News Article | February 11, 2017
Researchers from the University of Colorado Boulder have developed a new material capable of cooling structures without water and energy consumption even if they are directly under sunlight. In a study published in the journal Science, Xiaobo Yin and colleagues described their work, saying the new material can be an eco-friendly cooling method for thermoelectric power plants that require massive amounts of water and electricity to meet ideal temperatures for operating machinery. According to the researchers, the metamaterial is applied as film on a surface, efficiently cooling the structure underneath by reflecting solar energy while letting the surface release its own heat at the same time as infrared thermal radiation. A hybrid of glass and polymer, the new material is only as thick as 50 micrometers, which makes it just a little thicker than aluminum foil. And because it is thin, it can also be manufactured into rolls, allowing economical but large-scale use in both commercial and residential structures. "We feel that this low-cost manufacturing process will be transformative for real-world applications of this radiative cooling technology," Yin said. The new material works by making the most of passive radiative cooling, which is the process by which an object sheds heat naturally as infrared radiation without using energy. Some level of natural cooling at night can be expected from thermal radiation and it is used in some areas to cool residential properties. Daytime cooling, however, is more challenging, what with the slightest amount of solar energy directly absorbed enough to render passive radiation ineffective. The researchers' challenge then was to come up with a material that does two things at the same time: reflect incoming energy from the sun and provide a way for infrared radiation to escape. To meet their goal, Yin and colleagues embedded glass microspheres that visibly scatter but radiate infrared light into polymer film. A thin coating of silver was then added underneath to deliver optimal spectral reflectance. According to Gang Tan, one of the study's authors, just 108 to 215 square feet of the new material on a rooftop can be effective in cooling down a single-family house during summer. Aside from cooling power plants and buildings, however, it can also be used to maximize the life span and efficiency of solar panels. Yin said applying the new material to solar panels can cool down panels and recover a percent or two of solar efficiency. Though they are designed to harness energy from the sun, solar panels can heat up, which reduces their solar energy-conversion ability. The researchers are also looking at agriculture and aerospace as potential areas of application. A patent application for the new material has been submitted and the researchers are working with the Technology Transfer Office at CU Boulder to explore possible commercial opportunities. This year, they are also planning on creating a prototype for a "cooling farm." The new material is the result of a 2015 grant awarded to Yin, Tan, and Ronggui Yang, also one of the study's authors, worth $3 million by the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy of the Department of Energy. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.
News Article | February 15, 2017
After 16 successful summers in Greeley, Colorado, US Sports Camps is pleased to announce that Nike Swim Camps for kids will be hosted at the University of Colorado Boulder this coming summer. Two sessions will be offered at the University of Colorado Swim Camp with overnight, extended day camp (9:00am-9:00pm) and day camp (9:00am-4:00pm) options available for ages 9-18. "Directing the Nike Swim Camp at CU Boulder will be Kelly McClanahan (Session I) and Brendon Bray (Session II)," said Swim National Director, Paul Merrion. "CU Boulder offers a beautiful campus with top-notch facilities that is a perfect location for camp." Located only 30 minutes outside Denver with an elevation of 5,430, competitive swimmers from Colorado and beyond can train and improve their strokes at the CU Recreation Center, a 25 yard x 8 lane pool located in the middle of campus. Designed for competitive swimmers to improve and refine their stroke technique, the Nike Swim Camp at the University of Colorado, Boulder will give athletes the mental, technical, and physical conditioning essential to maximize their swimming potential. "We have a great staff in place this summer," notes camp director Brendon Bray, "that will create a positive environment, provide campers with ongoing and constructive feedback with the hope that we can engage and inspire these young swimmers." For additional details or to register online, visit http://www.ussportscamps.com/swim or call 1-800-NIKE-CAMP. US Sports Camps (USSC), headquartered in San Rafael, California, is America's largest sports camp network and the licensed operator of NIKE Sports Camps. The company has offered summer camps since 1975 with the same mission that defines it today: to shape a lifelong enjoyment of athletics through high quality sports education and skill enhancement.
