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Kitoh A.,Meteorological Research Institute | Endo H.,Meteorological Research Institute | Krishna Kumar K.,Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology | Cavalcanti I.F.A.,National Institute for Space Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2013

We provide a new view of global and regional monsoonal rainfall, and their changes in the 21st century under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios as projected by 29 climate models that participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. The model results show that the global monsoon area defined by the annual range in precipitation is projected to expand mainly over the central to eastern tropical Pacific, the southern Indian Ocean, and eastern Asia. The global monsoon precipitation intensity and the global monsoon total precipitation are also projected to increase. Indices of heavy precipitation are projected to increase much more than those for mean precipitation. Over the Asian monsoon domain, projected changes in extreme precipitation indices are larger than over other monsoon domains, indicating the strong sensitivity of Asian monsoon to global warming. Over the American and African monsoon regions, projected future changes in mean precipitation are rather modest, but those in precipitation extremes are large. Models project that monsoon retreat dates will delay, while onset dates will either advance or show no change, resulting in lengthening of the monsoon season. However, models' limited ability to reproduce the present monsoon climate and the large scatter among the model projections limit the confidence in the results. The projected increase of the global monsoon precipitation can be attributed to an increase of moisture convergence due to increased surface evaporation and water vapor in the air column although offset to a certain extent by the weakening of the monsoon circulation. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Absar N.,Pondicherry University | Sreenivas B.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
International Geology Review | Year: 2015

Geochemical and petrological studies of the well-preserved greywacke horizon of the Middle Aravalli Group were carried out to constrain the early evolution of the Aravalli basin. Petrological and geochemical attributes of Middle Aravalli greywackes (MAGs) such as very poor sorting, high angularity of framework grains, presence of fresh plagioclase and K-feldspars, variable Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) index (46.7-74.5, avg. 61), and high Index of Compositional Variability (ICV) value (~1.05) suggest rapid physical erosion accompanying an active tectonic regime. The sediments record post-depositional K-metasomatism and extraneous addition of 0-25% (avg. ~10%) K is indicated. Assuming close system behaviour of immobile elements during sedimentation, various diagnostic element ratios such as Th/Sc, La/Sc, Zr/Sc, and Co/Th, Eu anomaly and rare earth element patterns of MAG suggest that the Archaean Banded Gneissic Complex (BGC) basement was not the major source of sediments. In conjunction with the dominant 1.8-1.6 Ga detrital zircon age peaks of Middle Aravalli clastic rocks, these data rather indicate that the sediments were derived from a young differentiated continental margin-type arc of andesite-dacite-rhyodacite composition. A highly fractionated mid-oceanic-ridge-basalt-normalized trace element pattern of MAGs, with characteristic enrichment of large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs), depletion of heavy rare earth elements, negative Nb-Ta, Ti and P anomalies, positive Pb anomaly, and distinctive Nb/Ta, Zr/Sm, Th/Yb, and Ta/Yb, Ce/Pb ratios envelop the composition of modern continental arc magmas (andesite-dacite) of the Andes, suggesting a subduction zone tectonic setting for precursor magma. High magnitude of LILE enrichment and high Th/Yb ratios in these sediments indicate that thick continental crust (~70 km) underlay the Middle Aravalli continental arc, similar to the Central Volcanic Zone of the modern Andes. We propose that eastward subduction of Delwara oceanic crust beneath the BGC continent led to the formation of a continental volcanic arc, which supplied detritus to the forearc basin situated to the west. This model also explains the opening of linear ensialic basins in the Bhilwara terrain, such as in Rajpura-Dariba and Rampura-Agucha in a classical back-arc extension regime, similar to the Andean continental margin of the Mesozoic. On the basis of the recent 207Pb/206Pb detrital zircon age of Middle Aravalli sediment, a time frame between 1772 and 1586 Ma can be assigned for Middle Aravalli continental arc magmatism. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Badadhe S.S.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Mulla I.S.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Mulla I.S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2011

A facile spray pyrolysis route is used to deposit aluminium doped ZnO (AZO) thin films on to the glass substrates. It is observed that on aluminium doping the particle size of ZnO reduces significantly; moreover, uniformity of particle also gets enhanced. Their XRD study reveals that intensity ratio of crystal planes depend on the aluminium doping concentration. The gas response studies of; ∼800 nm thick Al-doped ZnO films at different operating temperatures show that 5 at% Al-doped ZnO thin film exhibits highest response towards H 2S gas at 200 °C. The results suggest that the gas response strongly depends on the particle size and aluminium doping in the ZnO. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All Rights Reserved.


