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Kumar A.,University of Punjab | Suri V.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Choudhary A.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2014

The present investigation was carried out at CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University, Palampur, India, during 2009-2011 to economize inorganic phosphorus (P) and water needs of an okra (Abelmoschus esculentus)-pea (Pisum sativum) cropping system through vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi (Glomus mosseae) in a Himalayan acid Alfisol. The field experiment was replicated three times in a randomized block design comprising 14 treatments consisting of 12 treatment combinations of two VAM levels [0 and 12 kg ha-1], three phosphorus levels [50, 75, and 100% of recommended soil-test-based nitrogen (N)-P-potassium (K)], and two irrigation regimes [40 and 80% of available water-holding capacity of field soil (AWC)], in addition to one treatment with "generalized recommended NPK dose with generalized recommended irrigations (GRD)" and one treatment based on "farmers' practice of plant nutrition and irrigation management in the region." This article presents crop productivity and P dynamics studies during the second crop cycle of okra-pea sequence (2010-2011) and statuses of different P fractions in the soil after the second pea crop harvest during 2010-2011. Crop productivity and P uptake data in okra-pea sequence indicated that application of VAM + 75% P dose at either of two irrigation regimes did not differ significantly than GRD treatment and VAM + 100% P dose. It suggests an economy of about 25% inorganic P dose through VAM fungi. The treatments imbedded with VAM inoculation enhanced the P uptake in okra-pea system, on an average by 21% over the GRD and non-VAM-inoculated counterparts. Further, integrated application of P, VAM, and irrigation regimes evaluated in okra-pea sequence for 2 years led to greater status of water-soluble P (21%), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)-inorganic phosphorus (Pi) (11%), sodium hydroxide (NaOH)-Pi (9%), hydrochloric acid (HCl)-extractable-P (20%) over non-VAM-inoculated counterparts and low status of organic P (NaHCO3-Po and NaOH-Po), all of which appreciably contributed to available P supply to plants in the present study in an acid Alfisol. The correlation coefficient reveals that contribution of inorganic P forms is highly correlated to crop productivity and total P uptake in okra and pea crops besides soil available P in the present study. Overall, it is concluded that VAM inoculation in okra-pea cropping system significantly enhanced the P availability to plants by way of enriching the labile-P pool such as water-soluble P and P loosely bound to aluminium (Al-P) and iron (Fe-P) on adsorption complexes and by P mineralization from organic matter in an Himalayan acid Alfisol. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Suri V.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Choudhary A.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Kumar A.,University of Punjab
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2013

To assess the effect of five vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) isolates of Glomus mosseae screened out from different farming situations, two pot experiments were conducted on maize and soybean in a phosphorus (P)-deficient Himalayan acid Alfisol. There was variation in VAM spore populations of Glomus mosseae isolates screened out from maize harvested fields, soybean fields, vegetable fields, tea orchard, and citrus orchard. Glomus mosseae isolate from vegetable-based cropping system exhibited maximum root colonization at flowering in maize (32%) and soybean (28%), followed by Glomus mosseae isolate from soybean fields, and exhibited the lowest in Glomus mosseae isolate from tea farm. Glomus mosseae isolate from vegetable-dominated fields was at par with Glomus mosseae isolate from soybean-based cropping system, again resulting in significantly high root biomass, nitrogen (N)-P-potassium (K) uptake, and grain and straw productivity both in maize and soybean crops besides the greatest Rhizobium root nodule biomass in soybean. There was a considerable reduction in soil fertility with respect to NPK status over initial status in pot soils inoculated with Glomus mosseae isolate from vegetable-dominated ecosystem, thereby indicating greater nutrient dynamics by this efficient VAM strain in the plant-soil system and greater productivity in a P-deficient acidic Alfisol. Overall, VAM isolates from different cropping systems and farming situations with variable size and composition of VAM mycoflora resulted in differential effects on growth, productivity, and nutrient dynamics in field crops. Overall, Glomus mosseae isolates from vegetable and soybean fields proved to be superiormost in terms of root colonization, growth, and crop productivity as well as nutrient dynamics in above study. Thus, isolation, identification, and selection of efficient VAM strains may prove as a boon in low-input intensive agriculture in P-deficient Himalayan acidic Alfisol. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Kanwar S.S.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Keshani,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2016

Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different fermented foods of Western Himalayas have been studied for strain level and functional diversity in our department. Among these 23 strains, 10 S. cerevisiae strains on the basis of variation in their brewing traits were selected to study their organoleptic effect at gene level by targeting ATF1 gene, which is responsible for ester synthesis during fermentation. Significant variation was observed in ATF1 gene sequences, suggesting differences in aroma and flavor of their brewing products. Apple is a predominant fruit in Himachal Pradesh and apple cider is one of the most popular drinks all around the world hence, it was chosen for sensory evaluation of six selected yeast strains. Organoleptic studies and sensory analysis suggested Sc21 and Sc01 as best indigenous strains for soft and hard cider, respectively, indicating their potential in enriching the local products with enhanced quality. © 2016 Kanwar and Keshani.


Choudhary A.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Suri V.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2014

Oilseed productivity in Himachal Pradesh, India, in northwestern (NW) Himalayas is far less than national averages because of poor crop management. Frontline demonstration (FLD) program is an effective technology transfer tool for better technology adoption that bridges the yield gaps. The technological and extension yield gaps in oilseed crops were studied for 3 years during Kharif 2008 to Rabi 2010-2011 under an FLD program in the Mandi District in Himachal Pradesh, India, revealing that there was a wide yield gap between potential and demonstration yields due to technology and extension yield gaps. Extension yield gaps varied to the extent of 577-905 kg ha-1 in soybean (Glycine max), 108-195 kg ha-1 in sesame (Sesamum indicum), 237-350 kg ha-1 in linseed (Linum usitatissimum), 340-355 kg ha-1 in toria (Brassica campestris subsp. oleifera var. toria), 448-557 kg ha-1 in gobhi sarson (Brassica napus var. napus), and 438 kg ha-1 in brown sarson (Brassica campestris var. brown sarson) during the study period. Improved technology package has also enhanced the profitability of oilseeds in terms of gross and net returns besides additional returns in the range 2445-12838 ha-1, enhancing incremental benefit-cost ratio (0.96-4.65). Technology indexes in soybean (29.6-52.2%), sesame (52.8-64.7%), linseed (42.3%), toria (45.2-46.4%), gobhi sarson (47.8-51.4%), and brown sarson (29.3%) has implied that demonstrated farm technology in oilseeds is quite feasible under prevailing farming situations in Himachal Pradesh, but it needs to be popularized in an intensive manner to educate hill farmers in NW Himalayas to adopt this technologically sound and economically viable method to enhance oilseed productivity and farm profitability. Improved farm technology, especially improved cultivars and nutrient management technology under these adaptive research trials, has also raised water-use efficiency (WUE) in Kharif (0.28-2.87 kg ha-1 mm) and Rabi oilseeds (1.79-9.43 kg ha-1 mm). Overall, it is concluded that demonstrated farm technology has great potential to improve oilseed productivity, profitability, and WUE, thus enabling resource-poor hill farmers to earn better livelihoods in Himachal Pradesh, India, and collateral farming situations in the developing world. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Suri V.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Choudhary A.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2013

A field experiment was conducted in a phosphorus (P)-deficient acidic Alfisol in northwestern Himalayas to study the effect of three vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) cultures [VAML, local VAM culture (Glomus mosseae) developed by CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University, Palampur, India; VAMT, VAM culture (Glomus intraradices) developed by Centre for Mycorrhizal Research, The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), New Delhi, India; and VAMI, VAM culture (Glomus mosseae) developed by Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi, India] on growth, productivity, and nutrient dynamics in rainfed soybean. Plant height, aboveground dry matter, root dry matter, total dry matter, root length, root weight density, Rhizobium root nodule count, root colonization, yield attributes, yield, and nutrient uptake of soybean increased consistently and significantly with increase in inorganic P levels from 25 to 75% of recommended P2O5 dose based on targeted yield precision model coupled with various VAM cultures. VAMT (Glomus intraradices) at each P level showed its superiority over VAMI and VAML. Sole application of any of the three VAM cultures produced similar growth and development parameters as well as grain yield (18.68 to 19.08 q ha-1) as produced through farmers' practice (nitrogen at 20 kg ha-1), indicating that VAM has a vital role in root morphology and nutrient dynamics in a soil-plant system, though significantly greater productivity was obtained with 100% of the recommended P2O5 dose based on soil-test crop response (STCR) precision model without VAM inoculation. Targeted grain yield of soybean (25 q ha-1) was achievable with 75% of the recommended P2O5 dose applied with any of the three VAM fungi cultures without impairing soil fertility, thereby indicating that VAM fungi can save about 25% P fertilizer in soybean in P-deficient acidic Alfisols of northwestern Himalayas. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Suri V.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Choudhary A.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2013

