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Erlangen, Germany

Steiding C.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Kolditz D.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Kalender W.A.,CT Imaging GmbH
Medical Physics | Year: 2014

Purpose: Thousands of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners for vascular, maxillofacial, neurological, and body imaging are in clinical use today, but there is no consensus on uniform acceptance and constancy testing for image quality (IQ) and dose yet. The authors developed a quality assurance (QA) framework for fully automated and time-efficient performance evaluation of these systems. In addition, the dependence of objective Fourier-based IQ metrics on direction and position in 3D volumes was investigated for CBCT. Methods: The authors designed a dedicated QA phantom 10 cm in length consisting of five compartments, each with a diameter of 10 cm, and an optional extension ring 16 cm in diameter. A homogeneous section of water-equivalent material allows measuring CT value accuracy, image noise and uniformity, and multidimensional global and local noise power spectra (NPS). For the quantitative determination of 3D high-contrast spatial resolution, the modulation transfer function (MTF) of centrally and peripherally positioned aluminum spheres was computed from edge profiles. Additional in-plane and axial resolution patterns were used to assess resolution qualitatively. The characterization of low-contrast detectability as well as CT value linearity and artifact behavior was tested by utilizing sections with soft-tissue-equivalent and metallic inserts. For an automated QA procedure, a phantom detection algorithm was implemented. All tests used in the dedicated QA program were initially verified in simulation studies and experimentally confirmed on a clinical dental CBCT system. Results: The automated IQ evaluation of volume data sets of the dental CBCT system was achieved with the proposed phantom requiring only one scan for the determination of all desired parameters. Typically, less than 5 min were needed for phantom set-up, scanning, and data analysis. Quantitative evaluation of system performance over time by comparison to previous examinations was also verified. The maximum percentage interscan variation of repeated measurements was less than 4% and 1.7% on average for all investigated quality criteria. The NPS-based image noise differed by less than 5% from the conventional standard deviation approach and spatially selective 10% MTF values were well comparable to subjective results obtained with 3D resolution pattern. Determining only transverse spatial resolution and global noise behavior in the central field of measurement turned out to be insufficient. Conclusions: The proposed framework transfers QA routines employed in conventional CT in an advanced version to CBCT for fully automated and time-efficient evaluation of technical equipment. With the modular phantom design, a routine as well as an expert version for assessing IQ is provided. The QA program can be used for arbitrary CT units to evaluate 3D imaging characteristics automatically. © 2014 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Source


Kyriakou Y.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Meyer M.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Lapp R.,CT Imaging GmbH | Kalender W.A.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE | Year: 2010

Typical cupping correction methods are pre - processing methods which require either pre-calibration measurements or simulations of standard objects to approximate and correct for beam hardening and scatter. Some of them require the knowledge of spectra, detector characteristics, etc. The aim of this work was to develop a practical histogram- driven cupping correction (HDCC) method to post process the reconstructed images. We use a polynomial representation of the raw- data generated by forward projection of the reconstructed images; forward amid back-projection are performed on graphics processing units (GPU). The coefficients of the polynomial are optimized using a simplex minimization of the joint entropy of the CT image and its gradient. The algorithm was evaluated using simulations and measurements of homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms. For the measurements a C arm flat-detector CT (FD CT) system with a 30×40 cm2 detector, a kilovoltage on board imager (radiation therapy simulator) and a micro-CT system were used. The algorithm reduced cupping artifacts both in simulations and measurements using a fourth-order polynomial and was in good agreement to the reference. The minimization algorithm required less than 70 iterations to adjust the coefficients only performing a linear combination of basis images, thus executing without time consuming operations. HDCC reduced cupping artifacts without the necessity of pre-calibration or other scan information enabling a retrospective improvement of CT image homogeneity. However, the method can work with other cupping correction algorithms or in a calibration manner, as well. © 2010 SPIE. Source


Sawall S.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Bergner F.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Lapp R.,CT Imaging GmbH | Mronz M.,CT Imaging GmbH | And 3 more authors.
Medical Physics | Year: 2011

