CSIR Crops Research Institute

Kumasi, Ghana

CSIR Crops Research Institute

Kumasi, Ghana
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Asante B.O.,CSIR Crops Research Institute | Asante B.O.,University of New England of Australia | Villano R.A.,University of New England of Australia | Battese G.E.,University of New England of Australia
Livestock Science | Year: 2017

This paper evaluates the performance of smallholder farmers in three districts of the forest-savannah transition agroecological zone of Ghana and examines the effect of integrated crop-livestock management practices (ICLMPs) on the productivity and technical efficiency of production of small-ruminant outputs of farmers. Using farm-level data collected from a sample of 510 farmers from the Atebubu-Amantin, Nkoranza South and Ejura-Sekyedumase districts, a metafrontier production function model is used to estimate the mean technical efficiencies of farmers in each district and their metatechnology ratios. Small-ruminant outputs of the farmers were significantly influenced by the inputs, herd size, capital, labor, feed and veterinary expenses, in at least one of the three districts and for the metafrontier function. Furthermore, the small-ruminant outputs were significantly and positively influenced by the use of pigeon pea, ash or neem, improved pasture and storage of crop residue. The efficiency of production of small ruminants was affected by ICLMPs such as the use tetracycline, use of ash or neem, and storage of crop residue in one or more of the three districts. The technical efficiency of the crop-livestock farmers was also influenced by their age, gender and education, by their participation in projects, obtaining off-farm income, market information and access to extension advice in one or more of the three districts. The results indicate that there are significant differences in small-ruminant production technologies across the three districts and that the production technology in Nkoranza South district is superior to the ones in use in the other two districts. The results underscore the need for investments in research and extension in developing and disseminating relevant ICLMPs and complementary training that leads to more efficient small-ruminant production and, consequently, increased farm income. © 2017

Adu-Dapaah H.,CSIR Crops Research Institute | Osei-Bonsu I.,CSIR Crops Research Institute | Oduro I.,KNUST | Asiedu J.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2017

Moringa (Moringa oleifera) is cultivated for use as food, fodder and medicine. Commercial production, processing, and utilization of this 'wonder' crop have increased in many African countries, including Ghana. This is due to widespread knowledge of its varied food, nutrition, medicinal and economic benefits. Despite the increased commercial production of the tree crop, not much research has been conducted, especially on its production in Ghana. This may be because moringa grows well across all agro-ecologies; additionally, it appears recommendations on agronomic practices from other tropical ecologies work for the end-users, especially farmers. This paper discusses the recent advances in agronomic aspects of production in Ghana with respect to current practices used by stakeholders along the moringa value chain from seed production, planting, processing to marketing. For optimal leaf production, high density planting (300,000-1 million plants ha-1) using either seeds or hardwood stem cuttings (30 cm to 1 m long) has been recommended. The use of moringa in agroforestry systems (alley cropping) is also being promoted in some communities. The beneficial use of the crop has been extended to include feed for grass-cutter and as a replacement for mineral fertilizers in small-holder farms. Anecdotal evidence and casual information suggest that over 10,000 farmers use improved agronomic practices. All these are discussed along with studies conducted by researchers and their implications for improving the productivity and utilization of moringa.

BADU-APRAKU B.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | FAKOREDE M.A.B.,Obafemi Awolowo University | ANNOR B.,CSIR Crops Research Institute | TALABI A.O.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture
Experimental Agriculture | Year: 2017

Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most important staple crop in West and Central Africa (WCA), but its production is severely constrained by low soil nitrogen (low N). Fifty-six extra-early open-pollinated maize cultivars developed during three breeding eras, 1995–2000, 2001–2006 and 2007–2012, were evaluated under low N and high soil nitrogen (high N) at two locations in Nigeria in 2013 and 2014, to investigate the genetic gains in grain yield and identify outstanding cultivars. During the first breeding era, the emphasis of the programme was on breeding for resistance to the maize streak virus (MSV) and high yield potential, while the major breeding emphasis during the second era was on recurrent selection for improved grain yield and Striga resistance in two extra-early-maturing source populations, TZEE-W Pop STR (white) and TZEE-Y Pop STR (yellow). Starting from the third era, the source populations were subjected to improvement for tolerance to drought, low N and resistance to Striga. A randomized incomplete block design with two replications was used for the field evaluations. Results revealed genetic gains in grain yield of 0.314 Mg ha−1 (13.29%) and 0.493 Mg ha−1 (16.84%) per era under low N and high N, respectively. The annual genetic gains in grain yield was 0.054 Mg ha–1 (2.14%) under low N and 0.081 Mg ha–1 (2.56%) under high N environments. The cultivar 2009 TZEE-OR2 STR of era 3 was the most stable, with competitive yield across environments, while 2004 TZEE-W Pop STR C4 from era 2, and TZEE-W STR 104, TZEE-W STR 108 and 2012 TZEE-W DT STR C5 from era 3 were high yielding but less stable. These cultivars should be further tested on-farm and commercialized in WCA. Substantial progress has been made in breeding for high grain yield and low-N tolerance in the sub-region. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2017

Parkes E.Y.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | Fregene M.,Ministry of Agriculture | Fregene M.,Donald Danforth Plant Science Center | Dixon A.,Sierra Leone Agriculture Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2013

Breeding for resistant genotypes is the best strategy to offset the destructive effects of cassava mosaic disease (CMD) and cassava bacterial blight (CBB). Two sets of diallel parents were selected for the forest and the savannah ecological zones in Ghana based on good levels of resistance to CMD and CBB. Both sets were crossed in a half-diallel design. The first set of seven progenitors and their 21 F1 progenies were planted in a randomised complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in two different locations for two seasons in the forest ecology. The second set of five progenitors and their 10 F1 progenies were planted in a RCBD with three replications in two locations in the coastal savannah ecological zone of Ghana. Both experiments were evaluated for CMD and CBB resistance, fresh root yield, dry root yield, root number, harvest index, dry matter content, plant height at maturity and height at first branching, levels of branching and plant vigour. Results of the combined analysis of variance revealed that the environment effect was significant for all the traits. General combining ability and specific combining ability effects were significant for most of the traits. Narrow sense heritability was significant for plant vigour, root number, CMD and CBB in both the zones. CMD and root number also had a predictability ratio of close to one, indicating the importance of additive gene effects. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Qin S.,Gansu Agricultural University | Yeboah S.,CSIR Crops Research Institute | Xu X.,Gansu Agricultural University | Liu Y.,Gansu Agricultural University | Yu B.,Gansu Agricultural University
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2017

Knowledge about fungi diversity following different planting patterns could improve our understanding of soil processes and thus help us to develop sustainable management strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of different furrow-ridge mulching techniques on fungal diversity in rhizosphere soil under continuous cropping system. The investigated treatments were: flat plot without mulch (CK); flat plot with mulch (T1); on-ridge planting with full mulch (T2); on-furrow planting with full mulch (T3); on-ridge planting with half mulch (T4); and on-furrow planting with half mulch (T5). NGS (Illumina) methods and ITS1 sequences were used in monitoring fungi diversity of the potato rhizosphere soil. The fungi diversity in the rhizosphere soil was ranked in the order T5 > T2 > T4 > T1 > CK at the early growth stage and T2 > T3 > T1 > T4 > CK at the late growth stage of potato. The fungal communities found in the rhizosphere soil were Ascomycota, Zygomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and other unidentified fungal communities. Among the fungal community in the rhizosphere soil, Ascomycota was found to be dominant fungi population, with the highest percentage (89%) in the T5 soil whereas the T2 soils had the lowest percentage (67%). The Fusarium abundance in fully-mulched treated soils was higher than in half-mulched treated soil. The dominant genus in the T4 soil was Mortierella, whereas lower populations (1-2%) of Scutellinia, Cryphonectria, Acremonium, and Alternaria were found in that treatment. Among the eumycetes, the dominant fungal class in all treated soils was the Sordariomycetes, which ranged from 57 to 85% in T2 and T5 soils, respectively. The Fusarium percentages in half-mulched treated soils (T4 and T5) were 55 and 28% lower than that of complete mulched treated soils (T2 and T3), respectively. The cluster analysis results showed that, CK, T4, and T5 treated soils and T1, T2, and T3 treated soils had similarities in microbial compositions, respectively. Potato tuber yield was greater under the on-ridge planting with full mulch (T2) treated soil, followed by on-ridge planting with half-mulch (T4) treated soil. The rhizosphere soil under the on-ridge planting with full-mulch (T2) soil had the highest fungal diversity, suggesting that this management was the best environment for fungi, whereas the on-ridge planting with half-mulch (T4) soil had the minimum abundance of Fusarium. © 2017 Qin, Yeboah, Xu, Liu and Yu.

