CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University

www.hillagric.ac.in
Palampur, India
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Mawar R.,Indian Grassland And Fodder Research Institute | Banyal D.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University
Indian Phytopathology | Year: 2017

Cowpea is grown in various agro-climatic zones of India for seed and fodder purposes. Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum dematium (Pers.) Grove is the most devastating and causes substantial yield losses in this crop. Anthracnose severity was maximum in the early sown, while minimum in late sown crop irrespective of all the treatments. In the interaction analyses, all the biological and chemical treatments were significantly superior at Palampur location irrespective of date of sowing. On the basis of pooled average at Jhansi, the disease incidence ranged from 10.5-22.9% compared to Palampur where it ranged from 3.7-22.7%. The influence of sowing date on incidence of anthracnose was significant at both the locations. Early sowing leads to higher disease incidence than late sowing. © Indian Phytopathological Society 2017.


Sharma S.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Gautam N.,Central University of Punjab
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms | Year: 2017

Cultured mycelia of 4 clavicipitaceous fungi belonging to 2 genera, Cordyceps (C. gracilis, C. cicadae, C. sinclairii) and Metacordyceps (M. dhauladharensis), were analyzed for their chemical composition and antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Experiments to determine these characteristics were performed following standard methods. The fatty acid profiles of mycelia of all the species were analysed using gas chromatography. Chemical composition analysis of mycelial samples revealed carbohydrates (46.72 ± 0.7% to 63.40 ± 0.3%), protein (14.19 ± 0.2% to 26.16 ± 0.1%), crude fibers (0.93 ± 0.0% to 1.22 ± 0.0%), and ash (0.77 ± 0.0% to 0.98 ± 0.0%). The amounts of calcium and iron in mycelia were significantly higher than amounts of magnesium, copper, and manganese. The amount of β-carotene ranged from 0.67 to 1.17 μg/100 g; lycopene, from 0.30 to 0.57 μg/100 g; phenolic compounds, from 29.16 to 43.12 mg/100 g; polysaccharides, from 104 to 126 mg/g; and flavonoids, from 2.15 to 4.25 mg/g. All tested species showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) antioxidant activities measured based on half-maximal effective concentrations. C. cicadae possessed the lowest half-maximal effective concentration compared with the other species. All 4 species showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against 7 tested pathogenic bacterial strains. © 2017 Begell House, Inc.


Sharma M.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Sharma A.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University
Ecology, Environment and Conservation | Year: 2017

The present investigation was carried out at the Experimental Farms of the Department of Vegetable Science and Floriculture, CSKHPKV, Palampur and Hill Agricultural Research and Extension Centre, CSKHPKV, Bajaura, Kullu to gather information on gene action following 'line x tester' mating design involving 11 lines and three diverse testers. Lines, testers their 33 cross combinations, along with standard check 'CH-1', were evaluated in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications during summer-rainy seasons of 2010 and 2011. Data were recorded on fresh and dry fruit yield/plant along with component traits. Sufficient genetic variability was observed for all phenological, morphological, yield and yield contributing traits during both the years over the environments. The line x tester analysis revealed significant differences due to lines, testers and line x tester interaction for majority of the traits at both the locations and pooled over environments indicating appreciable diversity in the experimental material. The magnitude of non-additive gene action was predominant for majority of the traits with maximum contribution of lines in the expression of gene action. Breeding methods namely, single seed descent, reciprocal recurrent selection, bulk pedigree and diallel selective mating system can be employed to obtain transgressive segregants with high yield and desirable horticultural traits in chilli. Copyright © EM International.


Sharma M.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Sharma A.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University
Ecology, Environment and Conservation | Year: 2017

The present investigation was carried out at the Experimental Farms of the Department of Vegetable Science and Floriculture, CSKHPKV, Palampur and Hill Agricultural Research and Extension Centre, CSKHPKV, Bajaura, Kullu to gather information on stability and adaptability for yield, horticultural and quality traits in chilli pepper across diverse environments in north western himalayas. The investigation was carried out following 'line x tester' mating design involving 11 lines and three diverse testers. Lines, testers their 33 cross combinations, along with standard check 'CH-1', were evaluated in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications during summer-rainy seasons of 2010 and 2011. Data were recorded on fresh and dry fruit yield/plant along with component traits. Sufficient genetic variability was observed for all phenological, morphological, yield and yield contributing, and quality traits during both the years over the environments. Significant genotype x environment interactions for all the characters indicated a definite role of environment on the performance of genotypes/crosses. © EM International ISSN 0971-765X.