Purpose: Micro-CT imaging of animal hearts typically requires a double gating procedure because scans during a breath-hold are not possible due to the long scan times and the high respiratory rates. Simultaneous respiratory and cardiac gating can either be done prospectively or retrospectively. True five-dimensional information can be either retrieved with retrospective gating or with prospective gating if several prospective gates are acquired. In any case, the amount of information available to reconstruct one volume for a given respiratory and cardiac phase is orders of magnitude lower than the total amount of information acquired. For example, the reconstruction of a volume from a 10% wide respiratory and a 20% wide cardiac window uses only 2% of the data acquired. Achieving a similar image quality as a nongated scan would therefore require to increase the amount of data and thereby the dose to the animal by up to a factor of 50. Methods: To achieve the goal of low-dose phase-correlated (LDPC) imaging, the authors propose to use a highly efficient combination of slightly modified existing algorithms. In particular, the authors developed a variant of the McKinnon-Bates image reconstruction algorithm and combined it with bilateral filtering in up to five dimensions to significantly reduce image noise without impairing spatial or temporal resolution. Results: The preliminary results indicate that the proposed LDPC reconstruction method typically reduces image noise by a factor of up to 6 (e.g., from 170 to 30 HU), while the dose values lie in a range from 60 to 500 mGy. Compared to other publications that apply 250-1800 mGy for the same task [C. T. Badea, "4D micro-CT of the mouse heart," Mol. Imaging 4(2), 110-116 (2005); M. Drangova, "Fast retrospectively gated quantitative four-dimensional (4D) cardiac micro computed tomography imaging of free-breathing mice," Invest. Radiol. 42(2), 85-94 (2007); S. H. Bartling, "Retrospective motion gating in small animal CT of mice and rats," Invest. Radiol. 42(10), 704-714 (2007)], the authors' LDPC approach therefore achieves a more than tenfold dose usage improvement. Conclusions: The LDPC reconstruction method improves phase-correlated imaging from highly undersampled data. Artifacts caused by sparse angular sampling are removed and the image noise is decreased, while spatial and temporal resolution are preserved. Thus, the administered dose per animal can be decreased allowing for long term studies with reduced metabolic inference. © 2011 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Source


Sawall S.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Bergner F.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Hess A.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Lapp R.,CT Imaging GmbH | And 3 more authors.
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE | Year: 2011

Functional imaging of an animals thoracic region requires cardiac and respiratory gating. The information on respiratory motion and ECG required for double-gating are extracted from the rawdata and used to select the projections appropriate for a given motion phase. A conventional phase-correlated reconstruction (PC) therefore uses only a small amount of the total projections acquired. Thus the resulting images comprise a high noise level unless acquired with very high dose, and streak artifacts may occur due to the sparse angular sampling. Here, we are aiming at getting high fidelity images even for relatively low dose values. To overcome these issues we implemented an iterative reconstruction method encompassing a five-dimensional (spatial, cardiac-temporal, respiratory-temporal) edge-preserving filter. This new phase-correlated low-dose (LDPC) reconstruction method is evaluated using retrospectively-gated, contrast-enhanced micro CT data of mice. The scans performed comprise 7200 projections within 10 rotations over 5 minutes. A tube voltage of 65 kV was used resulting in an administered dose of about 500 mGy. 20 respiratory phases and 10 cardiac phases are reconstructed. Using LDPC reconstruction the image noise is typically reduced by a factor of about six and artifacts are almost removed. Reducing the number of projections available for reconstruction shows that we can get comparable image quality with only 200 mGy. LDPC enables high fidelity low-dose double-gated imaging of free breathing rodents without compromises in image quality. Compared to PC image noise is significantly reduced with LDPC and the administered dose can be reduced accordingly. © 2011 SPIE. Source


Luck F.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Luck F.,CT Imaging GmbH | Kolditz D.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Kolditz D.,CT Imaging GmbH | And 4 more authors.
Physics in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of shaped filters specifically designed for dedicated breast computed tomography (CT) scanners on dose and image quality. Optimization of filter shape and material in fan direction was performed using two different design methods, one aiming at homogeneous noise distributions in the CT images and the other aiming at a uniform dose distribution in the breast. The optimal filter thickness as a function of fan angle was determined iteratively to fulfil the above mentioned criteria for each breast diameter. Different filter materials (aluminium, copper, carbon, polytetrafluoroethylene) and breast phantoms with diameters between 80-180 mm were investigated. Noise uniformity in the reconstructed images, obtained from CT simulations based on ray-tracing methods, and dose in the breast, calculated with a Monte Carlo software tool, were used as figure of merit. Furthermore, CT-value homogeneity, the distribution of noise in cone direction, spatial resolution from centre to periphery and the contrast-to-noise ratio weighted by dose (CNRD) were evaluated. In addition, the decrease of scatter due to shaped filters was investigated. Since only few or one filter are practical in clinical CT systems, the effects of one shaped filter for different breast diameters were also investigated. In this case the filter, designed for the largest breast diameter, was simulated at variable source-to-filter distances depending on breast diameter. With the filter design method aiming at uniform noise distribution best results were obtained for aluminium as the filter material. Noise uniformity improved from 20} down to 5} and dose was reduced by about 30-40} for all breast diameters. No decrease of noise uniformity in cone direction, CT-value homogeneity, spatial resolution and the CNRD was detected with the shaped filter. However, a small improvement of CNRD was observed. Furthermore, a scatter reduction of about 20-30} and a more homogeneous scatter distribution were reached which led to reduced cupping artefacts. The simulations with one shaped filter at variable source-to-filter distance resulted in nearly homogeneous noise distributions and comparable dose reduction for all breast diameters. In conclusion, by means of shaped filters designed for breast CT, significant dose reduction can be achieved at unimpaired image quality. One shaped filter designed for the largest breast diameter used with variable source-to-filter distance appears to be the best solution for breast CT. © 2013 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine. Source

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