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Devraj,Indian Institute of Pulses Research | Jain R.,CSJM University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

This paper presents design and development of an expert system for the diagnosis and control of diseases in pulse crops (PulsExpert). PulsExpert is an operational automatic diagnostic tool that helps farmers/extension workers to identify diseases of major pulse crops viz.; Chickpea, Pigeonpea, Mungbean and Urdbean (highly consumed pulse crops) and suggests the appropriate control measures. Automatic knowledge acquisition system of PulsExpert provides user-friendly interface to the domain experts for entering, storing and structuring the domain specific knowledge. The knowledge base has been designed after examining the type and structure of the knowledge from different sources like literatures, books, databases, farmers, extension workers, etc. For a particular crop, knowledge can be entered by more than one expert using an automatic knowledge acquisition system and system automatically integrates the knowledge to build a consistent knowledge base. The knowledge base of PulsExpert contains up-to-date knowledge about 19 major diseases of pulses appearing right from seedling to maturity. The system provides user-friendly interface to farmers and asks the textual as well as pictorial questions. The order of questions to be asked is decided dynamically depending upon the answers of the farmer. On the basis of answers, PulsExpert diagnosis the pulse crop diseases along with its confidence factor and suggests most appropriate control measures which are composed of cultural practices as well as chemical controls. PulsExpert was evaluated by a team of field farmers and State Agriculture Officers and it was considered good with an average rank of 2.745 by farmers and 2.075 by State Agriculture Officers with a statistic mode ranking 3 in both the cases. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mitra B.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Mitra B.,CSJM University | Kunzru D.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Catalysis Letters | Year: 2011

Monoliths washcoated with ZSM5 and metal oxide (MgO, CaO, La 2O 3 or CeO 2) modified ZSM5 were prepared, characterized and studied for toluene disproportionation. An improvement in the yield of the desired p-xylene isomer was obtained by using monoliths coated with metal oxide-modified ZSM5. The enhancement in p-xylene yield depended on the type of modifier, metal loading and the washcoat thickness on the monolith. The 10% LaZSM5 coated monolith having an average washcoat thickness of 23 μm showed the highest p-xylene yield. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Mishra R.,CSJM University | Ahmad M.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Tripathi M.R.,CSJM University
Polyhedron | Year: 2013

Six new coordination polymers, {[Zn(L)2]·(DMF) ·(H2O)}n (1), [Zn(L)2]n (2), [Cd2(L)4]n (3), {[Cd(L)(HL)Cl]·(H 2O)}n (4), {[Cd(L)(Cl)(DMF)]·(DMF)}n (5) and [Cd(L)2(H2O)2]n (6), where HL = 4-benzimidazole-1-yl-benzoic acid and DMF = N,N'-dimethylformamide, have been synthesized with d10 metal ions under different hydro/solvothermal conditions. The polymers have been characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Structural studies reveal that both 1 and 2 are 2D coordination polymers. The structure of 1 shows a 2-fold interpenetrated (4,4) net topology, while that of 2 is composed of infinite carboxylate-bridged Zn(II) chains running along the crystallographic a-axis. When the ligand HL is treated with cadmium nitrate, 3 and 6 are formed under hydrothermal and solvothermal conditions respectively. Compound 3 has a 3D structure having infinite carboxylate-bridged Cd(II) chains while 6 is a 1D coordination polymer. However, when a chloride salt of Cd(II) is used, compounds 4 and 5 are obtained, which contain chloride-bridged Cd(II) dimers which are further bonded to the ligand to form 1D chains. Thus, depending upon the nature of the counter-anion or the reaction conditions, a variety of 1D, 2D and 3D coordination polymers of Zn(II) and Cd(II) are formed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mishra A.,Sharda University | Malhotra A.V.,CSJM University
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2012

