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Awasthi V.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | Nath V.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | Asthana A.K.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute
Phytomorphology: An International Journal of Plant Morphology | Year: 2012

In vitro induction of protonemal buds and gametophore development in an epiphytically growing moss Octoblepharum albidum has been carried out for the first time by inoculating spores into a range of inorganic media supplemented with and without sucrose. Presence of sucrose in the medium was found obligatory for the bud induction and gametophore development. Synergistic effect of auxin and cytokinin stimulated the bud induction rapidly and also increase in number. Half strength Knop's macronutrient + Nitsch trace elements with 10 ppm ferric citrate + 1% sucrose + 5 μ M BAP + 2.5 μ M NAA was found to be the most suitable media combination for bud induction.


Asthana A.K.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | Srivastava A.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute
Acta Botanica Hungarica | Year: 2014

Homalothecium arenarium (Lesq.) Lawt. has been identified from Shillong (Meghalaya) in the North-eastern Hill region of the Eastern Himalaya, which is a new addition to the Indian bryoflora. This species is distinctly characterised by leaves having transverse basal band of two or more rows of short cells and costa ending into a spine and denticulate at back. Morphological and taxonomic details of the Indian specimen are provided. © 2014 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.


Tripathi P.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | Tripathi P.,Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University | Mishra A.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | Dwivedi S.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2012

The mechanism of arsenic (As) tolerance was investigated on two contrasting rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes, selected for As tolerance and accumulation. One tolerant (Triguna) and one sensitive (IET-4786) variety were exposed to various arsenate (0-50 μM) levels for 7d for biochemical analyses. Arsenic induced oxidative stress was more pronounced in IET-4786 than Triguna especially in terms of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, EC and pro-oxidant enzymes (NADPH oxidase and ascorbate oxidase). However, Triguna tolerated As stress through the enhanced enzymes activities particularly pertaining to thiol metabolism such as serine acetyl transferase (SAT), cysteine synthase (CS), γ-glutamyl cysteine synthase (γ-ECS), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as well as arsenate reductase (AR). Besides maintaining the ratio of redox couples GSH/GSSG and ASC/DHA, the level of phytochelatins (PCs) and phytochelatin synthase (PCS) activity were more pronounced in Triguna, in which harmonized responses of thiol metabolism was responsible for As tolerance in contrast to IET-4786 showing its susceptible nature towards As exposure. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Kumar A.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | Kumar A.,University of Lucknow | Singh R.P.,University of Lucknow | Singh P.K.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Ecotoxicology | Year: 2014

Arsenic (As) contamination of rice is a major problem for South-East Asia. In the present study, the effect of selenium (Se) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants exposed to As was studied in hydroponic culture. Arsenic accumulation, plant growth, thiolic ligands and antioxidative enzyme activities were assayed after single (As and Se) and simultaneous supplementations (As + Se). The results indicated that the presence of Se (25 μM) decreased As accumulation by threefold in roots and twofold in shoots as compared to single As (25 μM) exposed plants. Arsenic induced oxidative stress in roots and shoots was significantly ameliorated by Se supplementation. The observed positive response was found associated with the increased activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx; EC 1.11.1.9) and induced levels of non-protein thiols (NPTs), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) in As + Se exposed plants as compared to single As treatment. Selenium supplementation modulated the thiol metabolism enzymes viz., γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECS; EC 6.3.2.2), glutathione-S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) and phytochelatin synthase (PCS; EC 2.3.2.15). Gene expression analysis of several metalloid responsive genes (LOX, SOD and MATE) showed upregulation during As stress, however, significant downregulation during As + Se exposure as compared to single As treatment. Gene expressions of enzymes of antioxidant and GSH and PC biosynthetic systems, such as APX, CAT, GPx, γ-ECS and PCS were found to be significantly positively correlated with their enzyme activities. The findings suggested that Se supplementation could be an effective strategy to reduce As accumulation and toxicity in rice plants. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.


Singh S.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | Kumar S.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | Prasad R.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | Roy R.K.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | Goel A.K.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute
Plant Archives | Year: 2014

The present investigation was carried out at the Botanic Garden, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (U.P.), India to study the growth and flowering characteristics of Canna cultivars belonging to different genera during 2012-13. Ten cultivars viz., Allegheny, Angel Pink, Apricot Dream, Golden Lucifer, King City Gold, Latifolia, Lucifer, Orange Punch, Pink Sunrise and Tropical Sunrise were planted in open field condition during February in each year. Vegetative growth parameters and flower characteristics were analyzed and evaluated. There were significant variations for all the characters among the cultivars studied. Maximum plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves per plant, leaf area, fresh weight of rhizome, rhizome diameter, number of flowers per spike, maximum flower length and width was recorded with Tropical Sunrise followed by Allegheny, Orange Punch and Golden Lucifer. The study indicates that performance of cultivars viz., Tropical Sunrise, Pink Sunrise, Orange Punch, Golden Lucifer and Allegheny was better in respect of growth, rhizome and floral characteristics and recommended for bedding purpose in landscaping. © 2014, Plant Archives. All rights reserved.


Bansal P.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | Nath V.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute
Phytotaxa | Year: 2013

A critical study of sporoderm pattern under SEM in nine taxa of genus Bryum, growing in various bryogeographical regions of India, has been carried out. Of these nine taxa, microdetails of sporoderm pattern of six taxa: B. billardieri, B. caespiticium, B. capillare, B. dichotomum, B. pseudotriquetrum var. subrotundum and B. uliginosum are provided for the first time. © 2013 Magnolia Press.


