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Bansal P.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | Nath V.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute
Phytotaxa | Year: 2013

A critical study of sporoderm pattern under SEM in nine taxa of genus Bryum, growing in various bryogeographical regions of India, has been carried out. Of these nine taxa, microdetails of sporoderm pattern of six taxa: B. billardieri, B. caespiticium, B. capillare, B. dichotomum, B. pseudotriquetrum var. subrotundum and B. uliginosum are provided for the first time. © 2013 Magnolia Press. Source

Awasthi V.,Kumaun University | Nath V.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | Asthana A.K.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute
Phytomorphology: An International Journal of Plant Morphology | Year: 2013

Stable axenic cultures of the five moss taxa viz. Atrichum undulatum var. gracilisetum Besch., Pogonatum microstomum (Schwaegr.) Brid., Physcomitrium eurystomum Sendtn., Bartramia leptodonta Wils. and Ditrichum tortuloides Grout have been established by inoculating their spores into defined hormone-free media and study on spore germination and morphogenesis of these species has been carried out. Differentiation of protonema into well defined leafy gametophores occurred in the four taxa, while culture of Pogonatum microstomum remained bud free. Half strength Knop's macronutrients + Nitsch's trace elements with 10 ppm freshly prepared ferric citrate devoid of sucrose found suitable for the optimum growth and micropropagation of these taxa in continuous light of 4000-5500 lux and at 21 ± 2°C temperature. Morphological features of chloronemal cells are characterstics of the respective species, while features like relative amount of chloronema and caulonema and time taken in spore germination and gametophore development are governed by culture conditions. Source

Singh A.P.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | Dixit G.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | Kumar A.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | Mishra S.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2016

Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signaling molecule and has a profound impact on plant growth and development. It is reported to serve as pro oxidant as well as antioxidant in plant system. In the present study, we evaluated the protective role of NO against arsenate (AsV) toxicity in rice plants. AsV exposure has hampered the plant growth, reduced the chlorophyll content, and enhanced the oxidative stress, while the exogenous NO supplementation has reverted these symptoms. NO supplementation has reduced the arsenic (As) accumulation in root as well as shoot. NO supplementation to AsV exposed plants has reduced the gene expression level of OsLsi1 and OsLsi2. As stress significantly impacted thiol metabolism, it reduced GSH content and GSH/GSSG ratio, and enhanced the level of PCs. NO supplementation maintained the GSH/GSSG ratio and reduced the level of PCs. NO supplementation reverted AsV induced iron deficiency in shoot and had significant impact of gene expression level of various iron transporters (OsYSL2, OsFRDL1, OsIRT1, and OsIRO2). Conclusively, exogenous application of NO could be advantageous against AsV toxicity and could confer the tolerance to AsV stress in rice. © 2016 Singh, Dixit, Kumar, Mishra, Singh, Dwivedi, Trivedi, Chakrabarty,Mallick, Pandey, Dhankher and Tripathi. Source

Shukla T.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | Shukla T.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research | Kumar S.,University of Lucknow | Khare R.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Abiotic stress including nutrient deficiency and heavy metal toxicity severely affects plant growth, development, and productivity. Genetic variations within and in between species are one of the important factors in establishing interactions and responses of plants with the environment. In the recent past, natural variations in Arabidopsis thaliana have been used to understand plant development and response toward different stresses at genetic level. Phosphorus deficiency negatively affects plant growth and metabolism and modulates expression of the genes involved in Pi homeostasis. Arsenate, As(V), a chemical analog of Pi, is taken up by the plants via phosphate transport system. Studies suggest that during Pi deficiency, enhanced As(V) uptake leads to increased toxicity in plants. Here, the natural variations in Arabidopsis have been utilized to study the As(V) stress response under limiting Pi condition. The primary root length was compared to identify differential response of three Arabidopsis accessions (Col-0, Sij-1, and Slavi-1) under limiting Pi and As(V) stress. To study the molecular mechanisms responsible for the differential response, comprehensive expression profiling of the genes involved in uptake, detoxification, and regulatory mechanisms was carried out. Analysis suggests genetic variation-dependent regulatory mechanisms may affect differential response of Arabidopsis natural variants toward As(V) stress under limiting Pi condition. Therefore, it is hypothesized that detailed analysis of the natural variations under multiple stress conditions might help in the better understanding of the biological processes involved in stress tolerance and adaptation. © 2015 Shukla, Kumar, Khare, Tripathi and Trivedi. Source

Asthana A.K.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | Srivastava A.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute
Acta Botanica Hungarica | Year: 2014

Homalothecium arenarium (Lesq.) Lawt. has been identified from Shillong (Meghalaya) in the North-eastern Hill region of the Eastern Himalaya, which is a new addition to the Indian bryoflora. This species is distinctly characterised by leaves having transverse basal band of two or more rows of short cells and costa ending into a spine and denticulate at back. Morphological and taxonomic details of the Indian specimen are provided. © 2014 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest. Source

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