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Klein M.,Vectron International GmbH | Wall B.,Vectron International GmbH | Gruenwald R.,Vectron International GmbH | Bruckner G.,CTR Carinthian Technology Research | Ueki K.,KYOCERA Fineceramics GmbH
Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference | Year: 2015

This paper describes the development process and reliability testing results of a high-temperature stable, hermetically sealed ceramic package. The assembly of a passive, wireless 600°C temperature sensor in Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology, that does not require any cables or power supply, is demonstrated. The sensor is developed for applications supporting enhanced equipment safety and process control. The device comprises a langasite (La3Ga5SiO14) piezo-electric chip equipped with high-temperature stable metal layers, deposited and structured using common photolithography techniques. The chip is then flip-chip bonded into the high-temperature stable ceramic package. To reduce the enormous mechanical stress caused by the different coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) of chip and package, various design- and process-related approaches were implemented. Finally, a technology was developed to hermetically seal the package in a high-temperature process. © 2015 IEEE.

Velik R.,CTR Carinthian Technology Research | Nicolay P.,CTR Carinthian Technology Research
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2014

Via the integration of renewable energy and storage technologies, buildings have started to change from passive (electricity) consumers to active prosumer microgrids. Along with this development come a shift from centralized to distributed production and consumption models as well as discussions about the introduction of variable demand-supply-driven grid electricity prices. Together with upcoming ICT and automation technologies, these developments open space to a wide range of novel energy management and energy trading possibilities to optimally use available energy resources. However, what is considered as an optimal energy management and trading strategy heavily depends on the individual objectives and needs of a microgrid operator. Accordingly, elaborating the most suitable strategy for each particular system configuration and operator need can become quite a complex and time-consuming task, which can massively benefit from computational support. In this article, we introduce a bio-inspired cognitive decision agent architecture for optimized, goal-specific energy management in (interconnected) microgrids, which are additionally connected to the main electricity grid. For evaluating the performance of the architecture, a number of test cases are specified targeting objectives like local photovoltaic energy consumption maximization and financial gain maximization. Obtained outcomes are compared against a modified simulating annealing optimization approach in terms of objective achievement and computational effort. Results demonstrate that the cognitive decision agent architecture yields improved optimization results in comparison to the state of the art reference method while at the same time requiring significantly less computation time. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Arnold T.,CTR Carinthian Technology Research | De Biasio M.,CTR Carinthian Technology Research | McGunnigle G.,CTR Carinthian Technology Research | Leitner R.,CTR Carinthian Technology Research
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE | Year: 2010

Spectral imaging is the combination of spectroscopy and imaging. These fields are well developed and are used intensively in many application fields including industry and the life sciences. The classical approach to acquire hyper-spectral data is to sequentially scan a sample in space or wavelength. These acquisition methods are time consuming because only two spatial dimensions, or one spatial and the spectral dimension, can be acquired simultaneously. With a computed tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS) it is possible to acquire two spatial dimensions and a spectral dimension during a single integration time, without scanning either spatial or spectral dimensions. This makes it possible to acquire dynamic image scenes without spatial registration of the hyperspectral data. This is advantageous compared to tunable filter based systems which need sophisticated image registration techniques. While tunable filters provide full spatial and spectral resolution, for CTIS systems there is always a tradeoff between spatial and spectral resolution as the spatial and spectral information corresponding to an image cube is squeezed onto a 2D image. The presented CTIS system uses a spectral-dispersion element to project the spectral and spatial image information onto a 2D CCD camera array. The system presented in this paper is designed for a microscopy application for the analysis of fixed specimens in pathology and cytogenetics, cell imaging and material analysis. However, the CTIS approach is not limited to microscopy applications, thus it would be possible to implement it in a hand-held device for e.g. real-time, intra-surgery tissue classification. © 2010 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.

