Pālampur, India
Pālampur, India

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Sood V.K.,CSKHPKV | Rana I.,CSKHPKV | Hussain W.,CSKHPKV | Hussain W.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Chaudhary H.K.,CSKHPKV
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B - Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

The objective of the present study was to estimate the genetic diversity of wild relatives and commercial cultivars of genus Avena, using 22 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 10 simple sequence repeats (SSR) polymorphic markers. These two molecular marker systems were also compared for better genetic characterization of oat species. The patterns of polymorphism revealed by the two marker systems were different and level of polymorphism was higher for SSR (100 %) than RAPD (85.82 %), thus revealing SSR more efficient marker system. UPGMA cluster analysis of both RAPD and SSR data, was used to group 25 genotypes of Avena into two clusters. All commercial cultivars of Avena sativa viz., HJ-6, OS-6, Kent and HFO-114 except PLP-1 were grouped in the same cluster, depicting a narrow genetic base between the commercial cultivars. Clustering differences were also evident between SSR and RAPD derived marker systems, however, both SSR and RAPD markers grouped A. vavilovina, A. abyssinica and A. brevis into the same cluster and were distinguished from other species. Furthermore, hexaploid wild species like A. sterilis (CI 8077), A. byzantina (HFO 60) and tetraploid wild species A. insularis (HFO 865) and diploid A. strigosa (HFO 505) showed genetic divergence from cultivated species, thus may be used in wide hybridization programme for the introgression of desirable traits. The lack of diversity in oat cultivars shown in the present study demonstrates that it is urgent and imperative to enrich the north western-Himalayan oat commercial gene pool by introgression from divergent wild species. © 2014, The National Academy of Sciences, India.

Singh S.,ICAR I.I.S.R. | Vatsa D.K.,CSKHPKV
Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal | Year: 2015

A study was conducted to find out the present status and level of mechanization in different operations as carried out in apple cultivation. It was observed that most of these operations are performed manually by hand using traditional tools. Land preparation with spade (0.002 ha/h), pit digging with spade (3 to 4 pits/day of size 1x1x1 m), basin preparation with spade (2-4 basin/h), pruning by secateurs/pruner (1-2 plants/h) and harvesting by hand (12-15 kg h-1person-1) resulted in very low efficiency thus increase the cost of operation and drudgery and ultimately reduces the net returns to the growers. The bottlenecks in mechanization are due to undulating topography, small and scattered land holdings, lack of approach roads and lack of awareness among the farmers. In spite of these, there is a tremendous scope to mechanize various practices in apple cultivation in hills of Himachal Pradesh through improved and suitable mechanization technology so that the apple growers may be benefited. © 2015, Int. Comm. of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering. All rights reserved.

Studies were conducted to determine the effect of different levels of N, P and K on nodulation and quality traits of fodder in rice bean genotypes. The treatments consisting of NPK levels viz; 0:0:0 (T0) control or 10:30:10 (T1) and 20:60:20 (T2) kg/ha exhibited significant differences amongst the genotypes in nodulation. Genotypic response of rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb) Ohwi and Ohashi) to Rhizobium spp. was studied in terms of nodule number and fresh weight (g) under different fertilizer treatments. Genotype IC-140796 was observed to have significantly high number of nodules and fresh weight (g), whereas, IC-137200 and JCR-107 had significantly lower number of nodules in comparison to the check (BRS-2). Fertilizer treatments significantly affected nodule number and weight. Crude fibre and total ash increased significantly in the fodder samples with increasing rates of N, P and K, whereas, crude protein content showed non-significant effects. Number and nodule weight showed significant positive of correlation between T1 and control, whereas plant biomass and days to flowering showed significant positive between association T2. Plant biomass showed positive correlation with crude fibre in T 2, whereas, crude protein and ash content had positive correlation in T1 and T2. Ash and nodule number showed positive association in control only. Among the three treatments under study, T 2 treatment with NPK ratio @ 20: 60:20 Kg ha -1 was observed promising for nodulation and quality traits.

AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America | Year: 2010

Most of the farmers in the mountains use traditional methods for planting such as broadcasting and seed dropping behind the plough due to undulating topography, small plots and higher cost of equipment. This also affects germination due to non-uniform placement of seeds at proper depth. A study was conducted on various available seed drills/planters and they were compared with traditional methods for mechanizing wheat crop sowing and for enhancing the productivity. The effective field capacities were 0.039, 0.036, 0.12, 0.035 and 0.024 ha/h with field efficiency of 65, 63, 69, 65 and 57 % with manual seed drill, manual multicrop planter, power tiller multicrop planter, dropping seed behind hand plough and sowing behind animal plough, respectively. The labour requirement was higher for the hand plough and sowing behind the plough than for the seed drills. The cost of operation was 2-4 times lower for the seed drills. The yield was about 15-18 % higher with seed drills and planters and significantly higher compared to traditional method. The body discomfort rating for 17 body parts were collected in which six body parts were found to experience serious discomfort in the following order: left shoulder, right shoulder, left arm, right arm, left leg and right leg in case of hand plough, seed drill and planter pulled by the subject. It was concluded that power operated and animal operated equipment were better than manual operated for sowing wheat crop.

Sharma J.K.,CSKHPKV | Singh A.,CSKHPKV
Indian Journal of Agricultural Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Wheat, a self-pollinating crop, is the most important winter cereal crop grown during the non-monsoon months in the North-Western region of India. There is an increasing demand of improved wheat varieties in order to meet the growing requirements of an ever increasing population. New varieties of wheat are being developed throughout the world for better nutritional as well as commercial value. Genetic diversity and genetic manipulation is an essential tool for rational use of genetic resources and is a prerequisite for any crop improvement program. Assessment of genetic diversity would help in wheat breeding programmes for adaptation to biotic stresses like diseases and abiotic stresses like heat, drought and salt tolerance. The aim of the present study was to molecularly characterize 22 public sector wheat varieties and to assess mutual genetic diversity using 28 microsatellite markers. Ten markers were found to be monomorphic and only eighteen markers showed polymorphism. Eighteen polymorphic microsatellite markers revealed a total of 77 alleles with frequencies ranging from 0.02 to 0.94. The number of alleles per locus varied from 2 to 8 with an overall mean of 4.3 alleles per marker. Mean effective number of alleles per locus was 2.9. Polymorphic information content (PIC value) recorded by the microsatellite markers ranged from 0.12 to 0.80 with mean value of 0.59. Jaccard’s similarity coefficient indices were developed on the basis of the scorable banding patterns of the 22 wheat varieties using eighteen polymorphic microsatellite markers. The Jaccard’s similarity coefficient values were used as input data to construct a dendrogram based on Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) and SAHN clustering using the computer package NTSYSpc version 2.0. The results confirmed the usefulness of microsatellite markers as a tool in the development of suitable DNA fingerprints of wheat varieties and assessment of their genetic diversity at the molecular level. © 2015, Indian Society of Agricultural Biochemists. All rights reserved.

AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America | Year: 2014

In hills, the soil resource has suffered from degradation particularly due to improper terraces and sloppy land as well as excessive soil tilling with bullock operated soil stirring plough as well as tractor operated disc plough and cultivator. To counter the effects of soil degradation caused by excessive tillage of the soil, one must find and adopt new methods of sowing particularly in annual cropping of wheat. Under zero-tillage, crops are planted with minimum disturbance of soil by placing the seeds in a narrow slits 3-4 cm wide and 4-7 cm deep without land preparation. Number of zero till drills have been developed in India but due to bulkiness, it is not feasible to operate as such in hills. Hence, there is a need to develop and evaluate the power tiller operated zero till drill suitable for hill agriculture. Therefore, a prototype of power tiller operated zero till drill was developed and fabricated for sowing wheat crop with main design consideration i.e. light in weight and easy turning of zero till drill with power tiller in small terraces. The field performance of machine was carried out at University farm and farmers' fields for three consecutive years. The wheat crop was sown at an average moisture content of about 22.80 %. The effective field capacity was observed to be 0.10 ha/h at a forward speed of 2.2 km/h with field efficiency 60%. The cost of operation with zero-till drill was Rs. 1,475/ha ($22.00/ha) which was 65 % lower as compared to traditional method. The yield was observed to be the same as compared to traditional methods of sowing. Zero-tillage seeding also offers the benefits of retained surface residues and reduced soil water losses. Zero-tillage allows early and timely sowing of wheat crop and reduces the cost of production through lesser use of fossil fuels and herbicides etc.