News Article | March 1, 2017
Scientific evidence that the assortment of gut microbes in humans influences different and critical aspects of health is piling up: Researchers think our microbes may influence obesity, anxiety, depression, autism, cancer and gastrointestinal diseases. A possible addition to the list: University of Colorado Boulder researchers recently reported preliminary evidence that changes in gut microbiota in mice contribute to poor artery health with aging. This condition is worsened by eating a "Western diet" high in fat and sugars and low in fiber. Artery dysfunction is the main reason our risk of developing cardiovascular diseases increases markedly as we age, said CU Boulder Professor Douglas Seals. The Seals lab also has preliminary results showing that regular aerobic exercise may prevent the negative effects of both aging and lifelong consumption of a Western diet on artery health in mice. Now, thanks to a four-year $3 million grant from the National Institutes of Health, Seals, postdoctoral fellow Vienna Brunt of the Department of Integrated Physiology and their team are deep-diving into the role of microbiota on arteries in both mice and humans. Their initial experiments show that treatment with a broad-spectrum antibiotic "cocktail" that eliminates much of the existing gut microbes reverses arterial dysfunction in old mice. The two types of arterial dysfunction that develop with aging and cause increased risk of cardiovascular disease are the stiffening of some large arteries, and damage to the inner lining of the arteries, said Seals. Both changes are driven by oxidative stress (the excessive production of damaging "reactive oxygen species") and chronic, low-grade vascular inflammation, which develops in our arteries as we age. "These two changes are conspiring partners that feed off each other, stimulating one another in a vicious cycle," said Seals. While the researchers don't yet know what causes oxidative stress and inflammation to develop with aging, recent work in Seal's lab suggests gut bacteria affected by aging may in turn change the types of chemicals, known as metabolites, that they produce. "We believe the altered chemicals produced by gut bacteria with aging move from inside the intestines through a 'leaky gut' wall - also caused by aging - and enter the bloodstream," said Brunt. "Then they circulate and interact with the walls of the arteries to cause oxidative stress, inflammation and arterial dysfunction." Part one of the new study will include mouse-to-mouse transplants in which gut microbiota will be transferred between mice differing in age, diet or exercise status to see if it induces changes in arterial function, said Brunt, who is overseeing day-to-day project operations. If successful, the study will provide important evidence that changes in the gut microbiome with aging are linked to increased cardiovascular risk, she said. The second part of the study will be a clinical trial in about 120 adults divided into four groups: younger, older, exercising and non-exercising. Participants will change between eating a healthy diet and a Western-style diet to induce changes in the gut microbiome while their arterial function is monitored. Part three of the study is to use a "humanized" mouse model in which stool samples containing gut microbiota from human subjects will be given to mice. The experiment will involve former CU Boulder Professor Rob Knight, now at the University of California San Diego, and will determine if characteristics present in human gut microbes with age, Western diet and exercise predictably influence arterial function. The expected results have the potential to establish the gut microbiome as a key mechanism and therapeutic target for age-related arterial dysfunction, said Seals. The study also should help the team identify lifestyle or pharmacological strategies that may preserve microbial health, enhance arterial function and reduce the risk of age-related cardiovascular disease. The team includes University of Michigan medical student Rachel Gioscia-Ryan, who conducted key preliminary experiments as part of her doctorate under Seals at CU Boulder. The study is funded by NIH's National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute.
News Article | February 15, 2017
Pain is a signal of actual or potential damage to the body, so it is natural to think of it as a localized sensation: knee pain in the knee, back pain in the back and so on. However, research has demonstrated that pain is an experience constructed in the brain. A knee doesn't "feel" anything. Instead, it sends signals to the brain. Input from the body is important, but a person's pain experience also depends on the brain's interpretation of what the input signal means. Scientists are just beginning to study these complex cerebral processes, and in a promising step forward, University of Colorado Boulder researchers have developed a functional MRI-based model that identifies brain activity patterns involved in varied pain experience, even when the input from the body is held constant. "Pain is more than just a passive response to stimuli. The brain actively contributes to pain, constructing it through various neural systems," said Choong-Wan Woo, lead author and a post-doctoral researcher in CU Boulder's Institute of Cognitive Science when the research was completed. "Thus, we wanted to build a brain-based model to predict pain using variables beyond the painful stimuli." For the study, researchers began by aggregating data from six independent brain imaging studies, deliberately choosing those with differing methodologies. In all of the studies, participants had been exposed to several seconds' worth of a painful stimulus and asked to rate their pain while inside an MRI scanner that recorded brain activity. From the data, the researchers were able to identify common markers in the brain that were predictive of a participant's different pain experiences when external stimuli are matched on