CSIR Crops Research Institute

Kumasi, Ghana

CSIR Crops Research Institute

Kumasi, Ghana

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Parkes E.Y.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | Fregene M.,Ministry of Agriculture | Fregene M.,Donald Danforth Plant Science Center | Dixon A.,Sierra Leone Agriculture Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2013

Breeding for resistant genotypes is the best strategy to offset the destructive effects of cassava mosaic disease (CMD) and cassava bacterial blight (CBB). Two sets of diallel parents were selected for the forest and the savannah ecological zones in Ghana based on good levels of resistance to CMD and CBB. Both sets were crossed in a half-diallel design. The first set of seven progenitors and their 21 F1 progenies were planted in a randomised complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in two different locations for two seasons in the forest ecology. The second set of five progenitors and their 10 F1 progenies were planted in a RCBD with three replications in two locations in the coastal savannah ecological zone of Ghana. Both experiments were evaluated for CMD and CBB resistance, fresh root yield, dry root yield, root number, harvest index, dry matter content, plant height at maturity and height at first branching, levels of branching and plant vigour. Results of the combined analysis of variance revealed that the environment effect was significant for all the traits. General combining ability and specific combining ability effects were significant for most of the traits. Narrow sense heritability was significant for plant vigour, root number, CMD and CBB in both the zones. CMD and root number also had a predictability ratio of close to one, indicating the importance of additive gene effects. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Asante B.O.,CSIR Crops Research Institute | Afari-Sefa V.,The World Vegetable Center | Sarpong D.B.,University of Ghana
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

In recent times, governments of most developing countries have been promoting the formation and development of farmer based organizations as one of the keys to more rapid diffusion and costeffective extension delivery to farmers. This is premised on the assumption that small-scale farmers can have easy access to market information, credit and input for their production, processing, and marketing activities by joining farmer based organizations. However, this study found out that despite such observed benefits, some farmers were not members of farmer based organizations. This study uses the probit model to assess the factors influencing the decisions to join farmer based organizations in Ghana. The results revealed that farm size, farming as a major occupation, access to credit to loan and access to machinery services influenced farmers' decisions to join farmer based organizations in the Eastern Region of Ghana. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Fening K.O.,CSIR Crops Research Institute | Kioko E.N.,National Museums of Kenya | Raina S.K.,Icipe African Insect Science for Food and Health | Mueke J.M.,Kenyatta University
Phytoparasitica | Year: 2010

The effect of food plants [Acacia elatior Brenan, A. tortilis (Forssk.) and A. nilotica (L.) Del.] on the development time of Gonometa postica Walker (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) larvae and the quality of their cocoons was studied in the Imba and Mumoni forests of Mwingi, Eastern Kenya, during the long (March-May) and short (October-December) rainy seasons of 2006 and 2007. Larvae were reared in semi-captivity in net sleeves attached to branches of the plants. The period between hatching of eggs and spinning of cocoons, as well as their weight, as determinants of cocoon quality were recorded. In addition, collections of cocoons from the wild were done in the two forests from the same host plants for assessment of their quality. In the cage experiment, larval development period and quality of cocoons differed according to food plants, seasons and sites, whereas quality of cocoons sampled from the wild habitat was similar for all food plants and seasons but varied according to site. Generally, there was a positive correlation between weight of cocoon, its length and width for the two seasons for both the semi-captive population and those from the wild. Larvae reared on A. elatior had a shorter development period and higher cocoon quality than those raised on A. tortilis and A. nilotica. Generally, temperature and relative humidity significantly influenced larval development time and the effect was both positive and negative. Rainfall was generally higher in Mumoni than in Imba. The implications of the above findings for the semi-captive rearing of G. postica to increase the quality of cocoons are discussed. © 2010 Springer Science + Business Media BV.

