Pālampur, India
Pālampur, India
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Vignesh M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Hossain F.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Nepolean T.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Saha S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2012

Carotenoids are the major sources of dietary precursor of vitamin A and act as potential antioxidant besides preventing diseases such as night blindness in humans. Vitamin A deficiency is a global problem, but is particularly prevalent in developing countries like India, where 31 percent of pre-school children are reportedly affected. Evaluation of genetic variability for kernel β-carotene in 105 maize inbreds of diverse pedigree from India-and CIMMYT-origin revealed significant variation ranging from 0.02 to 16.50 ìg/g. One of the key reasons for wide variation of kernel β-carotene is due to the allelic variation at crtRB1 3'TE gene. Five among 95 inbreds possessed the favourable crtRB1 3'TE allele with a mean β-carotene concentration of 0.86 ìg/g. In contrast, the same allele detected in 20 CIMMYT-Maize HarvestPlus genotypes contributed a mean kernel β-carotene concentration of 11.29 ìg/g. The contrast in β-carotene concentration in Indian and CIMMYT genotypes could be attributed to the presence of SNPs and InDels in crtRB1 3'TE locus, along with the presence/absence of favourable alleles of other important genes influencing the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Marker-assisted breeding has been initiated, to introgress the crtRB1 3'TE favourable allele using high β-carotene CIMMYT inbreds as donors, to develop provitamin A-rich maize cultivars suitable for maize growing regions in India.

Rani S.,Maharaja Lakshman Sen Memorial College MLSM | Kumari S.,Punjabi University | Gupta R.C.,Punjabi University | Chahota R.K.,CSK HPKV
Plant Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2014

During the present study, 360 populations of 174 species belonging to 82 genera and 23 families of dicots have been cytologically worked out from different localities of District Kangra (Himachal Pradesh) between 550 and 3,800 m altitude. As many as 10 species including Berberis ceratophylla (2n = 28), Caltha alba (2n = 32), Corydalis meifolia (2n = 16), C. thyrsiflora (2n = 16), Impatiens reidii (2n = 14), Indigofera hamiltonii (2n = 16), Potentilla thomsonii (2n = 14), Sedum trifidum (2n = 36), Stellaria semivestita (2n = 26) and Viola canescens (2n = 12) have been cytologically worked out for the first time at world level. New intraspecific diploid cytotypes have been recorded in 11 species while new intraspecific tetraploid cytotypes are noticed in 15 species. B-chromosomes have also been reported in 3 species viz. Anemone obtusiloba, Clematis grata and Ranunculus diffusus for the first time at world level. The species of the area are active state of evolution, depicting heterogeneity in chromosome numbers involving polyploidy (48 species, 28.18 %) as well as irregular meiotic behavior. The meiotic abnormalities have been witnessed in 69 species (39.65 %) showing different types of irregularities such as cytomixis, interbivalant connections, unoriented bivalents, chromatin stickiness, chromosomal laggards and bridges as well as abnormal microsprogenesis. All these meiotic abnormalities lead to reduced pollen fertility and formation of variable sized pollen grains in most of these species. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Wien.

Kashyap L.,Lovely Professional University | Sharma D.C.,CSK HPKV
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2015

An established analytical method was further standardized for the estimation of spinosad residue in tomato grown under naturally ventilated polyhouse situated in mid-hills of Himachal Pradesh, India. Spinosad was sprayed on hybrid tomato cv. Avtar at the recommended and double the recommended dosages at 15 and 30 g a.i. ha−1, respectively, to control the lepidopterous pests and the residue were analysed from tomato fruits at different intervals after second spray. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile-water mixture (8:2), partitioned into dichloromethane, methanol and anhydrous sodium hydroxide. The extracts were concentrated under vacuum and cleaned up with silica solid phase extraction cartridge. Further, the samples were analysed in high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with UV/visible detector at λ = 250 nm and C18 reversed-phase column. Consistent recoveries ranging from 80.6 ± 1.1 to 91.4 ± 1.2 % were observed when samples were spiked at fortification range of 0.01 to 0.20 mg kg−1. The limit of quantification of the method was worked out to be 0.02 mg kg−1. The half-life values of spinosad were determined to be 1.20 and 1.60 days at recommended and double the recommended dosage, respectively. The safety interval for spinosad sprayed tomato fruit was determined to be 1.92 and 3.88 days at application rate of 15 and 30 g a.i. ha−1, respectively. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Sharma R.P.,CSK HPKV | Datt N.,CSK HPKV | Verma G.,University of Punjab
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment | Year: 2015