intensity, resulting in fine-grained mapping of both positively correlated ("pro-pain") and negatively correlated ("anti-pain") brain sub-regions. Comprising part of the new model, those markers several brain regions that are not classically considered important for pain. However, the regions -- which include the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus -- are involved in the brain's assessment of the meaning of painful and non-painful events alike. The researchers named their telltale brain pattern the Stimulus Intensity Independent Pain Signature-1 (SIIPS1), a preliminary roadmap that can now be tested and refined in future studies. "We now have a model that can be applied to other basic and clinical pain research in the field," said Woo, who is now beginning an Assistant Professorship at Sungkyunkwan University in South Korea. "We deliberately added the number one to the name because we don't think this is the only brain signature related to pain and expect that more will be developed." The SIIPS1 may provide researchers with a new understanding of chronic pain and hypersensitivity to pain, potentially paving the way for the development of clinical applications and more effective treatments. "There is increasing evidence that chronic pain often involves changes in brain areas identified in our model," said Tor Wager, a professor in CU Boulder's Department of Psychology and Neuroscience and the study's senior author. "The SIIPS1 provides a template for systematic evaluation of how these areas are altered in chronic pain. We hope that it will improve our understanding of chronic pain and lead to the development of new options for preventing and treating this complex disease." The study was published today in the journal Nature Communications. In addition to Woo and Wager, co-authors of the new research include Liane Schmidt of Ecole Normale Supérieure (France); Anjali Krishnan of Brooklyn College of the City University of New York; Marieke Jepma of Leiden University (Netherlands); Mathieu Roy of McGill University (Canada); Martin Lindquist of Johns Hopkins University; and Lauren Atlas of the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health and the National Institute on Drug Abuse.
News Article | February 23, 2017
A potentially life-saving treatment for sepsis has been under our noses for decades in the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) most people have in their medicine cabinets, a new University of Colorado Boulder study suggests. Each year more than 1 million people in the United States contract sepsis, an overwhelming immune response to infection. It kills as many as half of those who contract it, sometimes within days, according to the National Institutes of Health. As the number of cases rises, particularly in intensive care units, pharmaceutical companies have been scrambling to develop a drug to combat the condition. "NSAIDS like ibuprofen and aspirin are among the most prevalent pharmaceuticals worldwide, with over 30 billion doses taken annually in the United States alone. But their precise mechanisms of action are not entirely understood," said Hang Hubert Yin, a biochemistry professor at CU Boulder's BioFrontiers Institute and lead author of the new paper, published today in Cell Chemical Biology. "We provide the first evidence for a novel mechanism of action for NSAIDS, one we believe could have a direct impact on people's lives." Researchers have long known that NSAIDs work in part by inhibiting an enzyme called cyclooxygenase (COX). They've also known that these NSAIDs can come with serious side effects. Some NSAIDs have been removed from the market after showing they boosted risk of heart attack and stroke. But Yin's research found that a subgroup of NSAIDs also act strongly and independently on another family of enzymes, caspases, which reside deep within the cell and have recently been found to play a key role in aggressive immune responses, like sepsis. "For instance, some chemicals derived from bacteria actually penetrate the cell and trigger the caspase response, prompting the cell to commit suicide. This also is known as apoptosis," said Yin. "Such activation, in turn, potentially causes inflammation." After the disappointing failure of late-stage clinical trials of anti-sepsis drugs targeting an immune receptor called toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), located on the surface of cells, Yin and other scientists began to wonder if the key to halting the disease was to develop an antiseptic therapy that simultaneously targets caspases. As a first step, his team screened 1,280 existing FDA-approved drugs for caspase-inhibiting activity. Of the 27 that lit up, half were NSAIDs. NSAIDs also comprised eight of the top 10 most potent caspase inhibitors. "It was a complete surprise," said Yin. He and study co-author Ding Xue, a professor in the department of Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology, then used biochemical and biophysical assays in the lab, as well as experiments with roundworms to test the theory further. "We showed that NSAIDs were effective in delaying cell death in worms, presumably by blocking caspase activity." It remains questionable whether existing NSAIDs, perhaps in higher doses, could be used to treat sepsis. The risk of side effects may be too great, said Yin. But he is already working on follow-up studies looking at whether new sepsis drugs could be developed combining caspase-inhibiting NSAIDS and TLR4 inhibitors. NSAIDs could also potentially be repurposed to address other conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis and neuro-degenerative diseases. "To think about the wide potential applications of these NSAID drugs is very exciting," Yin said. He hopes the research will also help scientists better understand why NSAIDs cause serious side effects like liver, kidney and cardiovascular problems, so they can develop safer next-generations versions. The National Institutes of Health funded the study.