Ortner M.,CTR Carinthian Technology Research | Ribeiro M.,CTR Carinthian Technology Research | Seger M.,CTR Carinthian Technology Research | Satz A.,Infineon Technologies
Proceedings - International Conference on Industrial Automation, Information and Communications Technology, IAICT 2014 | Year: 2014

Wheel speed sensors are commonly used in automotive applications where knowledge of the precise rotational velocity of the wheels is required to determine the vehicle speed or to obtain subtle information about tire pressure, road conditions or to steer modern driver assistance systems like the Electronic Stability Program. The conventional back-bias speed sensor solution requires the design of a proper target wheel that gives an optimal signal for specific, respective applications and magnetic sensors. In this work, typical geometric and material parameters of the cogwheel are identified and their influences on the speed signal are analyzed in detail. Data is acquired by finite element simulations that give an excellent understanding of how the speed signal behaves with a variation of the critical model parameters. The performed studies aim to provide guidelines for cogwheel manufacturers and for system engineers on how such wheels can be optimized for diverse applications. © 2014 IEEE.

Velik R.,CTR Carinthian Technology Research | Nicolay P.,CTR Carinthian Technology Research
Computers and Operations Research | Year: 2016

This article introduces a modified simulated annealing optimization approach for automatically determining optimal energy management strategies in grid-connected, storage-augmented, photovoltaics-supplied prosumer buildings and neighborhoods based on user-specific goals. For evaluating the modified simulated annealing optimizer, a number of test scenarios in the field of energy self-consumption maximization are defined and results are compared to a gradient descent and a total state space search approach. The benchmarking against these two reference methods demonstrates that the modified simulated annealing approach is able to find significantly better solutions than the gradient descent algorithm - being equal or very close to the global optimum - with significantly less computational effort and processing time than the total state space search approach. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Trapp M.,Medical University of Graz | Trapp E.-M.,Medical University of Graz | Egger J.W.,Medical University of Graz | Domej W.,Medical University of Graz | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Objective: Hypobaric hypoxia, physical and psychosocial stress may influence key cardiovascular parameters including blood pressure (BP) and pulse pressure (PP). We investigated the effects of mild hypobaric hypoxia exposure on BP and PP reactivity to mental and physical stress and to passive elevation by cable car. Methods: 36 healthy volunteers participated in a defined test procedure consisting of a period of rest 1, mental stress task (KLT-R), period of rest 2, combined mental (KLT-R) and physical task (bicycle ergometry) and a last period of rest both at Graz, Austria (353 m asl) and at the top station Dachstein (2700 m asl). Beat-to-beat heart rate and BP were analysed both during the test procedures at Graz and at Dachstein and during passive 1000 m elevation by cable car (from 1702 m to 2700 m). Results: A significant interaction of kind of stress (mental vs. combined mental and physical) and study location (Graz vs. Dachstein) was found in the systolic BP (p = .007) and PP (p = .002) changes indicating that during the combined mental and physical stress task sBP was significantly higher under hypoxic conditions whereas sBP and PP were similar during mental stress both under normobaric normoxia (Graz) and under hypobaric hypoxia (Dachstein). During the passive ascent in cable car less trivialization (psychological coping strategy) was associated with an increase in PP (p = .004). Conclusion: Our data show that combined mental and physical stress causes a significant higher raise in sBP and PP under hypoxic conditions whereas isolated mental stress did not affect sBP and PP under hypoxic conditions. PP-reaction to ascent in healthy subjects is not uniform. BP reactions to ascent that represents an accumulation of physical (mild hypobaric hypoxia) and psychological stressors depend on predetermined psychological traits (stress coping strategies). Thus divergent cardiovascular reactions can be explained by applying the multidimensional aspects of the biopsychosocial concept. © 2014 Trapp et al.