A field experiment was conducted on wheat-rice sequence at the experimental farm of Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, CSK HPKV, Palampur during 2005-2007. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of twelve treatment combinations comprising three levels of vermicompost (0, 5 and 10 t/ha) and four levels of NPK (0, 50, 75 and 100% of recommended dose) on nutrient uptake, protein content, crop yields and nutrient build up. The experimental soil was acidic in reaction (pH 5.6) and silty clay loam in texture. Application of vermicompost exerted significant positive influence on crop yield, nutrient uptake, protein content and available nutrient status. Grain yield of wheat and rice recorded at 75 % NPK + 10 t VC/ha was at par with the yield obtained at 100% NPK alone which demonstrated saving of chemical fertilizers to the extent of 25%. Application of 100 % NPK plus 10 t VC/ha registered 36, 72, 35, 26, 25, 29 and 19 per cent increase in N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu uptake by wheat respectively over 100 % NPK. In case of rice, the corresponding values were 37, 34, 42, 56, 25 and 27 for N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu uptake. Almost similar trend was observed during second year in both the crops. Similarly, protein content in both the crops was also increased significantly by integrated use of vermicompost@ 10 t/ha + 100 % NPK compared to sole use of 100% NPK, the increase being 10 and 16 per cent in wheat during 2005-06 and 2006-07 respectively and 11 and 14 percent in rice during 2006 and 2007 respectively. Application of vermicompost along with chemical fertilizers improved residual soil fertility significantly in terms of available organic carbon, available NPK and micronutrient cations. It may be concluded that application of vermicompost @ 10 t/ha along with recommended dose of chemical fertilizers is necessary to enhance crop yield, nutrient uptake and protein content and available nutrients in wheat-rice sequence.

Chandel R.S.,CSK HPKV | Banyal D.K.,CSK HPKV | Singh B.P.,Central Potato Research Institute Campus | Malik K.,Central Potato Research Institute Campus | Lakra B.S.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University
Potato Research | Year: 2010

This paper reviews the importance of Potato apical leaf curl virus (PALCV) in India, the biology of its major vector Bemisia tabaci and possible control measures of PALCV and B. tabaci. PALCV has appeared as a new problem in potato growing areas of northwestern plains of India. The first report of PALCV was made from Hissar around 2000. PALCV is a whitefly (B. tabaci) transmitted viral disease and the symptoms are manifested primarily in the form of upward or downward curling of leaves, with 40-75% infection being recorded in cultivars grown in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of India. B. tabaci is a polyphagous pest that feeds on numerous fibre (particularly cotton), food, vegetable and ornamental plants. B. tabaci produces many generations in a year and reaches high population densities. To check the disease incidence, whitefly suppression using imidacloprid either as seed treatment or as foliar application early in the season is recommended. To minimize within-field spread of viruses, removal of virus-infected plants is suggested. Application of mineral and vegetable oils has been found to inhibit virus transmission and possibly can help to avoid difficulties with insecticide resistance in whiteflies. © 2010 EAPR.

Meena H.M.,CSK HPKV | Sharma R.P.,CSK HPKV
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2016

The effect of fertilizers and amendments on organic matter dynamics in an acid Alfisol was studied in a long-term field experiment initiated during 1972 at experimental farm of Department of Soil Science, CSK HPKV, Palampur (India). Continuous application of chemical fertilizers either alone or in combination with farmyard manure (FYM) or lime for 42 years significantly influenced water-soluble organic carbon (WS-OC), water-soluble carbohydrate (WS-CHO), soil microbial biomass carbon, soil microbial biomass nitrogen, soil microbial biomass phosphorus, soil microbial biomass sulfur, humic acid (HA), and fulvic acid (FA). Continuous cropping without fertilization resulted in depletion to the order of 17, 21, 24, 23, 22, 26, 12, and 18% in WS-OC, WS-CHO, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, microbial biomass phosphorus, microbial biomass sulfur, HA, and FA, respectively. Different fractions of soil organic matter were found to be positively and significantly correlated with grain and straw/stover yield of wheat and maize crops. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

Rani S.,CSK HPKV | Chahota R.K.,CSK HPKV | Sharma T.R.,CSK HPKV
Cytologia | Year: 2016