News Article | February 15, 2017
The Colorado session of The Goalie School will run June 1-4 and will be held on the beautiful campus of the University of Colorado Boulder, located at the foot of the Rocky Mountains, just north of Denver. One session of boys and girls camp will have an overnight option with a commuter (Extended Day Camp 9:00 AM to 8:00 PM) option available. Directing the TGS Colorado camp this summer at CU Boulder is Bill Pilat. Coach Pilat states, "I have put together the most innovative curriculum for goalies wishing to improve their skills. Individual analysis, extensive videotaping of each goalie and new methods of teaching techniques and footwork are all elements of the Goalie School." He goes on to comment, "Campers from Utah, New Mexico, Wyoming, Nebraska and Kansas can now attend one of the best lacrosse camps in the country." This camp limits enrollment to ensure maximum teaching and playing for all Goalies. Players, Coaches, Parents and others interested in the 2017 Lacrosse Camps can visit http://www.ussportscamps.com/lacrosse or call 1-800-645-3226. US Sports Camps (USSC), headquartered in San Rafael, California, is America’s largest sports camp network and the licensed operator of Nike Sports Camps. Over 80,000 kids attended a US Sports Camps program in 2016. The company has offered summer camps since 1975 with the same mission that defines it today: to shape a lifelong enjoyment of athletics through high-quality sports education and skill enhancement.
News Article | February 28, 2017
A team of engineers at the University of Colorado Boulder (CU Boulder) has developed a scalable manufactured metamaterial – an engineered material with extraordinary properties not found in nature – to act as a kind of air conditioning system for structures. It has the ability to cool objects even under direct sunlight with zero energy or water consumption. When applied to a surface, the metamaterial film cools the object underneath by efficiently reflecting incoming solar energy back into space while simultaneously allowing the surface to shed its own heat in the form of infrared thermal radiation. This new material, which is described in a paper in Science, could provide an eco-friendly form of supplementary cooling for thermoelectric power plants, which currently require large amounts of water and electricity to maintain the operating temperatures of their machinery. The material is a glass-polymer hybrid that measures just 50µm thick – slightly thicker than the aluminum foil found in a kitchen – and can be manufactured economically on rolls, making it a potentially viable large-scale technology for both residential and commercial applications. "We feel that this low-cost manufacturing process will be transformative for real-world applications of this radiative cooling technology," said Xiaobo Yin, co-director of the research and an assistant professor who holds dual appointments in CU Boulder's Department of Mechanical Engineering and the Materials Science and Engineering Program. The material takes advantage of passive radiative cooling, the process by which objects naturally shed heat in the form of infrared radiation without consuming energy. Passive radiation provides some natural night time cooling and is used for residential cooling in some areas, but daytime cooling has historically been more of a challenge. Even a small amount of directly-absorbed solar energy is enough to negate passive radiation. The challenge for the CU Boulder researchers, then, was to create a material that could provide a one-two punch: reflect any incoming solar rays back into the atmosphere while still providing a means of escape for infrared radiation. To solve this, the researchers embedded visibly-scattering but infrared-radiant glass microspheres into a polymer film. They then added a thin silver coating underneath the film to achieve maximum spectral reflectance. "Both the glass-polymer metamaterial formation and the silver coating are manufactured at scale on roll-to-roll processes," said Ronggui Yang, also a professor of mechanical engineering at CU Boulder. During field tests in Boulder and Cave Creek, Arizona, the metamaterial successfully displayed an average radiative cooling power larger than 110W/m2 for a continuous period of 72 hours and larger than 90W/m2 in direct, noon-time sunlight. That cooling power is roughly equivalent to the electricity generated by solar cells over a similar area, but radiative cooling has the advantage that it occurs both day and night. "Just 10–20m2 of this material on the rooftop could nicely cool down a single-family house in summer," said Gang Tan, an associate professor in the University of Wyoming's Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering and a co-author of the paper. In addition to being useful for cooling buildings and power plants, the material could also help to improve the efficiency and lifetime of solar panels. In direct sunlight, panels can heat up to temperatures that hamper their ability to convert solar rays into electricity. "Just by applying this material to the surface of a solar panel, we can cool the panel and recover an additional one to two percent of solar efficiency," said Yin. "That makes a big difference at scale." The engineers have applied for a patent on the technology and are working with CU Boulder's Technology Transfer Office to explore potential commercial applications. They plan to create a 200m2 ‘cooling farm’ prototype in Boulder later this year. "The key advantage of this technology is that it works 24/7 with no electricity or water usage," explained Yang "We're excited about the opportunity to explore potential uses in the power industry, aerospace, agriculture and more." This story is adapted from material from the University of Colorado Boulder, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier. Link to original source.