Katoch R.,CSKHPKV | Kumar N.,CSKHPKV
Range Management and Agroforestry | Year: 2014

Productivity and profitability of maize grown under different use patterns for fodder baby corn, green cobs and grain were evaluated during 2009 and 2010. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications in the plot size of 3 × 3m. Three varieties each for different use pattern of maize viz., fodder type, baby corn, green cob and grain maize were investigated for yield parameters, biochemical traits and production economics. The maize varieties for fodder resulted in maximum fodder yield (up to 429.62 q/h), crude protein (up to 11.96%) and in vitro dry matter digestibility. The maize green fodder equivalent yield varied significantly from 181.8 to 1281.3 and 228.5 to 1136.6 q/ha, during 2009-10, respectively. The quality traits of the green fodder of baby corn varieties and green cob varieties were comparable to the varieties grown solely for the fodder purpose. The gross returns also varied significantly from 18,180.67 to 1, 28,128.30 and 22,845.00 to 1, 13,660.33 Rs/ha, during the year 2009 and 2010 respectively. The results of the study revealed that the cultivation of dualpurpose maize varieties was more economic than the cultivation of varieties for a single purpose. © 2016, Range Management Society of India. All rights reserved.

The genotypic response of the growth, yield and quality traits of rice bean [Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi and Ohashi] to NPK enrichment was studied in relation to different fertilizer treatments. The treatments consisted of three NPK levels, namely 0:0:0 (T 0) control, 10:30:10 (T 1) and 20:60:20 (T 2) kg/ha. There were significant differences in plant height 115 days after sowing, days to maturity and tryptophan content (g/16 g N) in various rice bean genotypes with different fertilizer levels. Higher seed yields were recorded for the genotypes JCR-20(S), IC-140796, IC-019352 and JCR-152 as compared to the check variety (BRS-2). The fertilizer treatments significantly affected growth, yield and its contributing traits: plant height, number of pod clusters/plant, seeds/pod, seed yield/plot and total pods picked at maturity. Little variation was observed between the fertilizer treatments for the crude protein (%) and methionine (g/16 g N) contents, but significant variation in the tryptophan content was detected for genotype LRB-40-2. Seed yield and its contributing traits responded positively to the fertilizer treatments. Among the three fertilizer treatments tested in the experiment, the T2 treatment was found to be promising for increasing seed yield. Thus, it can be concluded from the study that the rice bean crop is responsive to fertilizers and that the application of optimal levels of NPK could enhance its productivity.

Artemisia brevifolia Wall and Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng leaf extracts were evaluated against Pieris brassicae L. infesting cauliflower. The results revealed that two sprays of Artemisia leaf extract sprayed at 3.75,7.50 and 11.25 L/ha reduced the P. brassicae population and plant infestation by 2.86-97.35% and 12.75-94.38% over pre-treatment, respectively. Reduction in P. brassicae population and plant infestation by the similar application rates of Eupatorium leaf extracts after two sprays varied from 35.99-91.82% and 17.04-96.24% over pre-treatment, respectively. The lower population and plant infestation by P. brassicae in sprayed crop as compared to unsprayed control plots was significantly prominent and could be attributed to the potential secondary metabolites present in the leaves of these wild herbaceous plants.

Indian Journal of Agricultural Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Biochemical analysis of different seed components of rice bean (Vigna umbellata) revealed wide variation for different nutritional and anti-nutritional constituents, viz; crude protein, total carbohydrate content, crude fibre, ether extract, ascorbic acid, tryptophan, methionine, phenolics content, total tannins, condensed tannins, hydrolysable tannins, and phytic acid. Most of the protein and other nutritional components of seeds were localized in the cotyledons, whereas, the seed coat revealed higher values for different anti-nutrients. The study indicated that the low acceptance of rice bean pulse in routine cuisine despite of high nutritional content may be related to different anti-nutritional factors. Therefore, use of dehulled rice bean seeds as pulse and other value added products is recommended for the reduction of different anti-nutritional factors and general acceptability of pulse in routine cuisine.

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