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Tian Y.,CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute | Xu Q.,City University of Hong Kong | Xue J.,CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute
Proceedings of the Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference, ASP-DAC | Year: 2017

Energy harvesting systems recycling energy from ambient environment for extended lifetime have been proposed to be the next step in the evolution of the Internet of Things. One of the largest challenges of energy harvesting is the insufficiency and instability of ambient energy sources. Unlike wireless distributed systems considered to date, frequent power failures need to be taken into account in designing energy-efficient transmission strategies. In this paper, we propose a message passing method between energy harvesting nodes, which predicts the probability of success before message passing and adjusts transmission strategy online according to input power trace. Experimental result shows that our method can reduce energy consumption of transmission significantly compared to traditional ones and keeps effective for various kinds of unstable input power. © 2017 IEEE.


Lau J.T.F.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Lau J.T.F.,Sun Yat Sen University | Lau J.T.F.,CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute | Gu J.,Sun Yat Sen University | And 2 more authors.
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2013

Objective: We investigated the prevalence and associated factors of men who have sex with men (MSM) and had never participated in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) but intended to do so in the next six months. Method: An anonymous cross-sectional survey interviewed 577 MSM in Hong Kong, China, face-to-face or through an electronic questionnaire. Results: We identified 245 MSM who had never participated in VCT (never-testers), among whom 12.7% intended to do so in the next six months. Factors associated positively with high behavioral intention were: 1) perceived necessity to participate in HIV test regularly (multivariate odds ratios (ORm) = 4.54, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30-15.83), 2) perception that > 20% of the local MSM had participated in VCT (ORm = 17.86, 95% CI: 1.89-169.08) and 3) perceived higher chance to have sex with people living with HIV (PLWH) in the next six months (ORm = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.08-7.93). Negatively associated factors were: local residency (ORm = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.01-0.34) and perceived higher chance of having unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the next six months (ORm = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.09-0.84). In addition, no interaction term between the independent variable and UAI status was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: Many sampled never-testers had low intention to take up VCT and were in the pre-contemplation stage of the Transtheoretical Model. Stage-matched promotions are warranted. MSM. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Chung A.C.K.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Chung A.C.K.,CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute | Yu X.,Sun Yat Sen University | Lan H.Y.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Lan H.Y.,CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute
International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease | Year: 2013

Micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that inhibit gene expression through the post-transcriptional repression of their target mRNAs. Increasing evidence shows that miRNAs have emerged as key players in diverse biologic processes. Aberrant miRNA expression is also closely related to various human diseases, including kidney diseases. From clinical and experimental animal studies, emerging evidence demonstrates a critical role for miRNAs in renal pathophysiology. Renal fibrosis is the hallmark of various chronic kidney diseases and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is recognized as a vital mediator of renal fibrosis because it can induce production of extracellular matrix proteins resulting in dysfunction of the kidneys. The relationship between TGF-β signaling and miRNAs expression during renal diseases has been recently established. TGF-β positively or negatively regulates expression of several miRNAs, such as miR-21, miR-192, miR-200, and miR-29. Both miR-192 and miR-21 are positively regulated by TGF-β 1/Smad3 signaling and play a pathological role in kidney diseases. Conversely, members of both miR-29 and miR-200 families are negatively regulated by TGF-β/Smad3 and play a protective role in renal fibrosis by inhibiting the deposition of extracellular matrix and preventing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, respectively. Clinically, levels of miRNAs in circulation and urine may be potential biomarkers for detecting early stages of renal diseases and targeting miRNAs also provides promising therapeutic effects in rodent models of chronic kidney disease. However, mechanisms and roles of miRNAs under disease conditions remain to be explored. Thus, understanding the function of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases may offer an innovative approach for both early diagnosis and treatment of renal diseases. © 2013 Chung et al.


Chen L.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Chen L.,CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute | Zhang B.-B.,Jiangnan University | Cheung P.C.K.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Cheung P.C.K.,CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Cell wall proteins (CWPs) play a vital role in the development of the different morphological stages including mycelium, fruiting body, and sclerotium in mushrooms which are important human food sources. Using fractionation by detergents and reducing agents, mushroom cell wall fractions from the different developmental stages of Pleurotus tuber-regium (PTR) were prepared. Using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with LC-MS, there were 103, 91, and 48 noncovalently linked CWPs identified in the cell wall fractions of the PTR mycelium, fruiting body, and sclerotium, respectively. Comparing the CWPs in these cell wall fractions, 19 of them were in common, among which 17 belonged to the functional categories of translation, ribosomal structure, and biogenesis. This is the first study to provide important biochemical insights into the different developmental stages of PTR mediated by CWPs, and the identified CWPs helped to explain the morphological changes of PTR mushrooms during cultivation. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Chen L.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Chen L.,CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute | Zhang B.-B.,Jiangnan University | Chen J.-L.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | And 3 more authors.
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2014

