CTAER Foundation

Jaén, Spain

CTAER Foundation

Jaén, Spain
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Mata-Sanchez J.,CTAER Foundation | Perez-Jimenez J.A.,CTAER Foundation | Diaz-Villanueva M.J.,CTAER Foundation | Serrano A.,NIRSoluciones S.L. | And 2 more authors.
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2014

Biofuel characterization constitutes a substantial improvement in the valorization of this resource and allows a rational and controlled use of its energy potential. Corrosion and slagging are primary concerns of solid biofuels; the occurrence and extent of these phenomena depend significantly on the concentration of chlorine in the solid biofuel and the presence of elements such as potassium, sulfur, sodium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, or silicon. Solid biofuels quality parameters are being determined by official methods established by the European Standard Technology Committee. Nevertheless, their implementation in the bioenergetic industry is scarce because these methods are expensive, tedious, and time-consuming. Therefore, a faster, more reliable, and cheaper analytical technique is mandatory in order to detect high concentrations of these parameters and avoid subsequent damages in heat exchanging surfaces. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is an eligible technique due to its high response speed, low cost per sample, absence of sample preparation, and versatility for the analysis of many different products and parameters. In this work, 250 samples of olive stone, olive tree pruning and dry depleted olive pomace, known also as "orujillo", have been collected, and NIR prediction model for determination of parameters such as chlorine, sulfur, and potassium have been obtained and evaluated. Correlation between actual and predicted values (R2) was used to test the performance of calibrations. Practical utility of the validation models were assessed using the ratio of standard error of prediction to standard deviation of the reference data (RPD). High accuracy in prediction for a test set has been achieved for chlorine, sulfur, and potassium content (R2 > 0.9 and RPD > 3), and standard error of prediction (SEP) values obtained in external validation with 53 independent samples are 129 mg kg-1 and 0.008% for chlorine and sulfur, respectively. This study illustrates the possibility of implementing the NIR technique in combination with multivariate data analysis to predict corrosive elements from olive byproducts in an economical and fast way. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Garcia-Maraver A.,University of Granada | Perez-Jimenez J.A.,CTAER Foundation | Serrano-Bernardo F.,University of Granada | Zamorano M.,University of Granada
Renewable Energy | Year: 2015

Thermogravimetric curves in air, measured for the different types of agricultural residues from olive trees (leaves, pruning and wood) at different heating rates (5, 10, 20, 40, 100K/min), are subjected to kinetic evaluation by model-based and model-free methods. It is shown that the combustion process in the samples analyzed can be divided into three stages: water removal, roasting phase and char decomposition. At every stage, the activated energy varies with the mass conversion for the kinetic models considered. Its value was determined by the model-free methods, of which Flynn-Wall- Ozawa and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose were the most appropriate for this purpose and resulted in similar values of activated energy. Once the activation energy was determined, the order of the reactions and the frequency factors of each stage were calculated by means of the Coats-Redfern model-based method in order to complete the determination of the kinetic triplet. From the results obtained, it was deduced that the most feasible reaction order was one. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Mata Sanchez J.,CTAER Foundation | Perez Jimenez J.A.,CTAER Foundation | Diaz Villanueva M.J.,CTAER Foundation | Serrano A.,S.L. Rabanales | And 2 more authors.
Renewable Energy | Year: 2015

The use of biofuels is a key factor in this transition away from fossil fuels. Today, biofuels are only a small share of world total energy supply. The characterization of biomass is a substantial improvement in the valorization of these resources, allowing a rational and controlled use of its energy potential. Therefore, a fast, reliable and cheap analytical technique is mandatory in order to increase the quality control of these products in the bioenergetic industry and enable comprehensive traceability of raw materials and processes in pursuit of a better use of resources. Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is eligible for the development of quality control systems of products and processes in accordance with the new demands taking into account their high response speed, low cost per sample, absence of sample preparation, versatility for the analysis of many different products and parameters. NIR spectroscopy prediction model for determination of quality parameters such us moisture, gross energetic value, ash content, volatile fraction content, and elemental composition (Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen) from ground and dried olive residues have been obtained. High accuracy in prediction for a test set has been achieved for all the parameters (R20.7) except for Hydrogen content. As expected, Standard Error of Prediction (SEP) for ground samples is better than dried samples except for moisture content. This study illustrates the possibility of using the NIR technique in combination with multivariate data analysis to predict economically important properties of olive byproducts for energetic uses. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Sanchez J.M.,CTAER Foundation | Jimenez J.A.P.,CTAER Foundation | Villanueva M.J.D.,CTAER Foundation | Serrano A.,S.L. Rabanales 21 Science and Technology Park | And 2 more authors.
Renewable Energy | Year: 2015

Solid biofuels lead towards the replacement of fossil fuels. The olive industry offers potential for biomass production because of the waste generated in olive groves and olive oil industries. Fines and pulp are two substantial components of the olive stone with negative characteristics for combustion processes. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to develop an analytical method to separate olive pulp contained in an olive stone sample and to quantify it at laboratory scale. Thus, fines and pulp have been characterized. Knowing their physicochemical properties, a new separation methodology has been tested to quantify these fractions. Then, a feasibility study of Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis has been implemented to check if olive pulp content fraction could be controlled by using this fast technique. On the one hand, the new methodology based on differences in density of the impurities has achieved excellent results. On the other hand, the feasibility study of NIR spectroscopy applied to this analysis has been performed with good results. R2 of 0.867 for olive stone fraction and 0.908 for olive pulp fraction respectively show the possibility of using this technique as routine analysis. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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