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Saint-Pierre-du-Chemin, France

Hennion B.,CTIFL
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

The French chestnut industry has strongly declined since the end of the 19th century. First the rural exodus, then the many problems that have affected production (chestnut blight, ink disease) ended up discouraging the growers. Nevertheless, production was perpetuated in the main traditional growing areas, where it is recognised today as an integral part of regional identity. It has also extended to new zones more favourable to the establishment of modern orchards. Research and experimentation programmes, driven in France by INRA, Ctifl and Regional Organisations for Experimentation (CIREA, SEFRA, ULRAC) tried to bring answers to technical problems, especially through the creation of new varieties and rootstocks. The search for resistance to pests and diseases through interspecific crossings with C. crenata or C. mollissima led to the creation of hybrid rootstocks and varieties widely distributed worldwide: 'Marigoule', 'Bouche de Bétizac', 'Marsol', 'Maraval'. Trials with new orchards using those new varieties were not always successful, because it is a mistake to think that chestnut is a hardy fruit species. It is a delicate tree that requires a lot of attention. Growers in SE France and Corsica opted for a production based on a renovated traditional orchard. However, they remain confronted with serious problems linked to the extension of the ink disease, and are asking for the development of a research programme aimed to create a C. sativa rootstock resistant to this disease. In SW France on the other hand, growers opted for planting new orchards with the 'Marigoule' and 'Bouche de Bétizac' varieties. 'Marigoule' does not always generate enough yield and has a medium gustatory quality, but 'Bouche de Bétizac' grafted on 'Marsol' seems to prefigure the future of French chestnut orchards.

Bosc J.P.,Technical Institute for Fruits and Vegetables | Neri D.,Marche Polytechnic University | Massetani F.,Marche Polytechnic University | Bardet A.,CTIFL
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

This research was carried out to assess the relationship between the architecture of strawberry plants before chilling and winter-spring fruit production in a soilless forced culture system. On 11 September 2008, trayplants of the cultivar 'Gariguette' were placed in a heated glasshouse and either exposed to long-day photoperiodic conditions or short-day photoperiodic conditions for 53 days. In addition, plants were held 26 days under short-day photoperiodic conditions followed by 27 days of long-day photoperiodic conditions or 26 days under long-day photoperiodic conditions followed by 27 days of short-day photoperiodic conditions. The plant architecture was determined and represented by graphic models. Plant dissection during the first harvest period showed that only the inflorescences located in the upper part of the terminal bud before chilling were able to develop and produce fruits. None of the inflorescences at an early developmental stage on the lower branches evolved to fruits. Architecture prior to chilling gave indications about the first fruit production period in winter-spring (1 March to 30 April 2009). The earliest short-day photoperiodic condition treatments produced the earliest fruits. These treatments exhibited the most developed inflorescences in the pre-chilling architectural analysis and the fewer nodes between the youngest expanded leaf and the terminal inflorescence. Most of these plants already showed in November at least one of the two branches in terminal position that bore inflorescences in February. The plants that received 53 days of long-day photoperiodic conditions treatment had the least developed terminal inflorescence before chilling and the latest production. The architecture analysis of 'Gariguette' trayplants could predict the earliness rank (first to last) but not the yield rank during the first harvest period.

Brajeul E.,CTIFL | Beausse T.,GDF SUEZ
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The total glasshouse area for vegetables in France is about 1600 ha, mainly for tomato and cucumber crops. Glasshouse heating is the second operating cost after the labor cost and can reach 20 to 40% of the overall cost. As a consequence, energy is a major concern for growers, especially with the fuel price increase. Thus, energy consumption optimization is becoming crucial, in order to make energy savings while maintaining potential yields. To evaluate the impact of energy saving strategies on energy consumptions and CO2 rate in glasshouse by comparison and simulation, heat and mass equations were calibrated with data gathered at the Ctifl center of Carquefou (Nantes). Heat exchange predictive calculations take into account gains and losses by day and night radiation, heating supply, air exchange (enthalpy variation), plant transpiration, wall and soil exchanges. CO2 rate predictive calculations take into account CO2 mass supply, exchange through the vents and consumption by plants. The model validation was made at the scale of the total glasshouse area, with energy and CO2 rate measurements in different conditions, by taking into account different management strategies.

Gine Bordonaba J.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Matthieu-Hurtiger V.,CTIFL | Westercamp P.,CTIFL CEFEL | Coureau C.,Station la Moriniere | And 2 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

In order to predict scald disorders in 'Granny Smith' apples, fruit were harvested from three different orchards and stored in controlled storage regimes of 2.5kPa O2/2.5kPa CO2 (CA) and 0.7kPa O2/0.5kPa CO2 (Ultra low oxygen; ULO) or in air after treatment with 1-MCP. Relationships between different oxidative markers (hydrogen peroxide, antioxidant potential, malondialdehyde), compounds related to α-farnesene metabolism (α-farnesene, conjugated trienols (CTols) including CTol258 and CTol281) and scald incidence were established. Our results showed that neither changes in fruit antioxidant potential, malondialdehyde nor the generation of hydrogen peroxide during storage were associated to scald and hence were not able to predict scald incidence. The ratio between conjugated trienols (CTol258/CTol281) failed to predict scald susceptibility on a short- or mid-term basis. In contrast, a novel and accurate model based on CTols accumulation dynamics (dCTols/dt) during early stages of storage (<50 days) is proposed. After validation of the model, a threshold value of δCTols/δt≥5.5 is defined to predict scald occurrence in 'Granny Smith' apples. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Konopacka D.,Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture | Jesionkowska K.,Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture | Kruczynska D.,Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture | Stehr R.,JORK | And 16 more authors.
Appetite | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to gain information concerning apple and peach consumption frequency within different European countries in relation to age and gender. The survey was a part of a complex experiment with the aim of evaluating consumers' preferences towards new varieties, and the data is based on the self-reported declarations of respondents, male and female, between 15 and 70 years old. 4271 consumers from 7 European countries were invited to supply information about their apple consumption habits, whereas 499 respondents from 5 countries answered questions relating to frequency of peach and nectarine consumption. In both, the apple and the peach surveys, data analysis of declared intake showed significant differences between nationalities. The highest apple consumption was in Poland, where over 55% declared a consumption of more than 5 apples per week. In comparison, Italian consumers most often indicated eating 3-5 apples per week (39.3%). The lowest apple consumption was in the Netherlands and Spain. In the case of peaches, the highest consumption was indicated in France where 48% of respondents declared a peach consumption of 3-5 per week with 40% eating more than 5 fruits per week. The lowest peach intake was declared in Germany. Irrespective of country women were shown to eat more apples that men. Furthermore, the group of older people (61-70 years) consume apples more often than the adult group (36-60), while within the youngest group of consumers (16-35) eating apples was not at all popular. As with apples females declared a higher peach consumption, and again significantly lower fruit consumption by the youngest group (16-35) was indicated. Although the availability of fruit at the market remains a prime factor in determining apple and peach consumption, our survey confirmed the trends of declining this popular fruit intake by the younger generation, as well as the persistent tendency of lower frequency of fruit consumption among men than women. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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