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Huang J.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Wah I.Y.M.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Pooh R.K.,Clinical Research Institute of Fetal Medicine PMC | Choy K.W.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Choy K.W.,CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute
Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine | Year: 2012

Brain malformations, particularly related to early brain development, are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of fetal neurological disorders. Fetal cerebral malformation, predominantly of impaired prosencephalic development namely agenesis of the corpus callosum and septo-optic dysplasia, is the main pathological feature in fetus, and causes prominent neurodevelopmental retardation, and associated with congenital facial anomalies and visual disorders. Differential diagnosis of brain malformations can be extremely difficult even through magnetic resonance imaging. Advances in genomic and molecular genetics technologies have led to the identification of the sonic hedgehog pathways and genes critical to the normal brain development. Molecular cytogenetic and genetic studies have identified numeric and structural chromosomal abnormalities as well as mutations in genes important for the etiology of fetal neurological disorders. In this review, we update the molecular genetics findings of three common fetal neurological abnormalities, holoprosencephaly, lissencephaly and agenesis of the corpus callosum, in an attempt to assist in perinatal and prenatal diagnosis. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Lau J.T.F.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Lau J.T.F.,Sun Yat Sen University | Lau J.T.F.,CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute | Gu J.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 2 more authors.
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2013

Objective: We investigated the prevalence and associated factors of men who have sex with men (MSM) and had never participated in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) but intended to do so in the next six months. Method: An anonymous cross-sectional survey interviewed 577 MSM in Hong Kong, China, face-to-face or through an electronic questionnaire. Results: We identified 245 MSM who had never participated in VCT (never-testers), among whom 12.7% intended to do so in the next six months. Factors associated positively with high behavioral intention were: 1) perceived necessity to participate in HIV test regularly (multivariate odds ratios (ORm) = 4.54, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30-15.83), 2) perception that > 20% of the local MSM had participated in VCT (ORm = 17.86, 95% CI: 1.89-169.08) and 3) perceived higher chance to have sex with people living with HIV (PLWH) in the next six months (ORm = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.08-7.93). Negatively associated factors were: local residency (ORm = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.01-0.34) and perceived higher chance of having unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the next six months (ORm = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.09-0.84). In addition, no interaction term between the independent variable and UAI status was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: Many sampled never-testers had low intention to take up VCT and were in the pre-contemplation stage of the Transtheoretical Model. Stage-matched promotions are warranted. MSM. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Chen L.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Chen L.,CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute | Zhang B.-B.,Jiangnan University | Cheung P.C.K.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Cheung P.C.K.,CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Cell wall proteins (CWPs) play a vital role in the development of the different morphological stages including mycelium, fruiting body, and sclerotium in mushrooms which are important human food sources. Using fractionation by detergents and reducing agents, mushroom cell wall fractions from the different developmental stages of Pleurotus tuber-regium (PTR) were prepared. Using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with LC-MS, there were 103, 91, and 48 noncovalently linked CWPs identified in the cell wall fractions of the PTR mycelium, fruiting body, and sclerotium, respectively. Comparing the CWPs in these cell wall fractions, 19 of them were in common, among which 17 belonged to the functional categories of translation, ribosomal structure, and biogenesis. This is the first study to provide important biochemical insights into the different developmental stages of PTR mediated by CWPs, and the identified CWPs helped to explain the morphological changes of PTR mushrooms during cultivation. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Chung A.C.K.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Chung A.C.K.,CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute | Yu X.,Sun Yat Sen University | Lan H.Y.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Lan H.Y.,CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute
International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease | Year: 2013

Micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that inhibit gene expression through the post-transcriptional repression of their target mRNAs. Increasing evidence shows that miRNAs have emerged as key players in diverse biologic processes. Aberrant miRNA expression is also closely related to various human diseases, including kidney diseases. From clinical and experimental animal studies, emerging evidence demonstrates a critical role for miRNAs in renal pathophysiology. Renal fibrosis is the hallmark of various chronic kidney diseases and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is recognized as a vital mediator of renal fibrosis because it can induce production of extracellular matrix proteins resulting in dysfunction of the kidneys. The relationship between TGF-β signaling and miRNAs expression during renal diseases has been recently established. TGF-β positively or negatively regulates expression of several miRNAs, such as miR-21, miR-192, miR-200, and miR-29. Both miR-192 and miR-21 are positively regulated by TGF-β 1/Smad3 signaling and play a pathological role in kidney diseases. Conversely, members of both miR-29 and miR-200 families are negatively regulated by TGF-β/Smad3 and play a protective role in renal fibrosis by inhibiting the deposition of extracellular matrix and preventing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, respectively. Clinically, levels of miRNAs in circulation and urine may be potential biomarkers for detecting early stages of renal diseases and targeting miRNAs also provides promising therapeutic effects in rodent models of chronic kidney disease. However, mechanisms and roles of miRNAs under disease conditions remain to be explored. Thus, understanding the function of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases may offer an innovative approach for both early diagnosis and treatment of renal diseases. © 2013 Chung et al.

Yang X.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Yang X.,CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute | Zhang L.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Wong T.-T.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | And 2 more authors.
ACM Transactions on Graphics | Year: 2012

By extending from monocular displays to binocular displays, one additional image domain is introduced. Existing binocular display systems only utilize this additional image domain for stereopsis. Our human vision is not only able to fuse two displaced images, but also two images with difference in detail, contrast and luminance, up to a certain limit. This phenomenon is known as binocular single vision. Humans can perceive more visual content via binocular fusion than just a linear blending of two views. In this paper, we make a first attempt in computer graphics to utilize this human vision phenomenon, and propose a binocular tone mapping framework. The proposed framework generates a binocular low-dynamic range (LDR) image pair that preserves more human-perceivable visual content than a single LDR image using the additional image domain. Given a tone-mapped LDR image (left, without loss of generality), our framework optimally synthesizes its counterpart (right) in the image pair from the same source HDR image. The two LDR images are different, so that they can aggregately present more human-perceivable visual richness than a single arbitrary LDR image, without triggering visual discomfort. To achieve this goal, a novel binocular viewing comfort predictor (BVCP) is also proposed to prevent such visual discomfort. The design of BVCP is based on the findings in vision science. Through our user studies, we demonstrate the increase of human-perceivable visual richness and the effectiveness of the proposed BVCP in conservatively predicting the visual discomfort threshold of human observers. © 2012 ACM 0730-0301/2012/08-ART93.

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