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Mendoza R.,Cuban Neurosciences Center | Cabral-Calderin Y.,Cuban Neurosciences Center | Dominguez M.,Cuban Neurosciences Center | Garcia A.,Cuban Neurosciences Center | And 4 more authors.
Psychiatry Research | Year: 2011

It is well established that schizophrenia is associated with difficulties in recognizing facial emotional expressions, but few studies have reported the presence of this deficit among their unaffected relatives. This study attempts to add new evidence of familial association on an emotional expression processing test. The study evaluated the performance of 93 paranoid schizophrenia patients, 110 first-degree relatives of probands from multiplex schizophrenia families, and 109 nonpsychiatric controls on a facial emotional recognition test using a computer morphing technique to present the dynamic expressions. The task entailed the recognition of a set of facial expressions depicting the six basic emotions presented in 21 successive frames of increasing intensity. The findings indicated that schizophrenia patients were consistently impaired for the recognition of the six basic facial expressions. In contrast, their unaffected relatives showed a selective impairment for the recognition of disgust and fearful expressions. Familial association of selective facial emotional expressions processing deficit may further implicate promising new endophenotypes that can advance the understanding of affective deficits in schizophrenia. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Nunez L.G.,Nephrology Institute Dr Abelardo Buch Lopez | Salgueiro S.R.,Greek National Center For Scientific Research | Iglesias A.F.,Nephrology Institute Dr Abelardo Buch Lopez | Santos E.S.,Cuban Neurosciences Center | And 5 more authors.
Acta Microscopica | Year: 2010

Ischemia/reperfusion injury is seen in renal surgery or transplantation. It is a major cause of acute renal failure. Since ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuates renal ischemia/reperfusion injury, morphology of tubular epithelial cells was investigated in order to prove that ozone oxidative postconditioning reduces renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Twenty adult Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, ischemia/reperfusion damaged (60 min of ischemia, with 10 days of reperfusion), and two groups of rats submitted to ischemia and postconditioned during reperfusion: one group with ozone (0.5 mg/kg body weight) and another one with oxygen (13 mg/kg body weight). Kidneys were fixed in buffered formalin, paraffin-embedded and stained with HE and PAS. Five variables were analyzed in renal proximal tubules in 10 fields per section, by means of a mathematical model designed for this study. Groups were compared taking into account the percentage of damaged proximal tubules per field for each variable by applying the statistical program Graph Pad Prism version 5.00 for Windows. Normal structure was observed in control group. Loss of brush border, discontinuity and denudation of tubular basement membrane, presence of peritubular inflammatory cells and cell necrosis was noticed in ischemia/reperfusion damaged group. Remarkable conservation of proximal tubules was observed in ozone- postconditioned. By contrast, in oxygen-postconditioned group, tubular morphology was similar to ischemia/reperfusion damaged group.

Bobes M.A.,Cuban Neurosciences Center | Lage Castellanos A.,Cuban Neurosciences Center | Quinones I.,Basque Center on Cognition | Garcia L.,Basque Center on Cognition | Valdes-Sosa M.,Cuban Neurosciences Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Different kinds of known faces activate brain areas to dissimilar degrees. However, the tuning to type of knowledge, and the temporal course of activation, of each area have not been well characterized. Here we measured, with functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain activity elicited by unfamiliar, visually familiar, and personally-familiar faces. We assessed response amplitude and duration using flexible hemodynamic response functions, as well as the tuning to face type, of regions within the face processing system. Core face processing areas (occipital and fusiform face areas) responded to all types of faces with only small differences in amplitude and duration. In contrast, most areas of the extended face processing system (medial orbito-frontal, anterior and posterior cingulate) had weak responses to unfamiliar and visually-familiar faces, but were highly tuned and exhibited prolonged responses to personally-familiar faces. This indicates that the neural processing of different types of familiar faces not only differs in degree, but is probably mediated by qualitatively distinct mechanisms. © 2013 Bobes et al.

Rodriguez-Rojas R.,International Center for Neurological Restoration | Rodriguez-Rojas R.,Abdus Salam International Center For Theoretical Physics | Rodriguez-Rojas R.,Cuban Neurosciences Center | Sanabria G.,Cuban Neurosciences Center | And 6 more authors.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2013

The topology of complex brain networks allows efficient dynamic interactions between spatially distinct regions. Neuroimaging studies have provided consistent evidence of dysfunctional connectivity among the cortical circuitry in Parkinson's disease; however, little is known about the topological properties of brain networks underlying these alterations. This paper introduces a methodology to explore aberrant changes in hierarchical patterns of nodal centrality through cortical networks, combining graph theoretical analysis and morphometric connectivity. The edges in graph were estimated by correlation analysis and thresholding between 148 nodes defined by cortical regions. Our findings demonstrated that the networks organization was disrupted in the patients with PD. We found a reconfiguration in hierarchical weighting of high degree hubs in structural networks associated with levels of cognitive decline, probably related to a system-wide compensatory mechanism. Simulated targeted attack on the network's nodes as measures of network resilience showed greater effects on information flow in advanced stages of disease. © Springer-Verlag 2013.

Leon K.,Cuban Neurosciences Center | Riveron A.M.,Cuban Neurosciences Center | Arencibia O.,Cuban Neurosciences Center | Santamaria Y.,Cuban Neurosciences Center | Lopez-Canovas L.,Cuban Neurosciences Center
Journal of Food Safety | Year: 2013

A rapid procedure for two-dimensional pulsed field minigel electrophoresis (2D-mini-PFGE) with high throughput sample format was standardized to separate chromosomal DNA molecules of yeast. Molecules separation in the first dimension (1D) was done in 4.5h using the contour-clamped homogeneous electric field minichamber. 1D-minigel was negatively stained with zinc-imidazole and the lanes containing the chromosomal bands were excised from the 1D-minigel. The strips were loaded into the second dimension (2D) minigel(s). 2D runs were performed in the single or multiple minigels of the transversal alternating field electrophoresis (TAFE) or multi-TAFE minichamber, respectively, for 7h. Total running time (1D+2D) was 11.5h. The 2D-mini-PFGE resolved co-migrating molecules in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1D-electrophoretic karyotypes and detected chromosome length polymorphisms in three distinct strains. Also, the multi-TAFE minichamber allowed obtaining up to 12 2D-DNA patterns simultaneously. This procedure could be suitable for monitoring of industrial yeast strains by molecular methods. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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