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Kanpur, India

Mitra B.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Mitra B.,CSJM University | Kunzru D.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Catalysis Letters | Year: 2011

Monoliths washcoated with ZSM5 and metal oxide (MgO, CaO, La 2O 3 or CeO 2) modified ZSM5 were prepared, characterized and studied for toluene disproportionation. An improvement in the yield of the desired p-xylene isomer was obtained by using monoliths coated with metal oxide-modified ZSM5. The enhancement in p-xylene yield depended on the type of modifier, metal loading and the washcoat thickness on the monolith. The 10% LaZSM5 coated monolith having an average washcoat thickness of 23 μm showed the highest p-xylene yield. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Devraj,Indian Institute of Pulses Research | Jain R.,CSJM University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

This paper presents design and development of an expert system for the diagnosis and control of diseases in pulse crops (PulsExpert). PulsExpert is an operational automatic diagnostic tool that helps farmers/extension workers to identify diseases of major pulse crops viz.; Chickpea, Pigeonpea, Mungbean and Urdbean (highly consumed pulse crops) and suggests the appropriate control measures. Automatic knowledge acquisition system of PulsExpert provides user-friendly interface to the domain experts for entering, storing and structuring the domain specific knowledge. The knowledge base has been designed after examining the type and structure of the knowledge from different sources like literatures, books, databases, farmers, extension workers, etc. For a particular crop, knowledge can be entered by more than one expert using an automatic knowledge acquisition system and system automatically integrates the knowledge to build a consistent knowledge base. The knowledge base of PulsExpert contains up-to-date knowledge about 19 major diseases of pulses appearing right from seedling to maturity. The system provides user-friendly interface to farmers and asks the textual as well as pictorial questions. The order of questions to be asked is decided dynamically depending upon the answers of the farmer. On the basis of answers, PulsExpert diagnosis the pulse crop diseases along with its confidence factor and suggests most appropriate control measures which are composed of cultural practices as well as chemical controls. PulsExpert was evaluated by a team of field farmers and State Agriculture Officers and it was considered good with an average rank of 2.745 by farmers and 2.075 by State Agriculture Officers with a statistic mode ranking 3 in both the cases. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Mishra A.,Sharda University | Malhotra A.V.,CSJM University
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2012

Xyloglucan, a water-soluble food grade polysaccharide, was reported as a substrate for graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). Grafting PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) with xyloglucan (XG) makes a new material with improved thermal stability and shelf life without affecting its hydrophilicity. XG was isolated from tamarind seed mucilage by aqueous extraction. Grafting of MMA was initiated by ceric ion in aqueous medium under N 2 atmosphere and the progress of the reaction was monitored gravimetrically by varying different reaction parameters. Grafting of MMA onto XG was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) studies, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) studies and scanning electron micrographs (SEMs). This material might find potential to be used in drug delivery systems. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Jain A.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Basu B.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Manoj Kumar B.V.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Harshavardhan,CSJM University | Sarkar J.,Praxair Inc.
Acta Materialia | Year: 2010

This paper presents the results of sliding wear experiments conducted on high-purity titanium (Ti) against bearing-steel in liquid nitrogen (LN2; boiling point: 77 K) environment. Ti samples of three different grain sizes (9, 17 and 37 μm) were used to study the effect of hardness, derived from grain refinement as well as cryogenic test temperature, on the wear properties of Ti. In our experiments, a constant load of 10 N and sliding speeds of 0.67, 1.11 and 4.19 m s-1 were used. The coefficient of friction (COF) for this tribo-couple varied between ∼0.25 and ∼0.50. While a steady state was always achieved, a peak in the COF was always noted in case of coarse-grain (37 μm) Ti tested at a sliding speed of 4.19 m s-1. Under the investigated sliding conditions, the wear rate was found to be of the order of 10-3-10-4 mm3 N-1 m-1. The lowest wear rate was recorded in the fine-grain (9 μm) Ti at the highest sliding speed of 4.19 m s-1. The critical analysis of the worn surface topography reveals that the reduced wear rate was due to the formation of adherent and strain-hardened tribolayer. In order to show various dominant wear mechanisms of Ti, a qualitative map was developed in sliding speed-grain size space. Substructure evaluation revealed the formation of a dense array of deformation twins because of the plastic deformation, which often resulted in the subdivision of grains. © 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Source


Singh B.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Thapa K.B.,CSJM University | Pandey P.C.,Banaras Hindu University
Optics Communications | Year: 2013

A theoretical study of optical reflectance and reflection bands of 1-D photonic quasi-crystals (Fibonacci type arrangement) composed of exponentially graded material is presented. The proposed structures consist of two different layers, one of them is of constant refractive index (L) and the other one is of exponentially graded refractive index (S) dielectric materials. Four different generations (2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th) of the Fibonacci sequence for 10 periods in one dimension (1-D) are considered and compared in view of their optical reflectance and bandgaps for both TE and TM polarisations. Also, we proposed some heterostructures made by the combination of different Fibonacci generations and their periods to obtain suitable omnidirectional reflection band. We used the transfer matrix method (TMM) to obtain the reflectance, bandgaps and omnidirectional reflectional bandgaps (ODR) of such structures in near infrared spectrum (800-2200 nm) at different angles of incidence. We show that ODR exists in these types of structures. The number of ODRs and total bandgap depend on the Fibonacci generations. Extraordinary ODR bandgaps are obtained in the case of heterostructures formed by the combination of different generations of the Fibonacci sequence. The ODR for these structures is similar to the ODR of photonic crystals containing left-handed materials. This work would be useful to study the Fibonacci type photonic crystals having graded index materials and also it will open new window to design several photonic crystal devices like sensors, reflectors, etc. in the infrared region. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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