Entity

Time filter

Source Type


Kumar A.,University of Punjab | Suri V.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Choudhary A.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2014

The present investigation was carried out at CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University, Palampur, India, during 2009-2011 to economize inorganic phosphorus (P) and water needs of an okra (Abelmoschus esculentus)-pea (Pisum sativum) cropping system through vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi (Glomus mosseae) in a Himalayan acid Alfisol. The field experiment was replicated three times in a randomized block design comprising 14 treatments consisting of 12 treatment combinations of two VAM levels [0 and 12 kg ha-1], three phosphorus levels [50, 75, and 100% of recommended soil-test-based nitrogen (N)-P-potassium (K)], and two irrigation regimes [40 and 80% of available water-holding capacity of field soil (AWC)], in addition to one treatment with "generalized recommended NPK dose with generalized recommended irrigations (GRD)" and one treatment based on "farmers' practice of plant nutrition and irrigation management in the region." This article presents crop productivity and P dynamics studies during the second crop cycle of okra-pea sequence (2010-2011) and statuses of different P fractions in the soil after the second pea crop harvest during 2010-2011. Crop productivity and P uptake data in okra-pea sequence indicated that application of VAM + 75% P dose at either of two irrigation regimes did not differ significantly than GRD treatment and VAM + 100% P dose. It suggests an economy of about 25% inorganic P dose through VAM fungi. The treatments imbedded with VAM inoculation enhanced the P uptake in okra-pea system, on an average by 21% over the GRD and non-VAM-inoculated counterparts. Further, integrated application of P, VAM, and irrigation regimes evaluated in okra-pea sequence for 2 years led to greater status of water-soluble P (21%), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)-inorganic phosphorus (Pi) (11%), sodium hydroxide (NaOH)-Pi (9%), hydrochloric acid (HCl)-extractable-P (20%) over non-VAM-inoculated counterparts and low status of organic P (NaHCO3-Po and NaOH-Po), all of which appreciably contributed to available P supply to plants in the present study in an acid Alfisol. The correlation coefficient reveals that contribution of inorganic P forms is highly correlated to crop productivity and total P uptake in okra and pea crops besides soil available P in the present study. Overall, it is concluded that VAM inoculation in okra-pea cropping system significantly enhanced the P availability to plants by way of enriching the labile-P pool such as water-soluble P and P loosely bound to aluminium (Al-P) and iron (Fe-P) on adsorption complexes and by P mineralization from organic matter in an Himalayan acid Alfisol. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Suri V.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Choudhary A.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Kumar A.,University of Punjab
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2013

To assess the effect of five vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) isolates of Glomus mosseae screened out from different farming situations, two pot experiments were conducted on maize and soybean in a phosphorus (P)-deficient Himalayan acid Alfisol. There was variation in VAM spore populations of Glomus mosseae isolates screened out from maize harvested fields, soybean fields, vegetable fields, tea orchard, and citrus orchard. Glomus mosseae isolate from vegetable-based cropping system exhibited maximum root colonization at flowering in maize (32%) and soybean (28%), followed by Glomus mosseae isolate from soybean fields, and exhibited the lowest in Glomus mosseae isolate from tea farm. Glomus mosseae isolate from vegetable-dominated fields was at par with Glomus mosseae isolate from soybean-based cropping system, again resulting in significantly high root biomass, nitrogen (N)-P-potassium (K) uptake, and grain and straw productivity both in maize and soybean crops besides the greatest Rhizobium root nodule biomass in soybean. There was a considerable reduction in soil fertility with respect to NPK status over initial status in pot soils inoculated with Glomus mosseae isolate from vegetable-dominated ecosystem, thereby indicating greater nutrient dynamics by this efficient VAM strain in the plant-soil system and greater productivity in a P-deficient acidic Alfisol. Overall, VAM isolates from different cropping systems and farming situations with variable size and composition of VAM mycoflora resulted in differential effects on growth, productivity, and nutrient dynamics in field crops. Overall, Glomus mosseae isolates from vegetable and soybean fields proved to be superiormost in terms of root colonization, growth, and crop productivity as well as nutrient dynamics in above study. Thus, isolation, identification, and selection of efficient VAM strains may prove as a boon in low-input intensive agriculture in P-deficient Himalayan acidic Alfisol. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Choudhary A.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Suri V.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2014