Sunder Raju P.V.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Eriksson P.G.,University of Pretoria
Geological Society Memoir | Year: 2015

The geology and basin evolutionary history of the Dharwar Craton is discussed. The Dharwar Craton comprises western (WDC) and eastern (EDC) subdivisions (possibly separated by the Closepet granite), predicated on lithological contrasts and inferred metamorphic and magmatic evolution. A postulated genesis of the WDC comprises early, c. 3.5 Ga protocrust, which possibly formed as basement to the c. 3.35-3.2 Ga Sargur Group greenstone belts. The latter are thought to have formed through accretion of plume-related ocean plateaux. The approximately coeval Peninsular Gneiss Complex possibly originated from beneath plateau remnants, leading to metamorphism of Sargur Group belts at c. 3.13-2.96 Ga. At c. 2.9-2.6 Ga, the Dharwar Supergroup, comprising lower Bababudan (mainly braided fluvial, glaciomarine and subaerial volcanic strata) and upper Chitradurga (marine clastic, chemical sedimentary and subaqueous volcanic rocks) groups developed. This supergroup formed younger greenstone belts characterized by two distinct magmatic events, at 2.7-2.6 and 2.58-2.54 Ga; the latter was approximately coeval with c. 2.6-2.5 Ga granitic magmatism, which marked final cratonization of the WDC. The EDC consists of 2.7-2.55 Ga tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite gneisses and migmatites, essentially coeval greenstone belts (mainly volcanic lithologies), with minor inferred remnants of an older, c. 3.38-3.0 Ga crust, and voluminous 2.56-2.5 Ga granitoids (including the Closepet). An east-west accretion of EDC island arcs (or possibly of an assembled arc-granitic terrane) on to the WDC is postulated, and the Closepet granite perhaps accreted earlier on to the WDC to form a 'central Dharwar' terrane. A final voluminous granitic cratonization event affected the assembled Dharwar Craton at c. 2.5 Ga. © 2015 The Author(s).


Singh H.B.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2011

This paper reports on a total of 10 plant species of different families which are used as indicators in forecasting weather, in predicting natural calamities, or as taboos or signals of bad omens, among the Meitei community of Manipur state in North eastern India. These plants belong to dicot (6 species), monocot (3 species) and pteridophyte (single species) and are both cultivated (5 species) and grown wildly (rest 5 species). The four species namely, Alocasia indica, Brassica campestris, Hibiscus cannabinus and Mangifera indica are cultivated purely for food purpose while Platycerium wallichi is cultivated as decorative pot plant. The species namely, Quercus serrata in not cultivated in private lands. This knowledge system is still prevalent among the local people, especially in rural areas.


Sivadas A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Pharmacogenomics Journal | Year: 2016

Expanding the scope of pharmacogenomic research by including multiple global populations is integral to building robust evidence for its clinical translation. Deep whole-genome sequencing of diverse ethnic populations provides a unique opportunity to study rare and common pharmacogenomic markers that often vary in frequency across populations. In this study, we aim to build a diverse map of pharmacogenetic variants in South East Asian (SEA) Malay population using deep whole-genome sequences of 100 healthy SEA Malay individuals. We investigated the allelic diversity of potentially deleterious pharmacogenomic variants in SEA Malay population. Our analysis revealed 227 common and 466 rare potentially functional single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in 437 pharmacogenomic genes involved in drug metabolism, transport and target genes, including 74 novel variants. This study has created one of the most comprehensive maps of pharmacogenetic markers in any population from whole genomes and will hugely benefit pharmacogenomic investigations and drug dosage recommendations in SEA Malays.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 31 May 2016; doi:10.1038/tpj.2016.39. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited


Singh K.K.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of the Geological Society of India | Year: 2015

Disaster due to inundation is one of the major threats of coalmines. Sudden heavy inrush of high volume of water from the unapproachable and unknown waterlogged workings in underground mines is defined as inundation. There have been several instances of inrush of water due to old galleries getting connected by new development headings, resulting in disasters involving heavy fatalities and loss of machines. This type of disaster has occurred in many coal producing countries and may occur in future until a suitable tool to investigate barriers thickness is in regular use. Directorate General of Mines Safety (DGMS) has stipulated that a safety barrier thickness of not less than 60 m must be maintained between abandoned workings and contemporary mine developments. It has been estimated that a large number of underground coal mines in India are under threat of adjacent unknown waterlogged mine workings. Therefore, evaluation of barrier thickness up to 60 m is essential to prevent mine disasters due to inundations. Considering the above facts, a new GPR system named MineVue radar is developed having depth of penetration of 60 m subject to geo-mining conditions of Indian coalmines first time in the world. Final trial of the developed MineVue radar system was done at the Kachhi Balihari Colliery in Bharat Cocking Coal Limited (BCCL), Dhanbad. The validation of GPR data in the known mine sites were done with accurate existing mine-plans to establish the reliability and confidence of mine operators, policy makers and safety personnel. © 2015, Geological Society of India.


