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Mata-Sanchez J.,CTAER Andalucia Foundation | Perez-Jimenez J.A.,CTAER Andalucia Foundation | Diaz-Villanueva M.J.,CTAER Andalucia Foundation | Serrano A.,NIR Soluciones S.L. | And 2 more authors.
Renewable Energy | Year: 2014

In Andalusia (Southern Spanish region), olive industry presents a high potential of solid biofuel production because of residues generated from olive groves and those by olive oil industries. In this region, 25% of residual biomass is produced by olive sector and olive stone residues are among the most important since its production is over 450,000tons/year.The objective of this research is to provide unambiguous and clear classification principles for olive stone residues based on their quality parameters, to serve as a tool to enable efficient trading of this biofuel and to achieve good understanding between seller and customer as well as to facilitate communication with equipment manufacturers.For this purpose, a total of 176 olive stone samples from 71 different places have been collected and analyzed in this research. Data obtained have been used to develop two quality systems. On the one hand, a classification of olive stone quality parameters has been developed and data are described in a similar way to standardized European quality label for wood pellets. On the other hand, a procedure to calculate a quality index has been designed. Both quality systems have obtained similar results. However, the first one has shown to be more strict. In conclusion, both of them could be used in order to provide a quality classification for olive stone residues. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Mata-Sanchez J.,CTAER Andalucia Foundation | Perez-Jimenez J.A.,CTAER Andalucia Foundation | Diaz-Villanueva M.J.,CTAER Andalucia Foundation | Serrano A.,NIR Soluciones S.L. | And 2 more authors.
Fuel | Year: 2013

In Andalusia, residual biomass produced in the olive sector results from the large amount of olive groves and olive oil manufacturers that generate byproducts with a potentially high energy content, suitable for thermal and electrical energy production. The main residue, olive stone, is an important solid biofuel and is widely generated and consumed. Consequently, olive stone quality parameters must be studied in order to achieve an optimum energetic efficiency. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to describe olive stone energetic properties and to evaluate variability of these parameters before consumption. For this purpose, mean values, normal distributions, intervals and deviations of these parameters have been obtained and studied. Concerning to statistical results, climate and geographical variability of quality parameters has been described. Furthermore, variations between olive stone physicochemical parameters supplied by both olive oil factories and distribution companies have been calculated. Finally, a correlation between the ultimate analysis and higher heating values (HHV) of olive stone has been determined. Results obtained show that olive stone pretreatments developed by distribution companies have a significant effect on quality parameters such as moisture content and low heating value. Moreover, olive stone properties dependence on factors such as rainfall or soil type has not been confirmed. Lastly, the calculated correlation based on ultimate analysis (i.e. HHV(MJ/kg) = 0.401C - 0.164H + 0.493N + 2.381S + 0.791) has been developed and validated with olive stone samples with HHV range from 20 to 21 MJ/kg (dry weight). Correlation has a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.43% and a mean bias error (MBE) of -0.12% which indicate that it can be successfully used as a more economical and faster tool to accurately estimate olive stone HHV. The HHV prediction accuracies of 14 other correlations introduced by other researchers are also compared in this study. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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