CSIRCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

Bangalore, India

CSIRCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

Bangalore, India
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Chinthala Y.,CSIRCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Chinde S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Kumar A.N.,CSIRCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Srinivas K.V.N.S.,CSIRCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | And 4 more authors.
Pharmacognosy Research | Year: 2014

Background: Ledebouria is a genus of deciduous or weakly evergreen bulbs in the Hyacinthaceae family. This is recognized as the first collection made of the new taxon Ledebouria hyderabadensis, exist in the Hyderabad city of Andhra Pradesh, India. Objective: The goal of this work was to investigate the phytochemical constituents present in the new specifies and also to evaluate the cytotoxic properties of the extracts and pure compounds against human cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: The anticancer activity was evaluated in in vitro mode by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test. Results: Phytochemical investigation of underground bulbs of indigenous, rare, and recently identified herb L. hyderabadensis yielded a bioactive homoisoflavanone, Scillascillin 1. The structure of the compound was established on the basis of various nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectral data. The compound Scillascillin was isolated for the first time from L. hyderabadensis. In vitro anticancer activity, performed using MTT assay, showed compound 1 as significantly active against human cancer cell lines MCF-7 (breast cancer) and DU-145 (prostate cancer) with inhibitory concentration (IC) 50 values 9.59 and 11.32 μg/ml respectively when compared with herb methanol extract (IC 50 values 36.21 and 44.86 μg/ml respectively).

Mishra P.,CSIRCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Kumar A.,CSIRCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Nagireddy A.,CSIRCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Shukla A.K.,CSIRCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Sundaresan V.,CSIRCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

DNA barcoding is used as a universal tool for delimiting species boundaries in taxonomically challenging groups, with different plastid and nuclear regions (rbcL, matK, ITS and psbA-trnH) being recommended as primary DNA barcodes for plants. We evaluated the feasibility of using these regions in the species-rich genus Terminalia, which exhibits various overlapping morphotypes with pantropical distribution, owing to its complex taxonomy. Terminalia bellerica and T. chebula are ingredients of the famous Ayurvedic Rasayana formulation Triphala, used for detoxification and rejuvenation. High demand for extracted phytochemicals as well as the high trade value of several species renders mandatory the need for the correct identification of traded plant material. Three different analytical methods with single and multilocus barcoding regions were tested to develop a DNA barcode reference library from 222 individuals representing 41 Terminalia species. All the single barcodes tested had a lower discriminatory power than the multilocus regions, and the combination of matK+ITS had the highest resolution rate (94.44%). The average intra-specific variations (0.0188±0.0019) were less than the distance to the nearest neighbour (0.106±0.009) with matK and ITS. Distance-based Neighbour Joining analysis outperformed the character-based Maximum Parsimony method in the identification of traded species such as T. arjuna, T. chebula and T. tomentosa, which are prone to adulteration. rbcL was shown to be a highly conservative region with only 3.45% variability between all of the sequences. The recommended barcode combination, rbcL+matK, failed to perform in the genus Terminalia. Considering the complexity of resolution observed with single regions, the present study proposes the combination of matK+ITS as the most successful barcode in Terminalia. © 2017 Mishra et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Mishra P.,CSIRCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Kumar L.D.,CSIRCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Kumar A.,CSIRCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Gokul S.,School for Conservation of Natural Resources | And 3 more authors.
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Decalepis arayalpathra, a critically endangered plant species, has a restricted and fragmented population in Southern Western Ghats, India. This study is a first attempt to evaluate genetic diversity and population structure in the nine wild populations of D. arayalpathra based on molecular pattern realized through the marker assays. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and Nei’s unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA)-based hierarchical clustering of both the marker assays suggest strong genetic clustering between the individuals corresponding to their geographical ranges. Mantel test also corroborates a close genetic proximity between genetic and geographic data (r = 0.389). Population genetic analysis revealed low levels of gene flow [inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) = 0.289 and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) = 0.847] between the populations, in line with high genetic differentiation (Gst = 0.531 with ISSR and 0.440 with RAPD), which was also supported by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), that 54 % (ISSR) and 64 % (RAPD) total variation resided within populations. Bayesian model-based STRUCTURE analysis detected three genetic clusters showing the high degree of admixture within population. Based on the findings, such as inbreeding depression and the loss of genetic diversity, suggestions for conservation strategies are provided to preserve the genetic resources of this endangered species. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Mishra A.,CSIRCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Lal R.K.,CSIRCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Chanotiya C.S.,CSIRCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Dhawan S.S.,CSIRCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
Protoplasma | Year: 2016

Mentha arvensis (corn mint) is well known for the production of menthol, a widely used commodity in pharma and flavoring industries and provides natural fragrances and products. Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the aerial surface of vascular plants species producing specific secondary metabolite chemistry. Correlations were established among trichomes, oil yield, and major secondary metabolites. Nine improved, elite cultivars representing different M. arvensis genotypes were used for analysis. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) were estimated; results indicated the presence of considerable amount of genetic variability, thereby emphasizing wide scope of selection. Positive and significant associations were found among glandular trichomes, oil yield, essential oil constituents, and leaf morphology itself, whereas morphological parameters of leaf show positive and negative correlations to average number of trichome and essential oil constituents. Average number of glandular, non-glandular trichomes, their ratios, menthol content, and trichome number showed a good heritability. Trichomes were studied microscopically in leaf parts in all varieties for analyzing their distribution pattern. The trichome number variations showed significant correlation throughout the genotypes with essential oil yield and monoterpenoid constituents. Differential changes were analyzed for Glutathione S-transferases, Glutathione reductase, Malondialdehyde, phenolics, and chlorophyll content. Gene expressions were analyzed for biosynthesis genes and selected transcription factors TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1), ENOLASE 1, GLABRA 3, GTL 1, NUCLEAR TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR Y SUBUNIT B-6, WRKY transcription factor 22, putative WRKY 33, WRKY 17, WRKY 1, and WRKY 65-like for harnessing their relation with trichome development in M. arvensis genotypes. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Wien

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