Mishra D.C.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of the Geological Society of India | Year: 2015

Proterozoic basins in India mostly belong to two periods, viz. Paleo-Mesoproterozoic (~1.9–1.6 Ga) and Meso-Neoproterozoic (1.1–0.7 Ga) periods that show a long hiatus of ~0.5 Ga between the upper and the lower groups. We have considered Mahakoshal — Bijawar, lower Vindhyan and lower Cuddapah (Cuddapah Supergroup) basins in the former group while the latter consists of upper Vindhyan, and upper Cuddapah (Kurnool) basins. They mostly occur along the contemporary Proterozoic collision zones and are sub parallel to them. The Mahakoshal and Bijawar Supergroups occur along the Satpura Mobile Belt (SMB) and Bundelkhand craton, respectively with Bundelkhand craton as basement and are overlain by the Vindhyan Supergroup of rocks along the SMB. They are almost sub-parallel to the mobile bet, SMB. The Cuddapah Supergroup of Paleoproterozoic period and the Kurnool Group of Neoproterozoic period of Cuddapah basin occur along the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB). Based on the exposed contemporary dyke swarms and sills of mafic and ultramafic rocks that are exposed far apart and their extent sub-surface based on geophysical data, it is suggested that a large plume/superplume existed during Paleoproterozoic period (~1.9 Ga) under the Indian continent. It was responsible for the breakup (rifting) of the then cratons and provided margins for deposition of the former older group of rocks with shelf type of sediments and large scale mafic/ultramafic intrusives. The latter younger groups formed during subsequent convergence in Meso-Neoproterozoic period (~1.1–0.7 Ga) as foreland basins on the stable platform of the rifted cratons. That largely explains their undisturbed nature and absence of magmatic rocks. This convergence also caused large scale deformation as folds and faults in the former group of rocks as they collided with adjoining cratons and formed orogenic belts of that time. In the above examples, the Mahakoshal, Bijawar, lower Vindhyan and lower Cuddapah basins of Paleoproterozoic period formed during the rifting phase due to the plume/ superplume while the upper Vindhyan and upper Cuddapah (Kurnool) basins of Neoproterozoic period formed during subsequent convergence as foreland basins. As they formed during different stages of plate tectonics viz. rifting and convergence, they show long hiatus of 0.5–0.6 Ga between the older and the younger groups. The same plume/superplume at 1.9 Ga might also be responsible for the breakup of the contemporary Columbia supercontinent as rocks of similar ages have been reported from other parts of this supercontinent. © 2015, Geological Society of India.


Chetty T.R.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of the Geological Society of India | Year: 2015

A new structural-architectural map of the Cauvery Suture Zone revealing broad lithology, shear zones, fold forms, foliation trajectories and other structural fabrics, along with kinematic displacements has been brought out by making use of available data sets to fulfill the essential requirement of all geoscientists. Recent advances in understanding the tectonothermal history of the CSZ are also highlighted. © 2015, Geological Society of India.


Venkateshwarlu M.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of Earth System Science | Year: 2015

Magnetic polarity stratigraphy studies were carried out on Jabbar Khad section of Nurpur area, Kangra District, Himachal Pradesh, India. Oriented block samples were collected at 202 sites with 3–5 samples per site from a 2350-m thick continuous sedimentary sequence consisting of sandstone–mudstone alternating beds. Specimens were subjected to thermal demagnetization (100–700°C) after measuring their natural remanent magnetization (NRM). Palaeolatitudes of virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) from each site were calculated from the acquired characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) directions. The observed remanence carrier could be haematite. Magnetic polarity scale (MPS) was erected. This MPS is correlated with the standard geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) of Lourens et al. (2004). The MPS readily matched from chron C2An.1n to chron C4n.2n, therefore assigning an age 8.20–2.60 Ma to the middle and upper Siwalik sections at Nurpur. The rate of sedimentation in middle Siwalik is 29 mm/yr and upper Siwalik is 59 mm/yr. © Indian Academy of Sciences.