Qin S.,Gansu Agricultural University | Yeboah S.,CSIR Crops Research Institute | Cao L.,Gansu Agricultural University | Zhang J.,Gansu Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

This study was conducted to explore the changes in soil microbial populations, enzyme activity, and tuber yield under the rotation sequences of Potato-Common vetch (P-C), Potato-Black medic (P-B) and Potato-Longdong alfalfa (P-L) in a semi-arid area of China. The study also determined the effects of continuous potato cropping (without legumes) on the above mentioned soil properties and yield. The number of bacteria increased significantly (p < 0.05) under P-B rotation by 78%, 85% and 83% in the 2, 4 and 7-year continuous cropping soils, respectively compared to P-C rotation. The highest fungi/bacteria ratio was found in P-C (0.218), followed by P-L (0.184) and then P-B (0.137) rotation over the different cropping years. In the continuous potato cropping soils, the greatest fungi/bacteria ratio was recorded in the 4-year (0.4067) and 7-year (0.4238) cropping soils and these were significantly higher than 1-year (0.3041), 2-year (0.2545) and 3-year (0.3030) cropping soils. Generally, actinomycetes numbers followed the trend P-L>P-C>P-B. The P-L rotation increased aerobic azotobacters in 2-year (by 26% and 18%) and 4-year (40% and 21%) continuous cropping soils compared to P-C and P-B rotation, respectively. Generally, the highest urease and alkaline phosphate activity, respectively, were observed in P-C (55.77 mg g-1) and (27.71 mg g-1), followed by P-B (50.72 mg mg-1) and (25.64 mg g-1) and then P-L (41.61 mg g-1) and (23.26 mg g-1) rotation. Soil urease, alkaline phosphatase and hydrogen peroxidase activities decreased with increasing years of continuous potato cropping. On average, the P-B rotation significantly increased (p <0.05) tuber yield by 19% and 18%, compared to P-C and P-L rotation respectively. P-L rotation also increased potato tuber yield compared to P-C, but the effect was lesser relative to P-B rotation. These results suggest that adopting potato-legume rotation system has the potential to improve soil biology environment, alleviate continuous cropping obstacle and increase potato tuber yield in semi-arid region. © 2017 Qin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Asante B.O.,CSIR Crops Research Institute | Afari-Sefa V.,The World Vegetable Center | Sarpong D.B.,University of Ghana
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

In recent times, governments of most developing countries have been promoting the formation and development of farmer based organizations as one of the keys to more rapid diffusion and costeffective extension delivery to farmers. This is premised on the assumption that small-scale farmers can have easy access to market information, credit and input for their production, processing, and marketing activities by joining farmer based organizations. However, this study found out that despite such observed benefits, some farmers were not members of farmer based organizations. This study uses the probit model to assess the factors influencing the decisions to join farmer based organizations in Ghana. The results revealed that farm size, farming as a major occupation, access to credit to loan and access to machinery services influenced farmers' decisions to join farmer based organizations in the Eastern Region of Ghana. © 2011 Academic Journals.