Xyloglucan, a water-soluble food grade polysaccharide, was reported as a substrate for graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). Grafting PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) with xyloglucan (XG) makes a new material with improved thermal stability and shelf life without affecting its hydrophilicity. XG was isolated from tamarind seed mucilage by aqueous extraction. Grafting of MMA was initiated by ceric ion in aqueous medium under N 2 atmosphere and the progress of the reaction was monitored gravimetrically by varying different reaction parameters. Grafting of MMA onto XG was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) studies, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) studies and scanning electron micrographs (SEMs). This material might find potential to be used in drug delivery systems. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mishra N.,CSJM University | Behal K.K.,CSJM University
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2010

The aim of the study is to assess the antimicrobial activity and to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of various spice extract on some bacterial and fungal strains. The antimicrobial activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of asafoetida, ginger, cinnamon and cardamom extract was tested against B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, C. albicians & P. chrysogenum by agar well diffusion method. The crude extract showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity by inhibiting both the groups of bacteria and fungus. Agar well diffusion assay for antimicrobial activity yielded the inhibitory zone of 16 to 34 mm diameter for asafoetida, 12 to 18mm diameter for cinnamon, 15 to 35mm diameter for ginger and 13 to 21 mm for cardamom extracts. The MIC value ranged between 12.5 mg/ml to 3.125 mg/ml with an exception of cinnamon alcohol extract against E. coli for which the calculated MIC was 25mg/ml.

Pot experiments were conducted in glasshouse under controlled conditions. The effect of copper in alluvial soil on the growth and yield of Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) was worked out. Copper was applied in soil at 5-100-mg-L-1, along with iron supplement. Inhibitory response of copper was significant (p-<-0.05) confirmed by the plant growth parameters viz., plant height, fresh and dry weight, moisture content, pigment contents, protein, sugar contents followed by increased catalase and peroxidase activity in the harvest at 30, 60, and 90-days, of treatment, respectively. The plants grown on copper treated soil along with 5-mg-L-1 Cu and iron application showed significant effects (p-<-0.05) regarding the increase in plant biomass, plant height (shoot only), pigment contents, protein, sugar contents, grain yield followed by decreased catalase and peroxidase activity in wheat after 30, 60, and 90-days of treatment, respectively. The accumulation of metal in plant tissues was found in order of Fe->-Cu coupled by less translocation in grain as compared to the whole plant.The results in this paper showed the impact recovered by iron applicability whereby the growth parameters and the enzymatic cascade system in wheat was found to be altered. However, the Fe recovery was efficient enough to reverse the damage. Therefore, inorganic amendments can be used in the copper contaminated sites. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Datta J.,CSJM University | Lal N.,CSJM University
Cellular and Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

Plant phenolic compounds are known to play an important role in innate plant defense and are reported to show temporal and spatial changes in response to abiotic and biotic stress including invading pathogens. In the present study, spatial and temporal variations in phenolic compounds in response to infection by wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (Foc) and Fusarium udum (Fud) were studied in wilt resistant and wilt susceptible cultivars of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millspaugh) (i) before the onset of wilt infection (S1 stage; 7 Days after sowing (DAS)), (ii) after the onset of wilt infection (S2 stage; 15 DAS) and (iii) at severe disease stage (S3 stage; 30 DAS), respectively and analyzed for association of total phenol with disease reaction. Under un-inoculated condition, maximum phenol content (21.8 mg gdw-1) was found in wilt resistant cultivars and minimum (16.5 mg gdw-1) in susceptible lines of chickpea. Wilt resistant cultivars of chickpea showed two fold increase in total phenolic content at the onset of infection. In case of pigeonpea, roots of resistant cultivars showed 2.27 fold increase in phenolics, but the increase was marginal in susceptible cultivars. In the present study, interaction between Fusarium and host plants was found to enhance defense responses against wilt disease in resistant cultivars of chickpea and pigeonpea. © 2012.