Chaturvedi D.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Tetrahedron | Year: 2012

In this review, various kinds of synthetic methodologies for the synthesis of organic carbamates employing diversity of reagents and catalytic systems have been reviewed, from the beginning to the recent reports (covering till December 2010). © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Berchmans S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Issa T.B.,Murdoch University | Singh P.,Murdoch University
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2012

Determination of inorganic phosphate is of very high importance in environmental and health care applications. Hence knowledge of suitable analytical techniques available for phosphate sensing for different applications becomes essential. Electrochemical methods for determining inorganic phosphate have several advantages over other common techniques, including detection selectivity, stability and relative environmental insensitivity of electroactive labels. The different electrochemical sensing strategies adopted for the determination of phosphate using selective ionophores are discussed in this review. The various sensing strategies are classified based on the electrochemical detection techniques used viz., potentiometry, voltammetry, amperometry, unconventional electrochemical methods etc., The enzymatic sensing of phosphate coupled with electrochemical detection is also included. Various electroanalytical methods available in the literature are assessed for their merits in terms of selectivity, simplicity, miniaturisation, adaptability and suitability for field measurements. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Murali K.R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Balasubramanian M.,Rajus Colllege
Current Applied Physics | Year: 2010

CdxZn1-xSe films (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) were deposited for the first time by the pulse plating technique at different duty cycles in the range 6-50% at room temperature from an aqueous bath containing zinc sulphate, cadmium sulphate and selenium oxide. To the author's knowledge this is the first report on pulse plated CdxZn1-xSe films. The deposition potential was -0.9 V (SCE). The as deposited films exhibited cubic structure. Composition of the films was estimated by Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-ray studies. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies indicated the binding energies corresponding to Zn(2p3/2), Cd(3d5/2 and 3d3/2) and Se(3d5/2 and 3d3/2). Optical band gap of the films varied from 1.72 to 2.70 eV as the composition varied from CdSe to ZnSe side. Atomic force microscopy studies indicated grain size in the range of 20-150 nm. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Tandon R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Parasitology | Year: 2013

The role of Mycobacterium w (Mw) vaccine as an immunomodulator and immunoprophylactant in the treatment of mycobacterial diseases (leprosy and pulmonary tuberculosis) is well established. The fact that it shares common antigens with leishmanial parasites prompted its assessment as an immunostimulant and as an adjunct to known anti-leishmanials that may help in stimulating the suppressed immune status of Leishmania donovani-infected individuals. The efficacy of Mw vaccine was assessed as an immunomodulator, prophylactically either alone or in combination with anti-leishmanial vaccine, as well as therapeutically as an adjunct to anti-leishmanial treatment in L. donovani-infected hamsters, representing a chronic human Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) model. Similarly, its efficacy was also evaluated in L. donovani-infected BALB/c mice, representing an acute VL model. The preliminary studies revealed that Mw was ineffective as an immunostimulant and/or immunoprophylactant in hamsters infected with L. donovani, as estimated by T-cell immunological responses. However, in the BALB/c mice-VL model it appeared as an effective immunostimulant but a futile prophylactic agent. It is therefore inferred that, contrary to its role in managing tuberculosis and leprosy infections, Mw vaccine has not been successful in controlling VL infection, emphasizing the need to find detailed explanations for the failure of this vaccine against the disease.


Naganjaneyulu K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Santosh M.,Kochi University
Geological Journal | Year: 2012

The 800km-long Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt (ADFB) in the Aravalli Mountains of Rajasthan defines the largest tectonic feature in the northwestern (NW) Indian shield, situated between the late Proterozoic Marwar Basin in the west and the Vindhyan Basin in the east. The final collision between the Aravalli and Delhi domains defining ocean closure and continental amalgamation is critical in understanding the culmination of the Proterozoic Wilson Cycle in NW India. We present for the first time a regional three-dimensional (3-D) gravity model to evaluate the architecture of the continental collision signature of this region. The deep seismic reflection data along a 400km-long profile across the ADFB highlights two sets of reflection bands with opposite dips. The prominent west-dipping reflections observed in the central domain, towards the western margin of the Mangalwar Complex could be related to the Palaeoproterozoic subduction of an oceanic lithosphere, and suggest a clear northwestward subduction polarity. The data showing gravity highs, the high elevation features, and the models proposed in the present study, together with the presence of high-density bodies in the deep crust, is interpreted as a signature of magmatic underplating and/or mafic-ultramafic intrusives. The high elevations and corresponding high-density anomalies at depth can also be explained by domal uplift, following the extrusion of metamorphic orogens into the mid crust, as well as the presence of eclogitized material at depth associated with the subduction-collision tectonics and continental amalgamation. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..


