Jalandhar Punjab, India
Jalandhar Punjab, India

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Malhotra J.S.,DAV Institute of Engineering and Technology | Kumar M.,CT Group of Institutes | Sharma A.K.,National Institute of Technology Jalandhar
Journal of Optical Communications | Year: 2013

In this paper, performance investigations on PM-QPSK modulation format in a terabit capacity, long haul DWDM optical communication link resulted in high Q2(dB) of 20.71 and low BER of the order of 10-28 proving the suitability of PM-QPSK. It is reported here that PMQPSK is quite resilient against PMD effects as the variation in PMD-seed value from 050 at PMD-Coefficient of 0.1 and 1.0 resulted in minimum Q2(dB) of 18.7 and maximum BER of 10-18. © 2010 PACS.


Malhotra J.S.,DAV Institute of Engineering and Technology | Kumar M.,CT Group of Institutes | Sharma A.K.,National Institute of Technology Jalandhar
Optik | Year: 2014

In this paper, low cost solution based on RSOAs is proposed for a high capacity 32 × 32 channel, 20 km, FTTH duplex link employing triple play services. Here, downstream transmitters generate a 2.5-Gbps NRZ signal which is routed to both receivers and RSOA-based upstream transmitters. The RSOA modulates this signal with a 1.25-Gbps NRZ signal that effectively overwrites the downstream signal and then it is transmitted back over the same 20 km of bidirectional fiber, where it is routed to receivers at the CO. The proposed model completely eliminates the requirement of separate lasers for upstream communication which makes the system very cost effective. The high-pass filtering effect of the RSOA becomes predominant at higher input powers which has been used as an advantage here to effectively suppress the downstream signal. The impact of RSOA input power and extinction ratio of the downstream signal have been investigated and reported. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.


Malhotra J.S.,DAV Institute of Engineering and Technology | Kumar M.,CT Group of Institutes | Sharma A.K.,National Institute of Technology Jalandhar
Optik | Year: 2013

In this paper performance of high capacity, long reach, 32 channel FTTH downstream link employing triple play services has been investigated on the performance metrics viz. eye-opening, BER and Q2 dB. DWDM has been employed for bandwidth optimization. The triple-play service is realized as a combination of data, voice, and video signals. The Internet component is represented by a data link with a high-speed of 2.5 Gb/s downstream. The voice component is represented as VOIP and then combined with data component. The video component is represented as a RF video signal. The reach of the WDM-PON system can be severely limited by chromatic dispersion. Therefore, we have employed 80 km of non-linear fiber in combination with 20 km of reverse dispersion fiber to negate the accumulated chromatic dispersion which ensures long reach of the modeled FTTH system. Investigations reveal the effective bandwidth optimization using DWDM. High 'Q2 dB' and low BER results confirm the feasibility of proposed high capacity, long reach FTTH link. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH.


Malhotra J.S.,DAV Institute of Engineering and Technology | Kumar M.,CT Group of Institutes | Sharma A.K.,National Institute of Technology Jalandhar
Optik | Year: 2013

In this paper, FWM power has been estimated and mitigated by using Optical Phase Conjugator (OPC) in the middle of the optical fiber span which strongly suppresses the FWM power by introducing destructive interference between the first and second halves of the fiber optic link. -20 dBm FWM power has been suppressed by using OPC which is in close agreement with the calculated FWM power of -21.74 dBm. Further, symmetrical dispersion compensation has been employed to negate the accumulated chromatic dispersion in a considered 32 channel, Terabit capacity, long haul DWDM soliton link. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.


Malhotra J.S.,DAV Institute of Engineering and Technology | Kumar M.,CT Group of Institutes | Sharma A.K.,National Institute of Technology Jalandhar | Kumar A.,DAV Institute of Engineering and Technology
Optik | Year: 2013

In this article, generation of DWDM-RoF signal utilizing an SOA-MZI multichannel frequency up-conversion is demonstrated. The simulation results of a 16 channel, 10 km DWDM-RoF link at baseband signal of 500 Mbps, over the wavelength range 1545.80-1552.20 nm are reported. BER of the order of e -18 and Q factor above 18 dB over the entire bandwidth signify negligible crosstalk and error free transmission of radio signal. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.


Priyanka R.,Ct Group Of Institutes | Duggal S.,Ct Group Of Institutes
International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2012

Topical or Transdermal drug delivery system is challenging because the skin act as protective barrier. Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles: Transferosomes are the ultradeformable vesicles in nature which have the tendency of squeezing itself through a pore which is many times smaller than its size owing to its elasticity. They are made up of a phospholipids component along with a surfactant mixture. The uniqueness of this type of drug carrier system lies in the fact that it can accommodate hydrophilic, lipophilic as well as amphiphilic drugs. Pheriperal drug targeting, trandermal immunization can also be achieved with this type of drug delivery system.


Priyanka R.,Ct Group Of Institutes | Shipra D.,Ct Group Of Institutes | Gaurav S.,Ct Group Of Institutes
International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2012

Aquasomes are one of the recently developed nanobiopharmaceutical carrier system that are found as niche for proteins and peptides and composed of three layered self assembled structure, comprised of a solid phase nanocrystalline core coated with oligomeric film to which biochemically active molecules are adsorbed with or without modification, which is the based upon nanotechnology, a scientific field devoted to the manipulation of atoms and molecules to construct miniature structures for new molecular assemblies at the nanometer scale size. Aquasomes contains the particle core composed of nanocrystalline calcium phosphate or ceramic diamond, and is covered by a polyhydroxyl oligomeric film and are spherical 60-300 nm particle used for drug and antigen delivery. Three types of core material are mainly used for producing aquasomes: tin oxide, nanocrystalline carbon ceramics (diamonds) and brushite (calcium phosphate dehydrates). Calcium phosphate is the core of interest, owing to its natural presence in the body. The brushite is unstable and converts to hydroxyapatite upon prolong storage. Therefore Hydroxyapatite is a better core for the preparation of aquasomes. It is widely used for the preparation of implants for drug delivery. It has been reported haemoglobin loaded aquasomes using hydroxyapatite core as potential artificial oxygen carrying system. Properties like protection and preservation of fragile biological molecules, conformational integrity, and surface exposure made it as a successful carrier system for bioactive molecules like peptides, proteins, hormones, antigens and genes to specific sites. Thus aquasomes is one of the most prominent and latest lipid technologies. As lipid formulations always produce a fine dispersion which is useful for increasing the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs. The study methodology includes different formulations which are as follows: oil based formulation, triglyceride, liposomes, niosomes, lipid emulsions, emulsome, hydrogel nanoparticles, aquasomes, solid lipid nanopartciles, and nanostructure lipid carriers. The ability of target-specific nano-and microparticle to carry therapeutic agents (such as drugs, genes, or proteins) is essential for the application of nanotechnology in modern medicine.

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