Qin S.,Gansu Agricultural University | Yeboah S.,CSIR Crops Research Institute | Wang D.,Gansu Agricultural University | Zhang J.,Gansu Agricultural University
Soil Use and Management | Year: 2016

Planting patterns have distinctive effects on the soil micro-ecological environment and soil quality. To explore the effects of film mulch ridge-furrow (FMRF) cropping on soil microbial properties and potato yield, a study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 in a continuously cropped field under nonfilm-mulched flat plot (CK), half-mulched flat plot (T1), fully mulched ridge cropping (T2), fully mulched furrow cropping (T3), half-mulched ridge cropping (T4) and half-mulched furrow cropping (T5) planting patterns. Our results indicate that T3 increased the average bacteria/fungi (B/F) ratio by 253% compared to CK. On average, half-mulched ridge cropping increased the bacteria population and aerobic Azotobacter by 9 and 19%, respectively, compared with CK. On average, T3 had the greatest inhibitory effect on fungi populations. Half-mulched furrow cropping had the most anaerobic Azotobacter and nitrifying bacteria. The study showed that FMRF increased soil bacteria, especially Azotobacter but reduced fungi and actinomycetes. Treatment T2 gave the greatest potato yield, followed by T4, whereas the greatest biomass yield was recorded in T4. Full-mulch furrow cropping methods produced the greatest nutrient use efficiency. The findings of this study enhance our understanding of soil microbe and plant responses to plastic mulch and planting patterns under semi-arid conditions. © 2016 British Society of Soil Science

Bortey H.M.,CSIR Crops Research Institute | Dzomeku B.M.,CSIR Crops Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2016

The influence of harvesting stages and drying methods on fruit and seed quality of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.] cultivar Asontem was studied to determine the optimum stage of harvest and suitable drying method. The fruit length and diameter progressively increased and reached its peak at 30 days after anthesis by recording 9.50 and 2.83cm respectively and subsequently decreased slightly. The higher seed moisture content (46.5%) was obtained at the early harvesting stage (10 day after anthesis (DAA) and decreased to as low as 22.1% at 50 DAA. Seed maturation and quality parameters were highly significant (p=0.05) at different harvesting stages. Maximum seed dry weight (4.1 g) occurred at 40 DAA regardless of the drying method. Maximum standard germination (77.0%) occurred at 50 DAA when seed moisture content was lowest (22.1%). The optimum stage for harvesting fruit of okra cultivar Asontem for high seed germinability was found to be ≥40 days after anthesis, followed by shade drying fruits before seed extraction.

Bortey H.M.,CSIR Crops Research Institute | Mpanju F.,African Regional Intellectual Property Organization ARIPO
Journal of Intellectual Property Rights | Year: 2016

This study assessed the level of awareness and knowledge among major stakeholders in the relevant sectors of agriculture on the Plant Breeders’ Rights (PBRs) Bill of Ghana and review the potential implication of adopting the PBRs system on food and seed security in Ghana based on stakeholders’ perception and case studies from other countries already implementing a PVP system. A field survey was conducted to administer questionnaires to participants comprising plant breeders, farmers, the general public, seed companies and Seed Producers Association, legal practitioners, National Research Institutions and the Registrar General’s Department (proposed regulatory body). The second part of the study is a review of historical data on PBRs system impact studies in Kenya, Tanzania and South Africa. The primary data were analysed using mainly descriptive statistics, employing Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), while the secondary data was analysed, contextualized and narrated. The current study confirmed the proposition that lack of and inadequate awareness and knowledge of the PBRs Bill among stakeholders could have stalled the passage of the Bill. Majority of farmers (61%) were not aware of the existence of the PBRs Bill and as high as between 70-79% lacked knowledge or understanding of the basic provisions of the PBR Bill, including the “farmers’ privilege” provision. Six out of ten (63%) farmers in Ghana continue to rely on their saved seeds, exchange or purchase from local grain markets for planting with only 12% purchasing seeds from Agro-dealer shops. The adoption of PBRs system in Ghana has the potential to improve the seed and food security system provided the recommendations offered by various stakeholders are thoughtfully considered. © 2016, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.

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