Kasana R.C.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Critical Reviews in Microbiology | Year: 2010

Proteases are hydrolytic enzymes which catalyze the total hydrolysis of proteins in to amino acids. Although proteolytic enzymes can be obtained from animals and plants but microorganisms are the preferred source for industrial applications in view of scientific and economical advantage. Among various groups of microbes, psychrotrophs are ideal candidates for enzymes production keeping in mind that enzymes active at low temperature and stable under alkaline condition, in presence of oxidants and detergents are in large demand as laundry additive. The proteases from psychrotrophs also find application in environmental bioremediation, food and molecular biology. During the previous two decades, proteases from psychrotrophs have received increased attention because of their wide range of applications, but the full potential of psychrotrophic proteases has not been exploited. This review focuses attention on the present status of knowledge on the production, optimization, molecular characteristics, applications, substrate specificity, and crystal structure of psychrotrophic proteases. The review will help in making strategies for exploitation of psychrotrophic protease resources and improvement of enzymes to obtain more robust proteases of industrial and biotechnological significance. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.


Swarnakar S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
EXS | Year: 2012

The interest in gelatinases is increased because of their association in diverse human diseases, though the relationship between MMP expression and disease progression is very complex and varies in cell to cell. Targeting gelatinases in disease treatment is complicated by the fact that gelatinases are indispensable for normal development and physiology due to their multifunctionality, possible functional redundancy, context-dependent expression, and activity. They are secreted as inactive zymogens which are processed to become active by removal of N-terminal propeptide. The folded conformation of zymogen is required to keep the gelatinases in its latency. Acting on a broad spectrum of extracellular substrates, the gelatinases (both MMP-2 and MMP-9) are critical to the biological processes. Three-dimensional structures of gelatinase-inhibitor complexes and inhibition profiles of compounds screened on them provide an invaluable source to gain insight into the structural determinants as well as functional selectivity. The quest for selective MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) still remains a challenge in search of successful clinical candidates. An increased understanding of the structure, regulation, and function of the individual MMPs will likely lead to more effective strategies in the development of highly selective inhibitors for any given MMP that can then be exploited to achieve the desired drugs.


Basu A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Scientometrics | Year: 2014

Due to recession in the world economy there is a trend towards a reduction in growth of R&D expenditure in the G7 countries. At the same time countries like China and Korea are investing more in scientific research. We compare the differences in the inputs to science for different countries and explore the level of efficiency in the output of scientific papers with respect to inputs such as manpower and investment. We find that the EU countries are relatively more efficient than Japan, the USA and also China and Korea so far as the production of papers is concerned. However, if efficiency is considered in terms of patents, Japan Korea and the USA are ahead. We compare our results with Albuquerque's model linking patent to paper ratios and development, and find significant deviations for some countries. We deduce that there has been a shift from publishing towards patenting in certain countries and link it to high contribution from the business sector to R&D expenditure. Preliminary results of this analysis have been presented in Basu (In Proceedings of the 14th International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics (ISSI) Conference, 2013). © 2014 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.


Kundu S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects | Year: 2014

A facile route for the formation of shape-selective ZnO nanoarchitectures has been demonstrated. ZnO nanostructures with variable sizes and shapes have been successfully synthesized using microwave (MW) heating for 5. min in an aqueous solution containing Zn(II) salt, CTAB, 2,7-DHN, and NaOH. The size and shape of the nanomaterials can be controlled by tuning the molar ratio of Zn(II) salt to CTAB and by controlling other reaction parameters. This process exclusively generates different shapes, e.g., 'bacteria-like', 'larva-like', 'flake-like' and 'flower-like', on a shorter time scale. The incorporation of alkaline 2,7-DHN plays a dual role; it controls the solution pH, and it directly affects the growth process of various ZnO crystal facets. Shape-selective ZnO nanostructures have been utilized as an excellent photo-catalyst for the degradation of methyl red (MeR) under UV illumination. Among the various shapes examined, the 'flower-like' nanostructure exhibited superior photo-catalyst activity due to its special structural features. Furthermore, the synthesized shape-selective ZnO nanostructures could be useful in large-scale heterogeneous photo-catalysis reactions to target wastewater contamination and environmental pollution. Moreover, they could also be useful as novel gas sensors and as suitable templates for the synthesis of other nanomaterials with uniform morphologies. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Prathap G.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The h-index, as originally proposed (Hirsch, 2005), is a purely heuristic construction. Burrell (2013) showed that efforts to derive formulae from the mathematical framework of Lotkaian informetrics could lead to misleading results. On this note, we argue that a simple heuristic " thermodynamical" model can enable a better three-dimensional (3D) evaluation of the information production process leading to what we call the zynergy-index. © 2013 ASIS&T.


