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Jin F.,Gilead Sciences Inc. | Robeson M.,Gilead Sciences Inc. | Zhou H.,CTI BioPharma | Hisoire G.,Gilead Sciences Inc. | Ramanathan S.,Gilead Sciences Inc.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Purpose: Idelalisib is a novel, potent inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ), which is prominently expressed in cells of hematopoietic origin. Renal excretion plays a minor role in elimination of idelalisib in humans (~15 % of the dose is excreted in urine). This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of idelalisib and GS-563117 (its inactive primary metabolite) in subjects with severe renal impairment and healthy subjects. Methods: Subjects with severe renal impairment were matched in age, sex, and body mass index with healthy subjects who had normal renal function. Each subject received a single oral dose of idelalisib at 150 mg, and safety assessments and PK analyses were performed. Results: Compared with healthy subjects, the geometric least-squares mean ratio of area under the concentration-time curve from zero to last PK observation (AUClast), area under the concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUCinf), and maximum observed plasma concentration (C max) were 127, 127, and 105 % for idelalisib and 124, 124, and 96 % for GS-563117, respectively, in subjects with severe renal impairment. Conclusions: There were no clinically relevant changes of idelalisib or GS-563117 PK in subjects with severe renal impairment versus matched healthy controls. No relevant relationships were identified between idelalisib or GS-563117 exposures and baseline creatinine clearance. Idelalisib dosing was generally well tolerated with most treatment-emergent adverse events and laboratory abnormalities assessed as grade 1 or 2 in severity. Accordingly, dose adjustments for idelalisib are not necessary in subjects with mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Jin F.,Gilead Sciences Inc. | Gao Y.,Quantitative Solutions LP | Zhou H.,CTI BioPharma | Fang L.,Onyx Pharmaceuticals | And 2 more authors.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology | Year: 2016

Purpose: Idelalisib is a potent PI3Kδ inhibitor that was recently approved for treating hematologic malignancies. The objective of this analysis was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for idelalisib and its inactive metabolite GS-563117 and to evaluate the impact of covariates on idelalisib/GS-563117 PK. Methods: Data from 10 phase I or II studies in healthy volunteers or patients with hematologic malignancies (n = 736) were analyzed using NONMEM. Stepwise forward addition followed by backward elimination was implemented in the covariate (age, gender, race, body weight, baseline CLcr, AST, ALT, disease status, and type of cancer) model building process. Various model assessment methods were used to evaluate the models. Results: Idelalisib plasma PK was best described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption, first-order elimination from the central compartment, and a lag time. A nonlinear relationship between dose and relative bioavailability was included in the final model. Two statistically significant covariates were identified and incorporated into the final model: health status (healthy vs. patient) on CL/F and Q/F and body weight on CL/F. Despite being a statistically significant covariate, the effect of body weight on idelalisib exposures was weak, as evidenced by minor changes of steady-state exposure (C trough: 16 %; AUC and C max: 10 %) for a patient with extreme body weight (5th and 95th percentile) relative to the typical patient, and not considered to be clinically relevant. Conclusions: PopPK models were developed to adequately describe the plasma concentrations of idelalisib and GS-563117. There were no covariate that had a clinically meaningful impact on idelalisib or GS-563117 exposure. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Muszbek N.,Evidera | Kadambi A.,Evidera | Lanitis T.,Evidera | Hatswell A.J.,BresMed Health Solutions | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Therapeutics | Year: 2016

Purpose Aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (aNHL) is associated with poor long-term survival after relapse, and treatment is limited by a lack of consensus regarding standard of care. Pixantrone was studied in a randomized trial in patients with relapsed or refractory aNHL who had failed ≥2 lines of therapy, demonstrating a significant improvement in complete or unconfirmed complete response and progression-free survival (PFS) compared with investigators' choice of single-agent therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the health economic implications of pixantrone versus current clinical practice (CCP) in the United Kingdom for patients with multiply relapsed or refractory aNHL receiving their third or fourth line of treatment. Methods A semi-Markov partition model based on overall survival and PFS was developed to evaluate the lifetime clinical and economic impact of treatment of multiply relapsed or refractory aNHL with pixantrone versus CCP. The empirical overall survival and PFS data from the PIX301 trial were extrapolated to a lifetime horizon. Resource use was elicited from clinical experts, and unit costs and utilities were obtained from published sources. The analysis was conducted from the perspective of the United Kingdom's National Health Service and personal social services. Outcomes evaluated were total costs, life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and cost per QALY gained. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess uncertainty around the results. Findings Pixantrone was estimated to increase life expectancy by a mean of 10.8 months per patient compared with CCP and a mean gain of 0.56 discounted QALYs. The increased health gains were associated with an increase in discounted costs of approximately £18,494 per patient. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of pixantrone versus CCP was £33,272 per QALY gained. Sensitivity and scenario analyses suggest that the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was sensitive to uncertainty in the PFS and overall survival estimates and the utility values associated with each health state. Implications Pixantrone may be considered both clinically effective and cost-effective for patients with multiply relapsed or refractory aNHL who currently have a high level of unmet need. © 2016 The Authors. Source

Komrokji R.S.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute | Seymour J.F.,Peter llum Cancer Center | Seymour J.F.,University of Melbourne | Roberts A.W.,University of Melbourne | And 11 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2015

Pacritinib (SB1518) is a Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), JAK2(V617F), and Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 inhibitor that does not inhibit JAK1. It demonstrated a favorable safety profile with promising efficacy in phase 1 studies in patients with primary and secondary myelofibrosis (MF). This multicenter phase 2 study further characterized the safety and efficacy of pacritinib in the treatment of patients with MF. Eligible patients had clinical splenomegaly poorly controlled with standard therapies or were newly diagnosed with intermediate- or high-risk Lille score. Patients with any degree of cytopenia were eligible. Thirty-five patients were enrolled. At entry, 40% had hemoglobin <10 g/dL and 43% had platelets <100 000× 109/L. Up to week 24, 8 of 26 evaluable patients (31%) achieved a ±35% decrease in spleen volume determined by magnetic resonance imaging and 14 of 33 (42%) attained a ±50% reduction in spleen size by physical examination. Median MF symptom improvement was ±50% for all symptoms except fatigue. Grade 1 or 2 diarrhea (69%) and nausea (49%) were the most common treatment-emergent adverse events. The study drug was discontinued in 9 patients (26%) due to adverse events (4 severe). Pacritinib is an active agent in patients with MF, offering a potential treatment option for patients with preexisting anemia and thrombocytopenia. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

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