The present population-based cytological studies were conducted in Angelica glauca collected from the northwestern Himalayan region of India. For the first time we report the occurrence of various meiotic abnormalities viz. cytomixis, chromosomal stickiness, unoriented bivalents, laggards, bridges and other spindle irregularities in the species that exist at diploid level (2n=2x=22). The phenomenon of cytomixis (17.35%), involving the transfer of chromatin material between 2-4 adjacent pollen mother cells (PMCs) during male meiosis through broad and narrow cytomictic channels, was observed from early prophase stages to tetrad stage. Cytomixis results in the formation of hypo-, hyperploid and enucleated PMCs. The severe chromosomal stickiness restricts chromosome separation during anaphase. Further, the spindle abnormality produces monads, dyads, triads, polyads and micronuclei in sporads during microsporogenesis. All these abnormalities affect the pollen grain size and reduce the pollen fertility (64.23-84.25%) in such populations. In the present paper, the consequences of cytomixis, chromatin stickiness and other anomalies have been discussed in detail for different populations sampled from different altitudes. © 2016 The Japan Mendel Society.

African Journal of Microbiology Research | Year: 2011

Soil reaction (pH) is important property soil for crop productions. Many chemicals as ameliorates are required to make soil productive. In organic agriculture, bio-ameliorates are prerequisite. Rhizobia are acid producers and Bradyrhizobia are alkali producers. Rhizobia and Bradyrhizobia are used as ameliorate to study their impact on soil reaction (pH) in laboratory conditions for 21 days. It was observed that Rhizobia decreased soil pH and Bradyrhizobia increased soil pH during incubation. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Sharma J.K.,CSK HPKV | Singh A.,CSK HPKV
Indian Journal of Agricultural Biochemistry | Year: 2014

Common bean is valued for its protein rich seeds and plays an important economic, social and nutritional role in Himachal Pradesh. The farmers of the North-Western Himalayan region are still growing traditional varieties, most of which have not been adequately characterized for diversity or used in breeding programs. These varieties are remarkably diverse in grain morphology. During the present study, five common bean varieties, namely, Baspa, Jwala, Kailash, Kanchan and Triloki collected from Lahaul valley and one variety, Chamba local collected from Chamba district were used to evaluate the level of polymorphism and characterize them using 30 microsatellite markers for assessing their genetic diversity. Only eighteen markers showed polymorphism and amplified a total of 51 alleles. The analysis of polymorphic alleles revealed the presence of 18 unique alleles in the Chamba local variety and 20 unique alleles in the varieties collected from Lahaul valley. Polymorphic information content ranged between 0.15 and 0.75 with a mean value of 0.40. Cluster analysis delineated the varieties into three main clusters at 43% similarity coefficient. Only one case of molecular identity between Jwala and Kanchan was found with 92% similarity coefficient. The present results confirmed the usefulness of microsatellite markers as a tool in the development of suitable DNA fingerprints of common bean varieties and assessment of their genetic diversity. The study could be further extended for assessment of genetic diversity of larger number of accessions, genotypes and varieties of common bean collected from different locations which could be an important reservoir of genetic diversity. The results could be utilized by the plant breeders for the production of improved quality commercial classes of common bean. © 2014, Indian Society of Agricultural Biochemists. All rights reserved.

Sharma S.K.,CSK HPKV | Rana S.S.,CSK HPKV | Subehia S.K.,CSK HPKV | Negi S.C.,CSK HPKV
Indian Journal of Ecology | Year: 2014

Five rice-based cropping sequences viz. rice-wheat, rice-radish-potato, rice-potato-French bean, rice-potato-onion and riceberseem + oats were evaluated on cultivators' fields for their production potential and economic feasibility in the low hills of Una and Kangra districts of Himachal Pradesh. Five year's (2007-08 to 2011-12) results revealed that rice-potato-onion, cropping sequence recorded significantly higher rice equivalent yield (14705 kg ha-1) and net return (Rs 149597 Rs ha-1), which was at par with rice-potato - French bean (12858 kg ha-1 and 117761 Rs ha-1, respectively) and rice-radish-potato (11701 kg ha-1 and 109548 Rs ha-1, respectively) cropping sequence. The extent of rice equivalent yield and net returns increase under rice-potato-onion, rice-potato-French bean and rice - radish - potato sequences was 177.8 & 102.0,142.9 & 59.0 and 121.0 & 47.9%, respectively, overthe conventional rice-wheat cropping sequence. In terms of total calories, only rice - potato - onion and rice-radish-potato cropping sequences could excel over the rice-wheat sequence. Total calories in rice-berseem+oats sequence were 81.4% of that realized under the rice-wheat cropping sequence. Conventional rice - wheat cropping system was superior over all the tried cropping systems in terms of physical energy intensity as well as economic energy intensity terms. Land use efficiency ranged between 76.5 to 97.9 % under different cropping systems.

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