Kumar N.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Prosthetics and Orthotics International | Year: 2014

Background: Finite element analysis has been universally employed for the stress and strain analysis in lower extremity prosthetics. The socket adapter was the principal subject of interest due to its importance in deciding the knee motion range. Objectives: This article focused on the static and dynamic stress analysis of the designed hybrid adapter developed by the authors. A standard mechanical design validation approach using von Mises was followed. Four materials were considered for the analysis, namely, carbon fiber, oil-filled nylon, Al-6061, and mild steel. Study design: The paper analyses the static and dynamic stress on designed hybrid adapter which incorporates features of conventional male and female socket adapters. The finite element analysis was carried out for possible different angles of knee flexion simulating static and dynamic gait situation. Methods: Research was carried out on available design of socket adapter. Mechanical design of hybrid adapter was conceptualized and a CAD model was generated using Inventor modelling software. Static and dynamic stress analysis was carried out on different materials for optimization. Results: The finite element analysis was carried out on the software Autodesk Inventor Professional Ver. 2011. The peak value of von Mises stress occurred in the neck region of the adapter and in the lower face region at rod eye-adapter junction in static and dynamic analyses, respectively. Conclusions: Oil-filled nylon was found to be the best material among the four with respect to strength, weight, and cost. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics.


Vasudevan S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2011

PURPOSE AND AIM: The present study provides an optimization of electrocoagulation process for the simultaneous removal of heavy metals such as mercury, lead, and nickel from water. In doing so, the thermodynamic, adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies were also carried out. Magnesium alloy, magnesium, aluminum, and mild steel sheet of size 2 dm(2) were used as anode and galvanized iron as cathode. To optimize the maximum removal efficiency, different parameters like effect of initial concentration, effect of temperature, pH, and effect of current density were studied. Mercury-, lead-, and nickel-adsorbed magnesium hydroxide coagulant was characterized by SEM and EDAX. The results showed that the maximum removal efficiency was achieved for mercury, lead, and nickel with magnesium alloy as anode and galvanized iron as cathode at a current density of 0.15 Å/dm(2) and pH of 7.0. The adsorption of mercury, lead, and nickel are preferably fitting the Langmuir adsorption isotherm suggests monolayer coverage of adsorbed molecules. The adsorption process follows second-order kinetics. Temperature studies showed that adsorption was endothermic and spontaneous in nature. The magnesium hydroxide generated in the cell removes the heavy metals present in the water and reduces to a permissible level, making it drinkable.


Sharma A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Biomolecular Concepts | Year: 2015

Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in animals has increasingly been reported in recent years. Controversies, however, surround this unconventional mode of heredity, especially in mammals, for several reasons. First, its existence itself has been questioned due to perceived insufficiency of available evidence. Second, it potentially implies transfer of hereditary information from soma to germline, against the established principle in biology. Third, it inherently requires survival of epigenetic memory across reprogramming, posing another fundamental challenge in biology. Fourth, evolutionary significance of epigenetic inheritance has also been under debate. This article pointwise addresses all these concerns on the basis of recent empirical, theoretical and conceptual advances. 1) Described here in detail are the key experimental findings demonstrating the occurrence of germline epigenetic inheritance in mammals. 2) Newly emerging evidence supporting soma to germline communication in transgenerational inheritance in mammals, and a role of exosome and extracellular microRNA in this transmission, is thoroughly discussed. 3) The plausibility of epigenetic information propagation across reprogramming is highlighted. 4) Analyses supporting evolutionary significance of epigenetic inheritance are briefly mentioned. Finally, an integrative model of 'evolutionary transgenerational systems biology' is proposed to provide a framework to guide future advancements in epigenetic inheritance. © 2015 by De Gruyter.


Prathap G.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Scientometrics | Year: 2011

Quality, Quantity, Performance,...An unresolved challenge in performance evaluation in a very general context that goes beyond scientometrics, has been to determine a single indicator that can combine quality and quantity of output or outcome. Toward this end, we start from metaphysical considerations and propose introducing a new name called Quasity to describe those quantity terms which incorporate a degree of quality and best measures the output. The product of quality and quasity then becomes an energy term which serves as a performance indicator. Lessons from kinetics, bibliometrics and sportometrics are used to build up this theme. © 2011 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.


