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Mishra P.,CSIRCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Kumar L.D.,CSIRCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Kumar A.,CSIRCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Gokul S.,School for Conservation of Natural Resources | And 3 more authors.
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Decalepis arayalpathra, a critically endangered plant species, has a restricted and fragmented population in Southern Western Ghats, India. This study is a first attempt to evaluate genetic diversity and population structure in the nine wild populations of D. arayalpathra based on molecular pattern realized through the marker assays. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and Nei’s unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA)-based hierarchical clustering of both the marker assays suggest strong genetic clustering between the individuals corresponding to their geographical ranges. Mantel test also corroborates a close genetic proximity between genetic and geographic data (r = 0.389). Population genetic analysis revealed low levels of gene flow [inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) = 0.289 and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) = 0.847] between the populations, in line with high genetic differentiation (Gst = 0.531 with ISSR and 0.440 with RAPD), which was also supported by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), that 54 % (ISSR) and 64 % (RAPD) total variation resided within populations. Bayesian model-based STRUCTURE analysis detected three genetic clusters showing the high degree of admixture within population. Based on the findings, such as inbreeding depression and the loss of genetic diversity, suggestions for conservation strategies are provided to preserve the genetic resources of this endangered species. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Mishra A.,CSIRCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Lal R.K.,CSIRCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Chanotiya C.S.,CSIRCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Dhawan S.S.,CSIRCentral Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
Protoplasma | Year: 2016

Mentha arvensis (corn mint) is well known for the production of menthol, a widely used commodity in pharma and flavoring industries and provides natural fragrances and products. Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the aerial surface of vascular plants species producing specific secondary metabolite chemistry. Correlations were established among trichomes, oil yield, and major secondary metabolites. Nine improved, elite cultivars representing different M. arvensis genotypes were used for analysis. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) were estimated; results indicated the presence of considerable amount of genetic variability, thereby emphasizing wide scope of selection. Positive and significant associations were found among glandular trichomes, oil yield, essential oil constituents, and leaf morphology itself, whereas morphological parameters of leaf show positive and negative correlations to average number of trichome and essential oil constituents. Average number of glandular, non-glandular trichomes, their ratios, menthol content, and trichome number showed a good heritability. Trichomes were studied microscopically in leaf parts in all varieties for analyzing their distribution pattern. The trichome number variations showed significant correlation throughout the genotypes with essential oil yield and monoterpenoid constituents. Differential changes were analyzed for Glutathione S-transferases, Glutathione reductase, Malondialdehyde, phenolics, and chlorophyll content. Gene expressions were analyzed for biosynthesis genes and selected transcription factors TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1), ENOLASE 1, GLABRA 3, GTL 1, NUCLEAR TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR Y SUBUNIT B-6, WRKY transcription factor 22, putative WRKY 33, WRKY 17, WRKY 1, and WRKY 65-like for harnessing their relation with trichome development in M. arvensis genotypes. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Wien

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