Effects of Glycine-Glomus-phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) interactions were studied on productivity, nutrient dynamics, and root colonization in soybean in a phosphorus (P)-deficient Himalayan acidic Alfisol in a greenhouse experiment. Treatments consisted of three vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) cultures, VAML [VAM culture, Glomus mosseae, developed by CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University, Palampur, India], VAMT [VAM culture, Glomus intraradices, developed by Centre for Mycorrhizal Research, The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), New Delhi, India], and VAMI [VAM culture, Glomus mosseae, developed by Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi, India], and a local PSB culture (Pseudomonas striata) alone or in combination with or without 75% of recommended phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) dose based on targeted yield concept following the soil-test crop response (STCR) precision model. Sole application of PSB or either of the above VAM cultures considerably enhanced VA-mycorrhizal root colonization and root weight besides crop productivity and nutrient uptake over control. A similar stimulatory effect with significant enhancement on mycorrhizal root colonization and root weight was observed with coinoculation of PSB and VAM cultures over the control. Dual inoculation of VAM and PSB cultures also resulted in significant improvement in grain and straw yield besides grain protein content, thereby revealing a synergistic interaction between VAM and PSB. Coinoculation with either of VAMT (Glomus intraradices) or VAMI (Glomus mosseae) + PSB + 75% P2O5 dose remained at par with sole application of 100% P2O5 dose with respect to crop productivity, nutrient content, nutrient uptake, and soil fertility status besides the greatest root colonization and root weight at flowering, indicating that Glycine-Glomus-PSB interactions in combination with 75% P2O5 dose based on STCR precision model lead to economization of fertilizer P by about one-fourth without impairing crop productivity and soil fertility in soybean in a Himalayan acidic Alfisol. © 2013 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Choudhary A.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Thakur S.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Suri V.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2013

Balh Valley in the northwestern Himalayas in India is well known for cultivation of high-value cash crops and vegetables. The Indo-German Agricultural Project executed four decades ago in the valley has been the driving force for agrarian development in the valley, but crops are still grown under nutrient-starved conditions, giving low productivity compared to national averages. To demonstrate and disseminate the integrated nutrient management (INM) technology in the irrigated ecosystem of Balh Valley, efforts were funded by the Indian Farmers' Fertilizers Cooperative Limited (IFFCO) to develop sustainable crop production systems under cash crops and vegetables following an appropriate technology transfer model by Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Sundernagar, India. For effective technology transfer, field demonstrations, method demonstrations, farmers' training camps, field days, and numerous field conventions were organized in addition to extending soil testing, literature supply, promotional seed and fertilizer input supply, and training of agro-cooperative society personnel who deal with seed and fertilizer input supply in the region. The greater extension gaps in tomato-blackgram and potato-Kharif onion crop sequences indicated need for effective technology transfer tools for high adoption of technology in these production systems in the valley. Potato-Kharif onion cropping system using INM technology resulted in greater system productivity in terms of blackgram equivalent yield (76.7q ha-1) and gross (3,06,920 ha-1) and net returns (2,22,295 ha-1), followed by tomato-blackgram and green pea-okra production systems, respectively, using an appropriate technology transfer model. The study also revealed improvement in available nitrogen (N)-phosphorus (P)-potassium (K) and organic carbon (C) pool of the soils besides crop productivity and profitability in field trials under INM practices over farmers' practiced plots. Knowledge before the study about soil testing, dose and time of application of organics, chemical fertilizers, and their integrated use ranged from 9 to 41%, whereas knowledge increases after the study ranged between 55 to 88%. The INM technology adoption rate after 1 year of project completion ranged between 66 to 70%, whereas soil testing was done by only 35% of farmers. Thus, INM technology adoption rate was greater following the appropriate technology transfer model based on critical analyses of fertilizer use, existing production systems, and appropriate interventions for technology transfer. This comprehensive study under the IFFCO-KVK Collaborative Project attempts to highlight that an effective technology transfer model can play a key role in adoption of INM technology for sustainable production systems in the developing world, especially for resource- and knowledge-poor farmers of collateral socioagroeconomic environments of developing nations. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Suri V.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Choudhary A.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Chander G.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Verma T.S.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2011

Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi symbiosis confers benefits directly to the host plant's growth and yield through acquisition of phosphorus and other macroand micronutrients, especially from phosphorus (P)-deficient acidic soils. The inoculation of three VAM cultures [viz., local culture (Glomus mosseae), VAM culture from Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi (Glomus mosseae), and a culture from the Centre for Mycorrhizal Research, Energy Research Institute (TERI), New Delhi (Glomus intraradices)] along with P fertilization in wheat in a P-deficient acidic alfisol improved the root colonization by 16-24% while grain and straw yields increased by 12.6-15.7% and 13.4-15.4%, respectively, over the control. Uptake of nitrogen (N), P, potassium (K), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) was also improved with VAM inoculation over control, but the magnitude of uptake was significantly greater only in the cases of P, Fe, Zn, and Cu. Inoculation of wheat with three VAM cultures in combination with increasing inorganic P application from 50% to 75% of the recommended P 2O 5 dose to wheat through the targeted yield concept following the soil-test crop response (STCR) precision model resulted in consistent and significant improvement in grain and straw yield, macronutrient (NPK) uptake, and micronutrient (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) uptake in wheat though root colonization did not improve at P 2O 5 doses beyond 50% of the recommended dose. The VAM cultures alone or in combination with increasing P levels from 50% to 75% P 2O 5 dose resulted in reduction of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable micronutrient (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) contents in P-deficient acidic soil over the control and initial fertility status, although micronutrient contents were relatively greater in VAM-supplied plots alone or in combination with 50% to 75% P 2O 5 dose over sole application of 100% P 2O 5 dose, thereby indicating the positive role of VAM in nutrient mobilization and nutrient dynamics in the soil-plant system. There was significant improvement in available N and P status in soil with VAM inoculation coupled with increasing P levels upto 75% P 2O 5 dose, although the greatest P buildup was obtained with sole application of 100% P 2O 5 dose. The TERI VAM culture (Glomus intraradices) showed its superiority over the other two cultures (Glomus mosseae) in terms of crop yield and nutrient uptake in wheat though the differences were nonsignificant among the VAM cultures alone or at each P level. Overall, it was inferred that use of VA-mycorrhizal fungi is beneficial under low soil P or in low input (nutrient)-intensive agroecosystems. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Suri V.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Choudhary A.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2012

The effect of three vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) cultures with or without inorganic phosphorus (P) was studied in a maize-wheat-maize crop sequence in a P-deficient acidic Alfisol. Application of these three VAM cultures (Glomus mosseae, developed by CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University, Palampur; Glomus intraradices, developed by the Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi; and Glomus mosseae, developed by the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi) alone or with 25% to 75% of recommended P2O5 dose based on soil-test crop response (STCR) precision model along with 100% of recommended nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) caused significantly greater grain and straw yield, NPK uptake, and soil nutrient buildup over the control and also increased crop yield and NPK uptake consistently and significantly with increases in applied P from 25% to 75% P2O5 dose. Results implied that application of either of the three VAM cultures with 75% P2O5 dose can economize the yield-targeted fertilizer P dose to the extent of about one fourth of the P requirement in maize-wheat-maize crop sequence without impairing yield targets and soil fertility in a P-deficient acidic alfisol. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Walia S.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Kamal R.,Panjab University | Kanwar S.S.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Dhawan D.K.,Panjab University
Nutrition and Cancer | Year: 2015

The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of potential probiotics in regulating the activity of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) along with other morphological and histological analysis during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. The rats were divided into 6 groups viz., normal control, Lactobacillus plantarum (AdF10) treated, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) treated, DMH treated, AdF10 + DMH treated and LGG + DMH treated. Probiotics were supplemented to rats at dose levels of 2 × 1010 cells per day for 6 days in a week. All the treatments were continued for a period of 16 wk. DMH treatment resulted in a statistically significant increase in the levels of total sialic acid (TSA). However, on supplementation with probiotics, a significant reduction in TSA was observed. DMH treatment brought about a significant increase in the expression of COX-2. But, supplementation of probiotics brought down the protein expression to moderate level. Further, supplementation with probiotics was also able to reduce tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity and average tumor size. Therefore, treatment with probiotics has the potential of providing protection against colon cancer by suppressing the COX-2 expression as one of the protective mechanisms. © 2015, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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