News Article | February 28, 2017
Humans have dramatically increased the spatial and seasonal extent of wildfires across the U.S. in recent decades and ignited more than 840,000 blazes in the spring, fall and winter seasons over a 21-year period, according to new research. After analyzing two decades' worth of U.S. government agency wildfire records spanning 1992 to 2012, the researchers found that human-ignited wildfires accounted for 84 percent of all wildfires, tripling the length of the average fire season and accounting for nearly half of the total acreage burned. The findings were published today in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. "There cannot be a fire without a spark," said Jennifer Balch, director of CU Boulder's Earth Lab and an assistant professor in the Department of Geography and lead author of the new study. "Our results highlight the importance of considering where the ignitions that start wildfires come from, instead of focusing only on the fuel that carries fire or the weather that helps it spread. Thanks to people, the wildfire season is almost year-round." The U.S. has experienced some of its largest wildfires on record over the past decade, especially in the western half of the country. The duration and intensity of future wildfire seasons is a point of national concern given the potentially severe impact on agriculture, ecosystems, recreation and other economic sectors, as well as the high cost of extinguishing blazes. The annual cost of fighting wildfires in the U.S. has exceeded $2 billion in recent years. The CU Boulder researchers used the U.S. Forest Service Fire Program Analysis-Fire Occurrence Database to study records of all wildfires that required a response from a state or federal agency between 1992 and 2012, omitting intentionally set prescribed burns and managed agricultural fires. Human-ignited wildfires accounted for 84 percent of 1.5 million total wildfires studied, with lightning-ignited fires accounting for the rest. In Colorado, 30 percent of wildfires from 1992 to 2012 were started by people, burning over 1.2 million acres. The fire season length for human-started fires was 50 days longer than the lightning-started fire season (93 days compared to 43 days), a twofold increase. "These findings do not discount the ongoing role of climate change, but instead suggest we should be most concerned about where it overlaps with human impact," said Balch. "Climate change is making our fields, forests and grasslands drier and hotter for longer periods, creating a greater window of opportunity for human-related ignitions to start wildfires." While lightning-driven fires tend to be heavily concentrated in the summer months, human-ignited fires were found to be more evenly distributed across all seasons. Overall, humans added an average of 40,000 wildfires during the spring, fall and winter seasons annually—over 35 times the number of lightning-started fires in those seasons. "We saw significant increases in the numbers of large, human-started fires over time, especially in the spring," said Bethany Bradley, an associate professor at University of Massachusetts Amherst and co-lead author of the research. "I think that's interesting, and scary, because it suggests that as spring seasons get warmer and earlier due to climate change, human ignitions are putting us at increasing risk of some of the largest, most damaging wildfires." "Not all fire is bad, but humans are intentionally and unintentionally adding ignitions to the landscape in areas and seasons when natural ignitions are sparse," said John Abatzoglou, an associate professor of geography at the University of Idaho and a co-author of the paper. "We can't easily control how dry fuels get, or lightning, but we do have some control over human started ignitions." The most common day for human-started fire by far, however, was July 4, with 7,762 total wildfires started on that day over the course of the 21-year period. The new findings have wide-ranging implications for fire management policy and suggest that human behavior can have dramatic impact on wildfire totals, for good or for ill. "The hopeful news here is that we could, in theory, reduce human-started wildfires in the medium term," said Balch. "But at the same time, we also need to focus on living more sustainably with fire by shifting the human contribution to ignitions to more controlled, well-managed burns."
