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Chaturvedi D.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Tetrahedron | Year: 2012

In this review, various kinds of synthetic methodologies for the synthesis of organic carbamates employing diversity of reagents and catalytic systems have been reviewed, from the beginning to the recent reports (covering till December 2010). © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Prathap G.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The h-index, as originally proposed (Hirsch, 2005), is a purely heuristic construction. Burrell (2013) showed that efforts to derive formulae from the mathematical framework of Lotkaian informetrics could lead to misleading results. On this note, we argue that a simple heuristic " thermodynamical" model can enable a better three-dimensional (3D) evaluation of the information production process leading to what we call the zynergy-index. © 2013 ASIS&T.

Shinde D.B.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Pillai V.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Quantum dots: A sequential, single-electron charging process of monodisperse graphene quantum dots (GQDs) encapsulated in a dodecylamine envelope, facilitating a capacitance of a few attofarads is reported. The average GQDs dimensions, as ascertained from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, of about 3±0.3, 2.6±0.2, and 2.2±0.3 nm control this unprecedented behavior (see picture). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Adlakha Y.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Cell death & disease | Year: 2013

Aberrant regulation of cholesterol homeostasis is associated with obesity as well as multiple types of cancer. However, the mechanism behind these is largely missing. Here, we show that microRNA (miRNA)-128-2 is not only a pro-apoptotic microRNA but it also alters the expression of genes involved in cellular cholesterol homeostasis. Cholesterol efflux via ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABCA1 and ABCG1) is a mechanism for cells to eliminate excess cholesterol and prevent cellular cholesterol accumulation. The regulation of these pathways is complex with transcriptional regulation by sterol-regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) and liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor (RXR) transcription factors but poorly understood at the post-transcriptional levels. MiR-128-2 increases the expression of SREBP2 and decreases the expression of SREBP1 in HepG2, MCF7 and HEK293T cells independent of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) status. MiR-128-2 inhibits the expression of ABCA1, ABCG1 and RXRα directly through a miR-128-2-binding site within their respective 3'untranslated regions. The administration of miR-128-2 leads to decline in the protein and mRNA levels of ABCA1, ABCG1 and RXRα. Conversely, anti-miRNA treatment leads to increased ABCA1, ABCG1 and RXRα expression. The inverse correlation between miR-128-2 and its targets viz. ABCA1 and ABCG1 was also established during high-fat diet in different mice tissues. Our data show that cholesterol efflux is attenuated by miR-128-2 overexpression and, conversely, stimulated by miR-128-2 silencing. Further, we also observed the induction of ER stress response by miR-128-2. In this study, we provide the first evidence of miR-128-2 to be a new regulator of cholesterol homeostasis. Our study shows dual role of miR-128-2, as a pro-apoptotic molecule as well as a regulator of cholesterol homeostasis.

Rayasam G.V.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets | Year: 2014

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is still a leading cause of mortality in the developing world and there is an unmet clinical need for new drugs with novel mechanism of action. Targeting the complex and unique cell wall of TB-causing pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has been a mainstay of TB drug discovery. Though, the composition of the cell wall of Mtb is well understood, little is known about the assembly process of the cell wall such as the transport of mycolic acids across the cell wall. Areas covered: Recent research demonstrating MmpL3 protein as a transmembrane transporter of mycolic acids is discussed. In addition, MmpL3 has also been implicated in heme transport. Research describing several diverse chemical inhibitors that inhibit MmpL3 is reviewed. Expert opinion: Evidence so far suggests MmpL3 is a transporter of mycolic acids. It has emerged as a novel therapeutic target for Mtb that is essential and for which several small molecule inhibitors have been identified. Identifying the interacting partners, understanding the substrate specificity and the mechanism of transport by MmpL3 are some of the gaps in knowledge that need to be addressed. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

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