Suresh Kumar G.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of Biosciences | Year: 2012

Studies on RNA targeting by small molecules to specifically control certain cellular functions is an area of remarkable current interest. For this purpose, a basic understanding of the molecular aspects of the interaction of small molecules with various RNA structures is essential. Alkaloids are a group of natural products with potential therapeutic utility, and very recently, their interaction with many RNA structures have been reported. Especially noteworthy are the protoberberines and aristolochia alkaloids distributed widely in many botanical families. Many of the alkaloids of these group exhibit excellent binding affinity to many RNA structures that may be exploited to develop RNA targeted therapeutics. This review attempts to present the current status on the understanding of the interaction of these alkaloids with various RNA structures, mainly highlighting the biophysical aspects. © Indian Academy of Sciences.


Karmakar R.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Karmakar R.,TU Braunschweig | Pahari P.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Pahari P.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Mal D.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

Small molecule natural products have been the mainstay of research in organic chemistry since its early development. The established classes of natural products, like alkaloids, amino acids, flavonoids, quinonoids, steroids, and terpenoids, have played vital roles in the discovery of new drugs. Research on the chemistry of natural products is continuing to generate new leads in medicinal chemistry. A case in point is the emerging class of compounds called isobenzofuranones, commonly termed as phthalides. NBP is a viscous oil and occurs as the major component of celery oil. It also exhibits antibacterial, antiviral, and antihypertensive activity. Mycophenolic acid is in clinical trial for the prevention and reversal of transplant rejection and anticancer. Dimeric forms of this core structure feature a few natural products.


Mandal P.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2014

The pentasaccharide repeating unit of the O-antigen of E. coli O117:K98:H4 strain has been synthesized using a combination of sequential glycosylations and [3 + 2] block synthetic strategy from the suitably protected monosaccharide intermediates. Thioglycosides and glycosyl trichloroacetimidate derivatives have been used as glycosyl donors in the glycosylations. © 2014 Mandal; licensee Beilstein-Institut. License and terms: see end of document.


Kumar P.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research | Paul A.K.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research | Deep A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials | Year: 2014

A luminescent metal-organic framework, MOF-5 [Zn4O (BDC) 3 (BDC = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate)] has been synthesized by the reaction of zinc nitrate and terephthalic acid in diethylformamide (DEF) medium. The obtained fluorescent porous material has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and surface area analysis. The synthesized MOF exhibits reasonably good fluorescence characteristics (excitation wavelength = 330 nm, emission wavelength = 493 nm). The potential of above Zn based MOF for the sensing of nitro group containing organophosphate pesticides (OPs), namely parathion, methyl parathion, paraoxon and fenitrothion, is demonstrated. It has been possible to detect the above four OPs separately in the concentration range of 5-600 ppb. The detection limit of the proposed method for all the said OPs is 5 ppb. Interestingly, their mixture also shows the above characteristic data. The proposed method for the sensing of nitro OPs is selective towards other OPs e.g., malathion, dichlorvos and monocrotophos. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Sengupta D.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Chattopadhyay A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes | Year: 2015

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest class of molecules involved in signal transduction across cell membranes and represent major targets in the development of novel drug candidates. Membrane cholesterol plays an important role in GPCR structure and function. Molecular dynamics simulations have been successful in exploring the effect of cholesterol on the receptor and a general consensus molecular view is emerging. We review here recent molecular dynamics studies at multiple resolutions highlighting the main features of cholesterol-GPCR interaction. Several cholesterol interaction sites have been identified on the receptor that are reminiscent of nonannular sites. These cholesterol hot-spots are highly dynamic and have a microsecond time scale of exchange with the bulk lipids. A few consensus sites (such as the CRAC site) have been identified that correspond to higher cholesterol interaction. Interestingly, high plasticity is observed in the modes of cholesterol interaction and several sites have been suggested to have high cholesterol occupancy. We therefore believe that these cholesterol hot-spots are indicative of 'high occupancy sites' rather than 'binding sites'. The results suggest that the energy landscape of cholesterol association with GPCRs corresponds to a series of shallow minima interconnected by low barriers. These specific interactions, along with general membrane effects, have been observed to modulate GPCR organization. Membrane cholesterol effects on receptor structure and organization, that in turn influences receptor cross-talk and drug efficacy, represent a new frontier in GPCR research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid-protein interactions. Guest Editors: Amitabha Chattopadhyay and Jean-Marie Ruysschaert. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Karthikeyan K.,Chonnam National University | Kalpana D.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Amaresh S.,Chonnam National University | Lee Y.S.,Chonnam National University
RSC Advances | Year: 2012