News Article | February 15, 2017
A new report from the Center on Reinventing Public Education states its goals as strengthening the evidence base on state-initiated turnarounds and providing guidance to help states use turnaround strategies more effectively. But given multiple methodological limitations, the report fails to elevate either the research base or the policy discourse. Betty Malen and Jennifer King Rice, professors at the University of Maryland, reviewed Measures of Last Resort: Assessing Strategies for State-Initiated Turnarounds for the Think Twice Think Tank Review Project at the National Education Policy Center, housed at CU Boulder’s School of Education. The report draws on multiple sources of information to accomplish three related goals: (a) to develop a conceptual framework and profile of state-initiated turnaround strategies, (b) to array the evidence on the effectiveness of turnaround initiatives, and (c) to identify key elements of a successful turnaround strategy. But the report suffers from methodological limitations that severely undermine its usefulness. Specifically, the methods used to carry out the original research are neither well-described nor justified. This unexplained research involved analysis of state policies, interviews with stakeholders, and illustrative cases. Likewise, the methods employed in the eight evaluations selected to assess the effectiveness of turnaround approaches are not described, and the evidence base produced by these evaluations is insufficient to support the sweeping claims made in the report. Equally important, explain Professors Malen and Rice, the report neglects to consider relevant research on the specific mechanisms (e.g., school reconstitution, intensive professional development, and private management systems) that states use when they employ the broad turnaround strategies discussed in the report. As a result of these problems, the report neither enhances the evidence base nor provides the substantive guidance state policymakers require to make informed decisions about the use of various school turnaround strategies. Find Measures of Last Resort: Assessing Strategies for State-Initiated Turnarounds, by Ashley Jochim, published by the Center for Reinventing Public Education, at: https://crpe.org/sites/default/files/crpe-measures-last-resort.pdf The National Education Policy Center (NEPC) Think Twice Think Tank Review Project (http://thinktankreview.org) provides the public, policymakers, and the press with timely, academically sound reviews of selected publications. The project is made possible in part by support provided by the Great Lakes Center for Education Research and Practice: http://www.greatlakescenter.org The National Education Policy Center (NEPC), housed at the University of Colorado Boulder School of Education, produces and disseminates high-quality, peer-reviewed research to inform education policy discussions. Visit us at: http://nepc.colorado.edu
News Article | February 21, 2017
In response to pressure from the Obama administration, many states adopted policies linking teacher evaluations to student performance on standardized tests and other measured outcomes. However, the newly enacted Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) seems to mark a federal deprioritization of teacher evaluation reform. A new report from Bellwether Education Partners seeks to influence states’ decisions about possible revisions to teacher evaluation policies, but its conclusions are often underdeveloped or unsubstantiated. Amy Farley, an Assistant Professor at the University of Cincinnati, reviewed For Good Measure? Teacher Evaluation Policy in the ESSA Era for the Think Twice Think Tank Review Project at the National Education Policy Center, housed at CU Boulder’s School of Education. The report argues for the maintenance of key elements of high-stakes teacher evaluation, including the heavy focus on accountability and the use of student outcomes to evaluate teachers. It also urges policymakers to invest in management, capacity, and strategies to capture lessons learned. While the report raises several good questions with regard to the future of teacher evaluation, it has three key flaws: it overstates the likelihood that ESSA will result in widespread changes to evaluation systems, it ignores the literature regarding substantial technical challenges and unintended consequences of growth measures, and it dismisses the ideological and political debates surrounding teacher accountability. Professor Farley concludes that the report offers “little fresh or worthwhile” guidance for policymakers. The unsubstantiated claims and dogged defense of student growth metrics poorly serve policymakers seeking a nuanced and research-based discussion of teacher evaluation reform in the ESSA era. Find For Good Measure? Teacher Evaluation Policy in the ESSA Era, by Kaitlin Pennington and Sara Mead, published by Bellwether Education Partners, at: http://bellwethereducation.org/sites/default/files/Bellwether_ForGoodMeasure-GPLH_Final1216%20%281%29.pdf The National Education Policy Center (NEPC) Think Twice Think Tank Review Project (http://thinktankreview.org) provides the public, policymakers, and the press with timely, academically sound reviews of selected publications. The project is made possible in part by support provided by the Great Lakes Center for Education Research and Practice: http://www.greatlakescenter.org The National Education Policy Center (NEPC), housed at the University of Colorado Boulder School of Education, produces and disseminates high-quality, peer-reviewed research to inform education policy discussions. Visit us at: http://nepc.colorado.edu