The fine molecular structure of a novel alkali-soluble polysaccharide (SCA-I) from the mushroom sclerotial cell wall of Pleurotus tuber-regium was elucidated by 1-D and 2-D NMR spectroscopy as a hyper-branched glucan having a 64.9% degree of branching at O-6 and consisting a main chain with →1)-Glc. p-(4→ linkages and short side chains having either →1)-Glc. p-(3→ or →1)-Glc. p-(6→ linkages. This partial structure of SCA-I was consistent with that obtained from methylation analysis. The molecular conformation of SDS-treated SCA-I was visualized for the first time by TEM and AFM. Microscopic images confirmed the highly branched structure of SCA-I as well as its multiple chain conformation when its compact structure was opened up by SDS treatment. This unique hyper-branched polysaccharide has the potential application in the design of carbohydrate-based nano-particles and drug delivery systems. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Meng X.-M.,CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute | Meng X.-M.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Chung A.C.K.,CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute | Chung A.C.K.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Science | Year: 2013

TGF-β (transforming growth factor-β) and BMP-7 (bone morphogenetic protein-7), two key members in the TGF-β superfamily, play important but diverse roles in CKDs (chronic kidney diseases). Both TGF-β and BMP-7 share similar downstream Smad signalling pathways, but counter-regulate each other to maintain the balance of their biological activities. During renal injury in CKDs, this balance is significantly altered because TGF-β signalling is up-regulated by inducing TGF-β1 and activating Smad3, whereas BMP-7 and its downstream Smad1/5/8 are down-regulated. In the context of renal fibrosis, Smad3 is pathogenic, whereas Smad2 and Smad7 are renoprotective. However, this counter-balancing mechanism is also altered because TGF-β1 induces Smurf2, a ubiquitin E3-ligase, to target Smad7 as well as Smad2 for degradation. Thus overexpression of renal Smad7 restores the balance of TGF-β/Smad signalling and has therapeutic effect on CKDs. Recent studies also found that Smad3 mediated renal fibrosis by up-regulating miR-21 (where miR represents microRNA) and miR-192, but down-regulating miR-29 and miR-200 families. Therefore restoring miR-29/miR-200 or suppressing miR-21/miR-192 is able to treat progressive renal fibrosis. Furthermore, activation of TGF-β/Smad signalling inhibits renal BMP-7 expression and BMP/Smad signalling. On the other hand, overexpression of renal BMP-7 is capable of inhibiting TGF-β/Smad3 signalling and protects the kidney from TGF-β-mediated renal injury. This counter-regulation not only expands our understanding of the causes of renal injury, but also suggests the therapeutic potential by targeting TGF-β/Smad signalling or restoring BMP-7 in CKDs. Taken together, the current understanding of the distinct roles and mechanisms of TGF-β and BMP-7 in CKDs implies that targeting the TGF-β/Smad pathway or restoring BMP-7 signalling may represent novel and effective therapies for CKDs. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 Biochemical Society.


Yang X.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Yang X.,CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute | Zhang L.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Wong T.-T.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | And 2 more authors.
ACM Transactions on Graphics | Year: 2012

By extending from monocular displays to binocular displays, one additional image domain is introduced. Existing binocular display systems only utilize this additional image domain for stereopsis. Our human vision is not only able to fuse two displaced images, but also two images with difference in detail, contrast and luminance, up to a certain limit. This phenomenon is known as binocular single vision. Humans can perceive more visual content via binocular fusion than just a linear blending of two views. In this paper, we make a first attempt in computer graphics to utilize this human vision phenomenon, and propose a binocular tone mapping framework. The proposed framework generates a binocular low-dynamic range (LDR) image pair that preserves more human-perceivable visual content than a single LDR image using the additional image domain. Given a tone-mapped LDR image (left, without loss of generality), our framework optimally synthesizes its counterpart (right) in the image pair from the same source HDR image. The two LDR images are different, so that they can aggregately present more human-perceivable visual richness than a single arbitrary LDR image, without triggering visual discomfort. To achieve this goal, a novel binocular viewing comfort predictor (BVCP) is also proposed to prevent such visual discomfort. The design of BVCP is based on the findings in vision science. Through our user studies, we demonstrate the increase of human-perceivable visual richness and the effectiveness of the proposed BVCP in conservatively predicting the visual discomfort threshold of human observers. © 2012 ACM 0730-0301/2012/08-ART93.