Velik R.,CTR Carinthian Technology Research
International Journal of Renewable Energy Research | Year: 2014

Increasing local photovoltaics (PV) utilization can reduce energy transportation losses and mitigate overvoltages and transformer overloadings. Strategies so far investigated and applied for this purpose are load shifting, the use of electricity storages, and the installation of east-west instead of south-oriented PV systems. In this article, we investigate and analyze the potential of a novel concept for the purpose of local PV consumption maximization based on neighbourhood energy exchange in combination with different cardinal directions of PV systems installed on buildings within a neighbourhood. Results demonstrate that this novel concept can lead to significantly increased local PV consumption rates in relation to today's default configurations without considerable extra costs or control efforts.

Chernev B.S.,University of Graz | Hirschl C.,CTR Carinthian Technology Research | Eder G.C.,OFI Austrian Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology
Applied Spectroscopy | Year: 2013

Vibrational spectroscopy was found to be a suitable method for the determination of the degree of cross-linking of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) polymers. Spectral changes in the Raman spectra of EVA with increasing lamination time (which equals increasing degree of crosslinking) were mainly detected in the CH vibrational regions, namely, in the relative intensities of the characteristic CH3 and CH2 bands. These spectral regions were chosen for a chemometric evaluation where a calibration was performed with the Raman spectra of reference EVA samples and the results obtained from corresponding thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry) and Soxhlet extraction data. These datasets were subsequently used to non-destructively determine the progress of cross-linking in EVA foils, embedded in various mini-modules by Raman microscopy. Thus, we could show that Raman spectroscopy is a highly interesting method for quality control in the production of photovoltaic (PV) modules. However, this approach is valid only for a given grade of EVA, meaning a demand for a new calibration when changing the supplier or the type of EVA used. In addition, the applicability of infrared spectroscopy for the determination of the degree of cross-linking was tested. A good correlation of the decrease in intensity of the characteristic cross-linker infrared bands with increasing progress of the cross-linking was found, as determined by reference methods. However, this analytical method requires taking samples of the EVA foils and is, thus, unsuitable for the non-destructive determination of the degree of cross-linking of the EVA encapsulated within a PV module. © 2013 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.

Velik R.,CTR Carinthian Technology Research | Nicolay P.,CTR Carinthian Technology Research
Applied Energy | Year: 2014

This article introduces a modified simulated annealing triple-optimizer for finding the optimal energy management strategy in terms of financial gain maximization in grid-connected, storage-augmented, photovoltaics-supplied prosumer building microgrids in a variable grid price scenario. For evaluating the performance of the optimizer, a number of test cases are specified offering different trading options to the prosumers. Obtained results are compared to a total state space search reference method and demonstrate that the simulated annealing approach was for all test cases able to find a globally optimal or close to optimal solution in significantly less computation time than the total space search reference method. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Ribeiro M.,CTR Carinthian Technology Research | Ortner M.,CTR Carinthian Technology Research | Seger M.,CTR Carinthian Technology Research
Proceedings - International Conference on Industrial Automation, Information and Communications Technology, IAICT 2014 | Year: 2014

Magnetic systems provide powerful tools for contact free motion detection. Such systems are very robust, being capable of operating in harsh environments, e.g. in the presence of dirt and at high temperature, and have life-times of up to decades. Another advantage is that quasi-static applications, typical for the detection of mechanical motion, enable the measurement of magnetic fields from outside of a closed system, as the magnetic fields easily penetrate solid non-magnetic materials. On the other hand, the fast decay of the magnetic field of a magnet is a known characteristic and normally a limiting factor regarding distance between magnet and sensor. To overcome this issue, a device constructed of a highly permeable material is proposed, aiming to focus the magnetic field at a sensing point, hence named 'field focuser'. Similar concepts of magnetic field focusers have been proposed and are available in various geometrical designs [1, 2, 3]. Currently, there are several realizations of magnet-magnetic sensor systems where the motion of the magnet is detected by the change in field amplitude at the sensor. These systems include linear motion detection, axis rotation detection, complex composed motion detection and many others, which lead to a large range of industrial applications, especially in the automotive branch [4, 5]. This work aims to extend the knowledge on magnetic systems and help developers to understand limits and advantages of such setups. © 2014 IEEE.

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