification of cinnamaldehyde and its metabolites. In this study, the calibration curves demonstrated a good linearity and reproducibility over the range of 20-2000ng/ml (r2≥0.999) for all analytes. Furthermore, the sensitivity of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed sufficient lower limit of quantitation and detection of 20ng/ml and 5ng/ml, respectively, in the pharmacokinetic analysis. The intra- and inter-day precision variations were less than 10.4% and 12.2%, respectively, whilst accuracy values ranged from -8.6% to 14.8%. All analytes were stable in plasma and in processed samples at room temperature for 24h with no significant degradation after three freeze/thaw cycles. A small amount of the administered cinnamaldehyde had long half-life of 6.7±1.5h. In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for the pharmacokinetic studies of rats after intravenous and oral administration of cinnamaldehyde. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Zhou X.,PLA Fourth Military Medical University | Zhou X.,The Cultivation Project of Collaborative Innovation Center for Chinese Medicine in QinBa Mountains | Ge L.,Chongqing Medical University | Yang Q.,PLA Fourth Military Medical University | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine | Year: 2014

Objective: To research and reveal Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside (TSG) anti-thinning effect of dermas on skin of ageing mice.Methods: The dermal layer thickness was measured with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining; the levels of collagen and elastic fibers were measured with immunohistochemical staining; the levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and two receptors of insulin and IGF-1 were measured with Elisa kits; the levels of Ca2+ and P were measured with ELISA kits.Results: TSG and Polygonum multiflorum extract (PME) made thicken dermal layer thickness (P<0.01, vs. control group); promoted collagen fiber expression (P<0.01, vs. control group, 22.94% and 28.26% vs. 20.41%); reduced the levels of insulin (P<0.01, vs. control group, 2.50 ng/ml and 2.69 ng/ml vs. 3.04 ng/ml), insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, P<0.01, vs. control group, 154.75 ng/ml and 155.60 ng/ml vs. 209.28 ng/ml), receptors of insulin (P<0.01, vs. control group, 0.423 ng/ml and 0.426 ng/ml vs. 0.648 ng/ml) and IGF-1 (P<0.01, vs. control group, 71.96 ng/ml and 81.68 ng/ml vs. 87.02 ng/ml) in aging mice skin; raised the levels of Ca2+ and P in serum in mice (P<0.01, vs. control group, 1.24 mol/ml and 1.30 mol/ml vs. 1.08 mol/ml; P<0.01, vs. control group, 2.00 mol/ml and 2.03 mol/ml vs. 1.197 mol/ml).Conclusion: TSG and PME showed their protections to skin aging in mice challenged with control groups. It ensured the anti-thinning effect of dermas of TSG and provided two potential factors (insulin/IGF-1 signal pathway and the level of Ca2+) related to skin senescence of aging mice. © 2014, E-Century Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved.


Lu C.,PLA Fourth Military Medical University | Lu C.,The Cultivation Project of Collaborative Innovation Center for Chinese Medicine in QinBa Mountains | Zhang J.,401 Military Hospital | Shi X.,PLA Fourth Military Medical University | And 17 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent progressive neurodegenerative disease. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of PD, apoptotic cell death and oxidative stress are the most prevalent mechanisms. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is a biological component that has been extracted from Ligusticum wallichii Franchat (ChuanXiong), which exhibits anti-apoptotic and antioxidant roles. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of TMP against dopaminergic neuron injury in a rat model of Parkinson's disease induced by MPTP and to elucidate probable molecular mechanisms. The results showed that TMP could notably prevent MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurons damage, reflected by improvement of motor deficits, enhancement of TH expression and the content of dopamine and its metabolite, DOPAC. We observed MPTP-induced activation of mitochondrial apoptotic death pathway, evidenced by up-regulation of Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2, release of cytochrome c and cleavage of caspase 3, which was significantly inhibited by TMP. Moreover, TMP could prevent MPTP-increased TBARS level and MPTP-decreased GSH level, indicating the antioxidant role of TMP in PD model. And the antioxidant role of TMP attributes to the prevention of MPTP-induced reduction of Nrf2 and GCLc expression. In conclusion, in MPTP-induced PD model, TMP prevents the down-regulation of Nrf2 and GCLc, maintaining redox balance and inhibiting apoptosis, leading to the attenuation of dopaminergic neuron damage. The effectiveness of TMP in treating PD potentially leads to interesting therapeutic perspectives. © Ivyspring International Publisher.


Yang Q.,PLA Fourth Military Medical University | Yang Q.,The Cultivation Project of Collaborative Innovation Center for Chinese Medicine in QinBa Mountains | Zhou X.,PLA Fourth Military Medical University | Zhou X.,The Cultivation Project of Collaborative Innovation Center for Chinese Medicine in QinBa Mountains | And 20 more authors.
American Journal of Translational Research | Year: 2015

There are currently 34 genera and 410 species of toads in the world. The medicinal parts of toads mainly include their venom, skin, and clothing. The toad’s venom and skin possess the same chemical components, mainly the toad venom lactone class, and their pharmacological effects primarily include the maintenance of strong heart, antitumor, antivirus, anti-infection, and analgesic effects. So far, the produces from the medicinal raw materials of the toad are widely used clinically around the world, especially in China, Japan, and South Korea. About 50 varieties of medicines are used in the clinical treatment of various complicated diseases in China, such as “Liushen pills” which was popular in the whole world. Toads are mainly used in treating malignant tumors (e.g., liver cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, among others), and some major diseases such as hepatitis B. Despite the therapeutic effects of toad-derived medicines on human health, there is insufficient research and development of toad-derived medicines by leading drug companies. In order to harness the beneficial effects of the resources of the toad species, it is the responsibility of global pharmaceutical researchers to develop and generate economically feasible toad-derived therapeutic products, while promoting maximum protection to the resources of the toad species. © 2015, E-Century Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved.

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