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Pathania M.S.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishwavidhyalaya | Dev I.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishwavidhyalaya | Dev I.,Regional Research Center
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences

A field study of 200 sample household was conducted in 2 agro- climatic zones of Himachal Pradesh to understand the availability of different fodder from varied sources. The availability of different type of fodder from owned lands increased with increase in farm size, while the quantity of these fodders from public lands decreased with increase in farm size. The productivity of fodder in CPR lands was very low due to plantation of pine trees and growth of Lantana and other obnoxious weeds on a large scale. Quantity of green and dry fodder collected by small farmers was higher from owned land as compared to public land. The farm size-wise analysis showed that the marginal farms depends more on public lands as compared to small farms. The grazing of animals on CPR lands was maximum during winter followed by rainy season. During summer, the maximum grazing was on cultivated fields. The average requirement of dry and green fodder for total livestock per household per annum was 73q and 152q, respectively. The green and dry fodder deficit per farm was 39 and 30%, respectively. Source

Kumari M.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishwavidhyalaya | Wadhwa D.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishwavidhyalaya | Sharma V.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishwavidhyalaya | Sharma K.S.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishwavidhyalaya | Katoch B.S.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishwavidhyalaya
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences

Comparative biological response of combination of different strains of lactobacilli, streptococci and yeast, isolated from different indigenous sources was studied in commercial laying chickens. The treatments consisted of T 1 (control feed with culture medium only), T2 (Lactobacillus bulgaricus L4 + Straptococcus lactis S1 + Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y3), T3 (L. acidophilous leopard excreta + S. faecalis leopard excreta + Torulopsis spherica calf dung), T 4 (L. acidophilous bottle gourd + S. uberis bitter gourd + S. cerevisiae bitter gourd), T5 (L. lactis tomato + S. faecium khamir + Pichia memberanaefaciens tomato), T6 (T2 + T3) and T 7 (T3 +T4). In overall, the FCR was higher in probiotic fed groups as compared to that of the control. Mortality was observed in the control (T1) and T5 group only. Feed consumed per kg egg mass was lower and, percent hen per day egg production was higher in all the probiotic fed groups. The probiotic feeding resulted in larger egg size production. The better egg laying performance could be due to the higher total and % Gram +ve microbial counts in the intestinal tract. It could be concluded that the probiotics, fed only up to 8 weeks of age showed a carry-over effect on the laying performance throughout the laying period and there was no need to mix too many strains of microbes from different sources to increase the farm returns. Source

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