Qin S.,Gansu Agricultural University | Yeboah S.,CSIR Crops Research Institute | Wang D.,Gansu Agricultural University | Zhang J.,Gansu Agricultural University
Soil Use and Management | Year: 2016

Planting patterns have distinctive effects on the soil micro-ecological environment and soil quality. To explore the effects of film mulch ridge-furrow (FMRF) cropping on soil microbial properties and potato yield, a study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 in a continuously cropped field under nonfilm-mulched flat plot (CK), half-mulched flat plot (T1), fully mulched ridge cropping (T2), fully mulched furrow cropping (T3), half-mulched ridge cropping (T4) and half-mulched furrow cropping (T5) planting patterns. Our results indicate that T3 increased the average bacteria/fungi (B/F) ratio by 253% compared to CK. On average, half-mulched ridge cropping increased the bacteria population and aerobic Azotobacter by 9 and 19%, respectively, compared with CK. On average, T3 had the greatest inhibitory effect on fungi populations. Half-mulched furrow cropping had the most anaerobic Azotobacter and nitrifying bacteria. The study showed that FMRF increased soil bacteria, especially Azotobacter but reduced fungi and actinomycetes. Treatment T2 gave the greatest potato yield, followed by T4, whereas the greatest biomass yield was recorded in T4. Full-mulch furrow cropping methods produced the greatest nutrient use efficiency. The findings of this study enhance our understanding of soil microbe and plant responses to plastic mulch and planting patterns under semi-arid conditions. © 2016 British Society of Soil Science

Sowley E.N.K.,University for Development Studies | Kankam F.,University for Development Studies | Adomako J.,CSIR Crops Research Institute
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2014

A major constraint facing sweet pepper production is infestation by nematodes leading to reduced yields. Field studies were conducted during the 2012 cropping season at the Experimental Farms of the University for Development Studies, Nyankpala, Northern region, Ghana, to determine efficacy of various levels of moringa leaf powder for the control of root-knot nematodes in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in the savanna ecology of Ghana. Treatments consisted of three levels of moringa leaf powder (40, 60 and 80 g/L) per plot and 0 g/L (control). The experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design with each treatment replicated four times. The infestations of root-knot nematodes were significantly lower in the moringa leaf powder-treated plots than the control. Although significant differences were not observed in all the parameters evaluated among the moringa leaf powder treatments, sweet pepper plants treated with 80 g/L of moringa leaf powder per plot recorded the highest mean value of plant height, number of leaves, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight per plant total yield per plot and the thickest plant girth. Similarly, the sweet pepper plants treated with 80 g/L of moringa leaf powder had the lowest infection index (root gall) and nematode population. Application of moringa leaf powder at 40, 60 and 80 g/L increased sweet pepper yield and decreased nematode population confirming their potential in management of root-knot nematodes. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Bortey H.M.,CSIR Crops Research Institute | Dzomeku B.M.,CSIR Crops Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2016

The influence of harvesting stages and drying methods on fruit and seed quality of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.] cultivar Asontem was studied to determine the optimum stage of harvest and suitable drying method. The fruit length and diameter progressively increased and reached its peak at 30 days after anthesis by recording 9.50 and 2.83cm respectively and subsequently decreased slightly. The higher seed moisture content (46.5%) was obtained at the early harvesting stage (10 day after anthesis (DAA) and decreased to as low as 22.1% at 50 DAA. Seed maturation and quality parameters were highly significant (p=0.05) at different harvesting stages. Maximum seed dry weight (4.1 g) occurred at 40 DAA regardless of the drying method. Maximum standard germination (77.0%) occurred at 50 DAA when seed moisture content was lowest (22.1%). The optimum stage for harvesting fruit of okra cultivar Asontem for high seed germinability was found to be ≥40 days after anthesis, followed by shade drying fruits before seed extraction.

Amponsah S.K.,CSIR Crops Research Institute | Sheriff J.T.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute | Byju G.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal | Year: 2014

In India, cassava is consumed as a secondary staple along with the main staple, rice, and many rural poor consume it as the staple in different forms of preparations. Though harvesting is known to be one of the most difficult and cost-intensive field operation in cassava cultivation, mechanisation of cassava harvesting is still very low in most cassava growing areas of India due to topographic constraints, methods and scale of cultivation. The most viable solution to overcome these constraints is to promote the use of more efficient manual harvesting tools. Thus, the main objective of this study was to field evaluate the efficiency of four manual cassava harvesting techniques under different land preparation methods in terms of field capacity, level of drudgery and root tuber damage or breakage. The study also sought to investigate the effect of cassava agronomic parameters on uprooting force requirement. Field study was carried out at the Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (CTCRI) research field (under upland mound method) and at Chenkal village on farmers' fields (under lowland flat method); both in the Kerala state of India. Harvesting was done using the CTCRI lever, prototype harvester, hoe and manual uprooting (control) techniques. Results from the study showed that the use of manual harvesting tools is preferable on relatively dryer soils, whereas manual uprooting technique is best suited for soils with relatively higher moisture contents. However, best efficiency of manual harvesting is achieved when cassava plants are coppiced before harvesting. Also, cassava uprooting force requirement, to a greater extent is influenced by root tuber yield, root depth and number of root tubers per plant, especially under upland mound land preparation method. It is however recommended that a user performance assessment and economic feasibility analysis of the prototype harvester and CTCRI lever be conducted with farmers to facilitate future design modifications, where necessary and to support future adoption. As a design recommendation, the pressure at the fulcrum for both the CTCRI lever and prototype harvester should be reduced to avoid sinking during harvesting in soils with relatively higher moisture contents.