Oilseed productivity in Himachal Pradesh, India, in northwestern (NW) Himalayas is far less than national averages because of poor crop management. Frontline demonstration (FLD) program is an effective technology transfer tool for better technology adoption that bridges the yield gaps. The technological and extension yield gaps in oilseed crops were studied for 3 years during Kharif 2008 to Rabi 2010-2011 under an FLD program in the Mandi District in Himachal Pradesh, India, revealing that there was a wide yield gap between potential and demonstration yields due to technology and extension yield gaps. Extension yield gaps varied to the extent of 577-905 kg ha-1 in soybean (Glycine max), 108-195 kg ha-1 in sesame (Sesamum indicum), 237-350 kg ha-1 in linseed (Linum usitatissimum), 340-355 kg ha-1 in toria (Brassica campestris subsp. oleifera var. toria), 448-557 kg ha-1 in gobhi sarson (Brassica napus var. napus), and 438 kg ha-1 in brown sarson (Brassica campestris var. brown sarson) during the study period. Improved technology package has also enhanced the profitability of oilseeds in terms of gross and net returns besides additional returns in the range 2445-12838 ha-1, enhancing incremental benefit-cost ratio (0.96-4.65). Technology indexes in soybean (29.6-52.2%), sesame (52.8-64.7%), linseed (42.3%), toria (45.2-46.4%), gobhi sarson (47.8-51.4%), and brown sarson (29.3%) has implied that demonstrated farm technology in oilseeds is quite feasible under prevailing farming situations in Himachal Pradesh, but it needs to be popularized in an intensive manner to educate hill farmers in NW Himalayas to adopt this technologically sound and economically viable method to enhance oilseed productivity and farm profitability. Improved farm technology, especially improved cultivars and nutrient management technology under these adaptive research trials, has also raised water-use efficiency (WUE) in Kharif (0.28-2.87 kg ha-1 mm) and Rabi oilseeds (1.79-9.43 kg ha-1 mm). Overall, it is concluded that demonstrated farm technology has great potential to improve oilseed productivity, profitability, and WUE, thus enabling resource-poor hill farmers to earn better livelihoods in Himachal Pradesh, India, and collateral farming situations in the developing world. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Suri V.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Choudhary A.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2013

A field experiment was conducted in a phosphorus (P)-deficient acidic Alfisol in northwestern Himalayas to study the effect of three vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) cultures [VAML, local VAM culture (Glomus mosseae) developed by CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University, Palampur, India; VAMT, VAM culture (Glomus intraradices) developed by Centre for Mycorrhizal Research, The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), New Delhi, India; and VAMI, VAM culture (Glomus mosseae) developed by Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi, India] on growth, productivity, and nutrient dynamics in rainfed soybean. Plant height, aboveground dry matter, root dry matter, total dry matter, root length, root weight density, Rhizobium root nodule count, root colonization, yield attributes, yield, and nutrient uptake of soybean increased consistently and significantly with increase in inorganic P levels from 25 to 75% of recommended P2O5 dose based on targeted yield precision model coupled with various VAM cultures. VAMT (Glomus intraradices) at each P level showed its superiority over VAMI and VAML. Sole application of any of the three VAM cultures produced similar growth and development parameters as well as grain yield (18.68 to 19.08 q ha-1) as produced through farmers' practice (nitrogen at 20 kg ha-1), indicating that VAM has a vital role in root morphology and nutrient dynamics in a soil-plant system, though significantly greater productivity was obtained with 100% of the recommended P2O5 dose based on soil-test crop response (STCR) precision model without VAM inoculation. Targeted grain yield of soybean (25 q ha-1) was achievable with 75% of the recommended P2O5 dose applied with any of the three VAM fungi cultures without impairing soil fertility, thereby indicating that VAM fungi can save about 25% P fertilizer in soybean in P-deficient acidic Alfisols of northwestern Himalayas. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Suri V.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Choudhary A.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2013

Effects of Glycine-Glomus-phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) interactions were studied on productivity, nutrient dynamics, and root colonization in soybean in a phosphorus (P)-deficient Himalayan acidic Alfisol in a greenhouse experiment. Treatments consisted of three vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) cultures, VAML [VAM culture, Glomus mosseae, developed by CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University, Palampur, India], VAMT [VAM culture, Glomus intraradices, developed by Centre for Mycorrhizal Research, The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), New Delhi, India], and VAMI [VAM culture, Glomus mosseae, developed by Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi, India], and a local PSB culture (Pseudomonas striata) alone or in combination with or without 75% of recommended phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) dose based on targeted yield concept following the soil-test crop response (STCR) precision model. Sole application of PSB or either of the above VAM cultures considerably enhanced VA-mycorrhizal root colonization and root weight besides crop productivity and nutrient uptake over control. A similar stimulatory effect with significant enhancement on mycorrhizal root colonization and root weight was observed with coinoculation of PSB and VAM cultures over the control. Dual inoculation of VAM and PSB cultures also resulted in significant improvement in grain and straw yield besides grain protein content, thereby revealing a synergistic interaction between VAM and PSB. Coinoculation with either of VAMT (Glomus intraradices) or VAMI (Glomus mosseae) + PSB + 75% P2O5 dose remained at par with sole application of 100% P2O5 dose with respect to crop productivity, nutrient content, nutrient uptake, and soil fertility status besides the greatest root colonization and root weight at flowering, indicating that Glycine-Glomus-PSB interactions in combination with 75% P2O5 dose based on STCR precision model lead to economization of fertilizer P by about one-fourth without impairing crop productivity and soil fertility in soybean in a Himalayan acidic Alfisol. © 2013 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Discover hidden collaborations