Chaudhary J.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Banyal D.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University
Indian Phytopathology | Year: 2017

Powdery mildew of pea caused by Erysiphe pisi DC ex. Saint-Amans is of common recurrence and destructive disease in wet and dry temperate regions of Himachal Pradesh where pea is an important off-season crop. The disease is more prevalent at flowering and pod formation stage and appears in epidemic form almost every year in India and other countries of world. The disease is of utmost importance in Himachal Pradesh as the crop is grown throughout the year in different agro climatic zones of state. Yield losses upto 47 per cent have been reported due to powdery mildew in India by different workers. One of the options for disease control is the use of resistant cultivars. In the present study, 310 germplasm lines of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were screened under net house and artificial epiphytotic conditions under greenhouse. Out of 310 lines, under both i.e. net house and in vitro, a total of 31 lines viz., HFPU, P-1797, P-1783, P-1052, HFP-7, HFP-8, P- 1808, P-1820, P-1813, P-1377, P-1422-1, P-1811, IPF-99-25, KMNR-400, LFP-566, LFP-569, LFP-552, LFP-573, JP-501-A/2, PMR- 21, KMNR-894, P-1280-4, P-1436-9, P-200-11, IPFD-99-13, HVDP-15, DPP-43-2, LFP-517, LFP-570, JP Ajjila and JP-15 showed highly resistant reaction against powdery mildew. © Indian Phytopathological Society 2017.


Kanwar S.S.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Keshani,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2016

Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different fermented foods of Western Himalayas have been studied for strain level and functional diversity in our department. Among these 23 strains, 10 S. cerevisiae strains on the basis of variation in their brewing traits were selected to study their organoleptic effect at gene level by targeting ATF1 gene, which is responsible for ester synthesis during fermentation. Significant variation was observed in ATF1 gene sequences, suggesting differences in aroma and flavor of their brewing products. Apple is a predominant fruit in Himachal Pradesh and apple cider is one of the most popular drinks all around the world hence, it was chosen for sensory evaluation of six selected yeast strains. Organoleptic studies and sensory analysis suggested Sc21 and Sc01 as best indigenous strains for soft and hard cider, respectively, indicating their potential in enriching the local products with enhanced quality. © 2016 Kanwar and Keshani.


Choudhary A.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Suri V.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2014

Oilseed productivity in Himachal Pradesh, India, in northwestern (NW) Himalayas is far less than national averages because of poor crop management. Frontline demonstration (FLD) program is an effective technology transfer tool for better technology adoption that bridges the yield gaps. The technological and extension yield gaps in oilseed crops were studied for 3 years during Kharif 2008 to Rabi 2010-2011 under an FLD program in the Mandi District in Himachal Pradesh, India, revealing that there was a wide yield gap between potential and demonstration yields due to technology and extension yield gaps. Extension yield gaps varied to the extent of 577-905 kg ha-1 in soybean (Glycine max), 108-195 kg ha-1 in sesame (Sesamum indicum), 237-350 kg ha-1 in linseed (Linum usitatissimum), 340-355 kg ha-1 in toria (Brassica campestris subsp. oleifera var. toria), 448-557 kg ha-1 in gobhi sarson (Brassica napus var. napus), and 438 kg ha-1 in brown sarson (Brassica campestris var. brown sarson) during the study period. Improved technology package has also enhanced the profitability of oilseeds in terms of gross and net returns besides additional returns in the range 2445-12838 ha-1, enhancing incremental benefit-cost ratio (0.96-4.65). Technology indexes in soybean (29.6-52.2%), sesame (52.8-64.7%), linseed (42.3%), toria (45.2-46.4%), gobhi sarson (47.8-51.4%), and brown sarson (29.3%) has implied that demonstrated farm technology in oilseeds is quite feasible under prevailing farming situations in Himachal Pradesh, but it needs to be popularized in an intensive manner to educate hill farmers in NW Himalayas to adopt this technologically sound and economically viable method to enhance oilseed productivity and farm profitability. Improved farm technology, especially improved cultivars and nutrient management technology under these adaptive research trials, has also raised water-use efficiency (WUE) in Kharif (0.28-2.87 kg ha-1 mm) and Rabi oilseeds (1.79-9.43 kg ha-1 mm). Overall, it is concluded that demonstrated farm technology has great potential to improve oilseed productivity, profitability, and WUE, thus enabling resource-poor hill farmers to earn better livelihoods in Himachal Pradesh, India, and collateral farming situations in the developing world. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Suri V.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Choudhary A.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2013