Wu C.W.,Institute of Digestive Disease | Wu C.W.,CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute | Ng S.C.,Institute of Digestive Disease | Dong Y.,Institute of Digestive Disease | And 9 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2014

Purpose: Detecting microRNA (miRNA) in stool is a novel approach for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. This study aimed to identify stool-based miRNA as noninvasive biomarkers for detection of CRC and adenoma. Experimental Design: A miRNA expression array covering 667 human miRNAs was performed on five pairs of CRC and two pairs of advanced adenoma tissues. The most upregulated miRNAs were validated in 40 pairs of CRC tissues, 16 pairs of advanced adenoma tissues, and 424 stool samples, including 104 CRCs, 169 adenomas, 42 inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and 109 healthy controls. miRNA levels were followed-up after removal of lesions. Results: In an array analysis, miR-31 and miR-135b were the most upregulated miRNAs in CRC and advanced adenoma as compared with their adjacent normal tissues (>13-fold increase). In stool samples, level of miR-135b was significantly higher in subjects with CRC (P < 0.0001) or adenomas (P < 0.0001), but not in patients with IBD compared with controls. miR-135b showed a significant increasing trend across the adenoma to cancer sequence (P < 0.0001). Levels of miR-31 were not significantly different among groups. The sensitivity of stool mR-135b was 78% for CRC, 73% for advanced adenoma, and 65% for any adenoma, respectively, with a specificity of 68%. No significant difference in the miR-135b level was found between proximal and distal colorectal lesions. Stool miR-135b dropped significantly upon removal of CRC or advanced adenoma (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Stool-based miR-135b can be used as a noninvasive biomarker for the detection of CRC and advanced adenoma. ©2014 AACR.


Chung A.C.K.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Chung A.C.K.,CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute | Dong Y.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Yang W.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Therapy | Year: 2013

Blockade of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling by Smad7 gene therapy is known to prevent experimental renal fibrosis. This study investigated whether Smad7 suppresses renal fibrosis via altering the renal expression of fibrosis-related microRNAs. Application of gene therapy into diseased kidneys of obstructive nephropathy and kidney cells by overexpressing Smad7 restored miR-29b but inhibited the expression of miR-192 and miR-21, resulting in blockade of renal fibrosis. Furthermore, Smad7 overexpression also suppressed advanced glycated end products-and angiotensin II-regulated expression of these microRNAs. In contrast, disruption of Smad7 gene in mice demonstrated opposite results by enhancing the loss of miR-29b and upregulation of miR-192 and miR-21, resulting in promotion of renal fibrosis in ligated kidneys of a model of obstructive nephropathy. More importantly, treatment with anti-miR-29b, miR-21 and miR-192 mimics in Smad7 overexpressing tubular epithelial cells abrogated the suppressive function of Smad7 on renal fibrosis, suggesting that these microRNAs act downstream of Smad7 to override the Smad7 function. In conclusion, Smad7 protects kidneys from fibrosis by regulating TGF-β/Smad3-mediated renal expression of miR-21, miR-192, and miR-29b. Restored renal miR-29b but suppressed miR-192 and miR-21 may be a mechanism by which gene therapy with Smad7 inhibits renal fibrosis. © The American Society of Gene &Cell Therapy.


Wang J.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Wang J.,CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute | Chu E.S.H.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Chu E.S.H.,CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute | And 9 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2015

microRNA-29b (miR-29b) is known to be associated with TGF-β-mediated fibrosis, but the mechanistic action of miR-29b in liver fibrosis remains unclear and is warranted for investigation. We found that miR-29b was significantly downregulated in human and mice fibrotic liver tissues and in primary activated HSCs. miR-29b downregulation was directly mediated by Smad3 through binding to the promoter of miR-29b in hepatic stellate cell (HSC) line LX1, whilst miR-29b could in turn suppress Smad3 expression. miR-29b transduction in the liver of mice prevented CCl4 induced-fibrogenesis, concomitant with decreased expression of α-SMA, collagen I and TIMP-1. Ectopic expression of miR-29b in activated HSCs (LX-1, HSC-T6) inhibited cell viability and colony formation, and caused cell cycle arrest in G1 phase by downregulating cyclin D1 and p21cip1. Further, miR-29b induced apoptosis in HSCs mediated by caspase-9 and PARP. miR-29b inhibited its downstream effectors of PIK3R1 and AKT3 through direct targeting their 3′UTR regions. Moreover, knockdown of PIK3R1 or AKT3 suppressed α-SMA and collagen I and induced apoptosis in both HSCs and in mice. In conclusion, miR-29b prevents liver fibrogenesis by inhibiting HSC activation and inducing HSC apoptosis through inhibiting PI3K/AKT pathway. These results provide novel mechanistic insights for the anti-fibrotic effect of miR-29b.

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