Owusu Danquah E.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Owusu Danquah E.,CSIR Crops Research Institute | Akromah R.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Quashie-Sam S.J.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | And 4 more authors.
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2012

Jatropha curcas (L.) has gained popularity as a biodiesel plant to serve as an alternative fuel source and generate income to small landholders. The success of J. curcas as alternative fuel source and income generation depends on the identification of genetically divergent materials of the plant and developing superior planting stocks for farmers. This paper presents genetic diversity assessment of 40 representative accessions drawn from 90 accessions collected from ten regions of Ghana based on their seed yield performance. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis on the 40 accessions with ten primers revealed an average polymorphism of 24.99%. Genotype Genotype*Environmental biplot analysis which incorporates divergence effects due to genotype (PC1) and interactions between genotype and field parameters (PC2) was 44.7%. Hence the RAPD information indicates narrow genetic diversity among the accessions used in the study and J. curcas germplasm in Ghana. It is therefore recommended that local germplasm of J. curcas should be officially conserved and immediate efforts be made to widen the genetic base through research and introduction from other regions. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Bortey H.M.,CSIR Crops Research Institute | Mpanju F.,African Regional Intellectual Property Organization ARIPO
Journal of Intellectual Property Rights | Year: 2016

This study assessed the level of awareness and knowledge among major stakeholders in the relevant sectors of agriculture on the Plant Breeders’ Rights (PBRs) Bill of Ghana and review the potential implication of adopting the PBRs system on food and seed security in Ghana based on stakeholders’ perception and case studies from other countries already implementing a PVP system. A field survey was conducted to administer questionnaires to participants comprising plant breeders, farmers, the general public, seed companies and Seed Producers Association, legal practitioners, National Research Institutions and the Registrar General’s Department (proposed regulatory body). The second part of the study is a review of historical data on PBRs system impact studies in Kenya, Tanzania and South Africa. The primary data were analysed using mainly descriptive statistics, employing Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), while the secondary data was analysed, contextualized and narrated. The current study confirmed the proposition that lack of and inadequate awareness and knowledge of the PBRs Bill among stakeholders could have stalled the passage of the Bill. Majority of farmers (61%) were not aware of the existence of the PBRs Bill and as high as between 70-79% lacked knowledge or understanding of the basic provisions of the PBR Bill, including the “farmers’ privilege” provision. Six out of ten (63%) farmers in Ghana continue to rely on their saved seeds, exchange or purchase from local grain markets for planting with only 12% purchasing seeds from Agro-dealer shops. The adoption of PBRs system in Ghana has the potential to improve the seed and food security system provided the recommendations offered by various stakeholders are thoughtfully considered. © 2016, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.

PubMed | CSIR Crops Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Archives of virology | Year: 2015

Throughout sub-Saharan Africa, maize streak virus strain A (MSV-A), the causal agent of maize streak disease (MSD), is an important biological constraint on maize production. In November/December 2010, an MSD survey was carried out in the forest and transition zones of Ghana in order to obtain MSV-A virulence sources for the development of MSD-resistant maize genotypes with agronomic properties suitable for these regions. In 79 well-distributed maize fields, the mean MSD incidence was 18.544% and the symptom severity score was 2.956 (1=no symptoms and 5=extremely severe). We detected no correlation between these two variables. Phylogenetic analysis of cloned MSV-A isolates that were fully sequenced from samples collected in 51 of these fields, together with those sampled from various other parts of Africa, indicated that all of the Ghanaian isolates occurred within a broader cluster of West African isolates, all belonging to the highly virulent MSV-A1 subtype. Besides being the first report of a systematic MSV survey in Ghana, this study is the first to characterize the full-genome sequences of Ghanaian MSV isolates. The 51 genome sequences determined here will additionally be a valuable resource for the rational selection of representative MSV-A variant panels for MSD resistance screening.

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