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Pālampur, India

Singh S.,ICAR I.I.S.R. | Vatsa D.K.,CSKHPKV
Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal | Year: 2015

A study was conducted to find out the present status and level of mechanization in different operations as carried out in apple cultivation. It was observed that most of these operations are performed manually by hand using traditional tools. Land preparation with spade (0.002 ha/h), pit digging with spade (3 to 4 pits/day of size 1x1x1 m), basin preparation with spade (2-4 basin/h), pruning by secateurs/pruner (1-2 plants/h) and harvesting by hand (12-15 kg h-1person-1) resulted in very low efficiency thus increase the cost of operation and drudgery and ultimately reduces the net returns to the growers. The bottlenecks in mechanization are due to undulating topography, small and scattered land holdings, lack of approach roads and lack of awareness among the farmers. In spite of these, there is a tremendous scope to mechanize various practices in apple cultivation in hills of Himachal Pradesh through improved and suitable mechanization technology so that the apple growers may be benefited. © 2015, Int. Comm. of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering. All rights reserved.


The genotypic response of the growth, yield and quality traits of rice bean [Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi and Ohashi] to NPK enrichment was studied in relation to different fertilizer treatments. The treatments consisted of three NPK levels, namely 0:0:0 (T 0) control, 10:30:10 (T 1) and 20:60:20 (T 2) kg/ha. There were significant differences in plant height 115 days after sowing, days to maturity and tryptophan content (g/16 g N) in various rice bean genotypes with different fertilizer levels. Higher seed yields were recorded for the genotypes JCR-20(S), IC-140796, IC-019352 and JCR-152 as compared to the check variety (BRS-2). The fertilizer treatments significantly affected growth, yield and its contributing traits: plant height, number of pod clusters/plant, seeds/pod, seed yield/plot and total pods picked at maturity. Little variation was observed between the fertilizer treatments for the crude protein (%) and methionine (g/16 g N) contents, but significant variation in the tryptophan content was detected for genotype LRB-40-2. Seed yield and its contributing traits responded positively to the fertilizer treatments. Among the three fertilizer treatments tested in the experiment, the T2 treatment was found to be promising for increasing seed yield. Thus, it can be concluded from the study that the rice bean crop is responsive to fertilizers and that the application of optimal levels of NPK could enhance its productivity.


Artemisia brevifolia Wall and Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng leaf extracts were evaluated against Pieris brassicae L. infesting cauliflower. The results revealed that two sprays of Artemisia leaf extract sprayed at 3.75,7.50 and 11.25 L/ha reduced the P. brassicae population and plant infestation by 2.86-97.35% and 12.75-94.38% over pre-treatment, respectively. Reduction in P. brassicae population and plant infestation by the similar application rates of Eupatorium leaf extracts after two sprays varied from 35.99-91.82% and 17.04-96.24% over pre-treatment, respectively. The lower population and plant infestation by P. brassicae in sprayed crop as compared to unsprayed control plots was significantly prominent and could be attributed to the potential secondary metabolites present in the leaves of these wild herbaceous plants.


Katoch R.,CSKHPKV
Indian Journal of Agricultural Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Biochemical analysis of different seed components of rice bean (Vigna umbellata) revealed wide variation for different nutritional and anti-nutritional constituents, viz; crude protein, total carbohydrate content, crude fibre, ether extract, ascorbic acid, tryptophan, methionine, phenolics content, total tannins, condensed tannins, hydrolysable tannins, and phytic acid. Most of the protein and other nutritional components of seeds were localized in the cotyledons, whereas, the seed coat revealed higher values for different anti-nutrients. The study indicated that the low acceptance of rice bean pulse in routine cuisine despite of high nutritional content may be related to different anti-nutritional factors. Therefore, use of dehulled rice bean seeds as pulse and other value added products is recommended for the reduction of different anti-nutritional factors and general acceptability of pulse in routine cuisine.


Sood V.K.,CSKHPKV | Rana I.,CSKHPKV | Hussain W.,CSKHPKV | Hussain W.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Chaudhary H.K.,CSKHPKV
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B - Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

The objective of the present study was to estimate the genetic diversity of wild relatives and commercial cultivars of genus Avena, using 22 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 10 simple sequence repeats (SSR) polymorphic markers. These two molecular marker systems were also compared for better genetic characterization of oat species. The patterns of polymorphism revealed by the two marker systems were different and level of polymorphism was higher for SSR (100 %) than RAPD (85.82 %), thus revealing SSR more efficient marker system. UPGMA cluster analysis of both RAPD and SSR data, was used to group 25 genotypes of Avena into two clusters. All commercial cultivars of Avena sativa viz., HJ-6, OS-6, Kent and HFO-114 except PLP-1 were grouped in the same cluster, depicting a narrow genetic base between the commercial cultivars. Clustering differences were also evident between SSR and RAPD derived marker systems, however, both SSR and RAPD markers grouped A. vavilovina, A. abyssinica and A. brevis into the same cluster and were distinguished from other species. Furthermore, hexaploid wild species like A. sterilis (CI 8077), A. byzantina (HFO 60) and tetraploid wild species A. insularis (HFO 865) and diploid A. strigosa (HFO 505) showed genetic divergence from cultivated species, thus may be used in wide hybridization programme for the introgression of desirable traits. The lack of diversity in oat cultivars shown in the present study demonstrates that it is urgent and imperative to enrich the north western-Himalayan oat commercial gene pool by introgression from divergent wild species. © 2014, The National Academy of Sciences, India.

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