Awasthi V.,Kumaun University | Nath V.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | Asthana A.K.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute
Phytomorphology: An International Journal of Plant Morphology | Year: 2013

Stable axenic cultures of the five moss taxa viz. Atrichum undulatum var. gracilisetum Besch., Pogonatum microstomum (Schwaegr.) Brid., Physcomitrium eurystomum Sendtn., Bartramia leptodonta Wils. and Ditrichum tortuloides Grout have been established by inoculating their spores into defined hormone-free media and study on spore germination and morphogenesis of these species has been carried out. Differentiation of protonema into well defined leafy gametophores occurred in the four taxa, while culture of Pogonatum microstomum remained bud free. Half strength Knop's macronutrients + Nitsch's trace elements with 10 ppm freshly prepared ferric citrate devoid of sucrose found suitable for the optimum growth and micropropagation of these taxa in continuous light of 4000-5500 lux and at 21 ± 2°C temperature. Morphological features of chloronemal cells are characterstics of the respective species, while features like relative amount of chloronema and caulonema and time taken in spore germination and gametophore development are governed by culture conditions.


Shukla T.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | Shukla T.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research | Kumar S.,University of Lucknow | Khare R.,Csir National Botanical Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Abiotic stress including nutrient deficiency and heavy metal toxicity severely affects plant growth, development, and productivity. Genetic variations within and in between species are one of the important factors in establishing interactions and responses of plants with the environment. In the recent past, natural variations in Arabidopsis thaliana have been used to understand plant development and response toward different stresses at genetic level. Phosphorus deficiency negatively affects plant growth and metabolism and modulates expression of the genes involved in Pi homeostasis. Arsenate, As(V), a chemical analog of Pi, is taken up by the plants via phosphate transport system. Studies suggest that during Pi deficiency, enhanced As(V) uptake leads to increased toxicity in plants. Here, the natural variations in Arabidopsis have been utilized to study the As(V) stress response under limiting Pi condition. The primary root length was compared to identify differential response of three Arabidopsis accessions (Col-0, Sij-1, and Slavi-1) under limiting Pi and As(V) stress. To study the molecular mechanisms responsible for the differential response, comprehensive expression profiling of the genes involved in uptake, detoxification, and regulatory mechanisms was carried out. Analysis suggests genetic variation-dependent regulatory mechanisms may affect differential response of Arabidopsis natural variants toward As(V) stress under limiting Pi condition. Therefore, it is hypothesized that detailed analysis of the natural variations under multiple stress conditions might help in the better understanding of the biological processes involved in stress tolerance and adaptation. © 2015 Shukla, Kumar, Khare, Tripathi and Trivedi.


PubMed | Csir National Botanical Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Ecotoxicology and environmental safety | Year: 2012

The mechanism of arsenic (As) tolerance was investigated on two contrasting rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes, selected for As tolerance and accumulation. One tolerant (Triguna) and one sensitive (IET-4786) variety were exposed to various arsenate (0-50 M) levels for 7 d for biochemical analyses. Arsenic induced oxidative stress was more pronounced in IET-4786 than Triguna especially in terms of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, EC and pro-oxidant enzymes (NADPH oxidase and ascorbate oxidase). However, Triguna tolerated As stress through the enhanced enzymes activities particularly pertaining to thiol metabolism such as serine acetyl transferase (SAT), cysteine synthase (CS), -glutamyl cysteine synthase (-ECS), -glutamyl transpeptidase (-GT), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as well as arsenate reductase (AR). Besides maintaining the ratio of redox couples GSH/GSSG and ASC/DHA, the level of phytochelatins (PCs) and phytochelatin synthase (PCS) activity were more pronounced in Triguna, in which harmonized responses of thiol metabolism was responsible for As tolerance in contrast to IET-4786 showing its susceptible nature towards As exposure.


PubMed | Kumaun University and Csir National Botanical Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Ecotoxicology and environmental safety | Year: 2016

Arsenic (As) contamination of paddy rice is a serious threat all over the world particularly in South East Asia. Selenium (Se) plays important role in protection of plants against various abiotic stresses including heavy metals. Moreover, arsenite (AsIII) and selenite (SeIV) can be biologically antagonistic due to similar electronic configuration and sharing the common transporter for their uptake in plant. In the present study, the response of oxidative stress, phenolic compounds and nutrient elements was analyzed to investigate Se mediated As tolerance in rice seedlings during AsIII and SeIV exposure in hydroponics. Selenite (25M) significantly decreased As accumulation in plant than As (25M) alone treated plants. Level of oxidative stress related parameters viz., reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, electrical conductivity, nitric oxide and pro-oxidant enzyme (NADPH oxidase), were in the order of As>As+Se>control>Se. Selenium ameliorated As phytotoxicity by increased level of phenolic compounds particularly gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid and rutin and thiol metabolism related enzymes viz., serine acetyl transferase (SAT) and cysteine synthase (CS). Selenium supplementation enhanced the uptake of nutrient elements viz., Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, and improved plant growth. The results concluded that Se addition in As contaminated environment might be an important strategy to reduce As uptake and associated phytotoxicity in rice plant by modulation of phenolic compounds and increased uptake of nutrient elements.

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