A field experiment was conducted in a phosphorus (P)-deficient acidic Alfisol in northwestern Himalayas to study the effect of three vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) cultures [VAML, local VAM culture (Glomus mosseae) developed by CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University, Palampur, India; VAMT, VAM culture (Glomus intraradices) developed by Centre for Mycorrhizal Research, The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), New Delhi, India; and VAMI, VAM culture (Glomus mosseae) developed by Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi, India] on growth, productivity, and nutrient dynamics in rainfed soybean. Plant height, aboveground dry matter, root dry matter, total dry matter, root length, root weight density, Rhizobium root nodule count, root colonization, yield attributes, yield, and nutrient uptake of soybean increased consistently and significantly with increase in inorganic P levels from 25 to 75% of recommended P2O5 dose based on targeted yield precision model coupled with various VAM cultures. VAMT (Glomus intraradices) at each P level showed its superiority over VAMI and VAML. Sole application of any of the three VAM cultures produced similar growth and development parameters as well as grain yield (18.68 to 19.08 q ha-1) as produced through farmers' practice (nitrogen at 20 kg ha-1), indicating that VAM has a vital role in root morphology and nutrient dynamics in a soil-plant system, though significantly greater productivity was obtained with 100% of the recommended P2O5 dose based on soil-test crop response (STCR) precision model without VAM inoculation. Targeted grain yield of soybean (25 q ha-1) was achievable with 75% of the recommended P2O5 dose applied with any of the three VAM fungi cultures without impairing soil fertility, thereby indicating that VAM fungi can save about 25% P fertilizer in soybean in P-deficient acidic Alfisols of northwestern Himalayas. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Choudhary A.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Thakur S.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Suri V.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2013

Balh Valley in the northwestern Himalayas in India is well known for cultivation of high-value cash crops and vegetables. The Indo-German Agricultural Project executed four decades ago in the valley has been the driving force for agrarian development in the valley, but crops are still grown under nutrient-starved conditions, giving low productivity compared to national averages. To demonstrate and disseminate the integrated nutrient management (INM) technology in the irrigated ecosystem of Balh Valley, efforts were funded by the Indian Farmers' Fertilizers Cooperative Limited (IFFCO) to develop sustainable crop production systems under cash crops and vegetables following an appropriate technology transfer model by Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Sundernagar, India. For effective technology transfer, field demonstrations, method demonstrations, farmers' training camps, field days, and numerous field conventions were organized in addition to extending soil testing, literature supply, promotional seed and fertilizer input supply, and training of agro-cooperative society personnel who deal with seed and fertilizer input supply in the region. The greater extension gaps in tomato-blackgram and potato-Kharif onion crop sequences indicated need for effective technology transfer tools for high adoption of technology in these production systems in the valley. Potato-Kharif onion cropping system using INM technology resulted in greater system productivity in terms of blackgram equivalent yield (76.7q ha-1) and gross (3,06,920 ha-1) and net returns (2,22,295 ha-1), followed by tomato-blackgram and green pea-okra production systems, respectively, using an appropriate technology transfer model. The study also revealed improvement in available nitrogen (N)-phosphorus (P)-potassium (K) and organic carbon (C) pool of the soils besides crop productivity and profitability in field trials under INM practices over farmers' practiced plots. Knowledge before the study about soil testing, dose and time of application of organics, chemical fertilizers, and their integrated use ranged from 9 to 41%, whereas knowledge increases after the study ranged between 55 to 88%. The INM technology adoption rate after 1 year of project completion ranged between 66 to 70%, whereas soil testing was done by only 35% of farmers. Thus, INM technology adoption rate was greater following the appropriate technology transfer model based on critical analyses of fertilizer use, existing production systems, and appropriate interventions for technology transfer. This comprehensive study under the IFFCO-KVK Collaborative Project attempts to highlight that an effective technology transfer model can play a key role in adoption of INM technology for sustainable production systems in the developing world, especially for resource- and knowledge-poor farmers of collateral socioagroeconomic environments of developing nations. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Suri V.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Choudhary A.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2012

The effect of three vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) cultures with or without inorganic phosphorus (P) was studied in a maize-wheat-maize crop sequence in a P-deficient acidic Alfisol. Application of these three VAM cultures (Glomus mosseae, developed by CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University, Palampur; Glomus intraradices, developed by the Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi; and Glomus mosseae, developed by the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi) alone or with 25% to 75% of recommended P2O5 dose based on soil-test crop response (STCR) precision model along with 100% of recommended nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) caused significantly greater grain and straw yield, NPK uptake, and soil nutrient buildup over the control and also increased crop yield and NPK uptake consistently and significantly with increases in applied P from 25% to 75% P2O5 dose. Results implied that application of either of the three VAM cultures with 75% P2O5 dose can economize the yield-targeted fertilizer P dose to the extent of about one fourth of the P requirement in maize-wheat-maize crop sequence without impairing yield targets and soil fertility in a P-deficient acidic alfisol. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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