Agarwal R.,CSJM University
Proceedings - 2011 8th International Conference on Computer Graphics, Imaging and Visualization, CGIV 2011 | Year: 2011

The imaging system normally used and the reproduction media has the capability to perceive scenes within a narrow range of contrast whereas the human visual system can perceive very high contrast with ease. We constantly strive to map one such set of colors to another or to address the problem of strong contrast reduction from active values to the displayable range preserving the image details. The goals of the mapping may differ depending on the application and the result we seek. A large number of computationally intensive methods have been developed in the past to address this problem. In this paper we try to develop a simple but extremely effective method to address to the problem of high contrast images so as to be able to reproduce them on media with minimum loss of detail and minimum introduction of "canvas like" effects. © 2011 IEEE.

Singh B.K.,Banaras Hindu University | Thapa K.B.,CSJM University | Pandey P.C.,Banaras Hindu University
Optics Communications | Year: 2013

A theoretical study of optical reflectance and reflection bands of 1-D photonic quasi-crystals (Fibonacci type arrangement) composed of exponentially graded material is presented. The proposed structures consist of two different layers, one of them is of constant refractive index (L) and the other one is of exponentially graded refractive index (S) dielectric materials. Four different generations (2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th) of the Fibonacci sequence for 10 periods in one dimension (1-D) are considered and compared in view of their optical reflectance and bandgaps for both TE and TM polarisations. Also, we proposed some heterostructures made by the combination of different Fibonacci generations and their periods to obtain suitable omnidirectional reflection band. We used the transfer matrix method (TMM) to obtain the reflectance, bandgaps and omnidirectional reflectional bandgaps (ODR) of such structures in near infrared spectrum (800-2200 nm) at different angles of incidence. We show that ODR exists in these types of structures. The number of ODRs and total bandgap depend on the Fibonacci generations. Extraordinary ODR bandgaps are obtained in the case of heterostructures formed by the combination of different generations of the Fibonacci sequence. The ODR for these structures is similar to the ODR of photonic crystals containing left-handed materials. This work would be useful to study the Fibonacci type photonic crystals having graded index materials and also it will open new window to design several photonic crystal devices like sensors, reflectors, etc. in the infrared region. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Genetic diversity in wilt pathogen has been characterized using 14 isolates of each of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (foc) and Fusarium udum (Fud) collected from major pulse growing regions of India. Out of 247 bands produced by 24 Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers in Foc isolates, 210 (85%) were polymorphic. A maximum of 14 amplicons were generated by primer OPF 05 whereas minimum 7 amplicons were generated by primer K7. A total of 24 alleles were produced by twelve Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) primers with an average of two alleles per marker in foc isolates. The maximum number of 4 alleles was obtained with primer SSR 12. SSR amplicon size ranged from 100 to 400 bp. The Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis based on RAPD and SSR profiles grouped the fourteen foc isolates into four major clusters. The universal Inter Transcribed Spacer (ITS) primer pair amplified 630 bp bands in all fourteen foc isolates while significant length polymorphism was obtained only when analysed by restriction digestion with EcoRI and MspI enzymes. The cluster analysis of ITS-RFLP grouped all 14 Foc isolates into three major clusters. Twenty four RAPD primers generated a total of 226 bands (ranging 0.3 to 3.0 kb) in Fusarium udum with an average of 9.4 bands per primer and a total of 27 alleles were produced by twelve SSR primers with an average of 2.25 alleles per marker. All isolates amplified a single band ranging from 100 to 450 bp. The universal ITS primer pair amplified 650 bp bands in all fourteen fud isolates while significant length polymorphism was obtained only when analysed by restriction digestion with EcoRI and Hind III enzymes. The cluster analysis of ITS-RFLP grouped all 14 Fud isolates into three major clusters. The cluster analysis using various markers show the grouping of Fusarium isolates strictly according to their cultural characteristics and degree of pathogenicity and not the geographical origin. This information will be helpful for pathologists and plant breeders to design effective resistance breeding programs in chickpea and pigeonpea taking into account the diversity in wilt pathogen. © 2012.

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