Pristine Fe3O4 and Fe3O 4-graphene composites were synthesized by using a green and low cost urea-assisted microwave irradiation method and were utilized as electrode materials for symmetric supercapacitor applications. The Fe3O 4-graphene symmetric cell exhibited a better electrochemical performance than that of the Fe3O4 cell with enhanced rate performances. The Fe3O4-graphene symmetric cell delivered a stable discharge capacitance, energy and power densities of about 72 F g -1, 9 Wh kg-1 and 3000 W kg-1, respectively at 3.75 A g-1 current density over 100/000 cycles between 0-1 V. The impedance studies also suggested that the Fe3O4-graphene symmetric cell showed lower resistance and high conductivity due to the small particle size, large surface area and good interaction between Fe 3O4 particles and graphene layers. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Kumar D.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2016

NMR spectroscopy has multidisciplinary applications, including excellent impact in metabolomics. The analytical capacity of NMR spectroscopy provides information for easy qualitative and quantitative assessment of both endogenous and exogenous metabolites present in biological samples. The complexity of a particular metabolite and its contribution in a biological system are critically important for understanding the functional state that governs the organism's phenotypes. This review covers historical aspects of developments in the NMR field, its applications in chemical profiling, metabolomics, and quality control of plants and their derived medicines, foods, and other products. The bottlenecks of NMR in metabolic profiling are also discussed, keeping in view the future scope and further technological interventions. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


Bala V.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Synlett | Year: 2014

(A) Halimehjani et al. utilized dithiocarbamates as efficient intermediates for the synthesis of symmetrical substituted 2,5-diamino- 1,3,4-thiadiazoles in water. Reaction of the easily prepared dithiocarbamates with hydrazinium salt gave the corresponding thiadiazoles in moderate to good yields.7 (B) Das et al. described an efficient and practical procedure for the synthesis of a wide variety of 2-(N-substituted)aminobenzimidazoles using dithiocarbamates and a catalytic amount of CuO. This procedure can be used to synthesize potential drug candidates with antiallergic and antihistamine properties.4 (C) An efficient method for the synthesis of unsymmetrical thioureas from readily synthesized S-alkyl dithiocarbamates and amines without using any catalyst under solvent-free conditions was developed. The short reaction time, high yield, simple workup, and solvent-free conditions are advantages of this method.8 (D) Katari et al. have reported an efficient one-pot amide-bond formation under microwave conditions employing substituted acids and dithiocarbamates as the amine source. Various bases (including pyridine, DABCO, and DMAP) were screened, and DBU in DMF gave the best yield.9 (E) Lal et al. reported a facile synthesis of S-(2-thioxo-1,3-dithiolan- 4-yl)methyl dialkylcarbamothioates by the reaction of 5-(chloromethyl)- 1,3-oxathiolane-2-thione with sodium dialkylcarbamodithioates through intermolecular OS rearrangement in water. The authors tried different solvents, and a significant rate enhancement was observed in water compared to organic solvents. 10 (F) Sun et al. developed a general and facile one-pot process for the synthesis of isothiocyanates from amines under aqueous conditions. This method is advantageous for the synthesis of highly electron deficient aromatic isothiocyanates. It involves an in situ generation of a dithiocarbamate salt to form the isothiocyanate product, with trichlorotriazine (TCT) as the desulfurylation reagent. 11 (G) Nath et al. developed an efficient one-pot procedure for the synthesis of cyanamides from their corresponding dithiocarbamic acid salts via a double desulfurization strategy using molecular iodine. It involves in situ generation of the isothiocyanate followed by conversion into thiourea which undergoes oxidative desulfurization to yield cyanamide. Environmental benignity, cost effectiveness, and high yields are important attributes of this procedure.12 © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart. New York.


Chawla R.,Banaras Hindu University | Jaiswal S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Mishra B.,Banaras Hindu University
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery | Year: 2014

Objective: The objective of the present study was to develop sustained release biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (PNs) of two anti-tubercular drugs (ATDs), rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) using circumscribed central composite factorial design (CCD) and evaluate in vivo uptake potential using rhodamine labeled PNs (RPNs). Methods: CCD was employed to study the influence of independent formulation factors, drug:polymer ratio (D:P) and surfactant concentration (SC), on dependent physicochemical characteristics, particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PI) and percentage entrapment efficiency (%EE) of the drugs. Optimized PNs prepared using response surface methodology (RSM) were evaluated for in vitro kinetics at endosomal macrophage pH 5.2 and physiological pH 7.4 and in vivo targeting potential in peritoneal macrophages (PMs) by fluorescence microscopy (FM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Results: Optimized PNs exhibited spherical and porous surface with a mean PS of 202 nm, PI of 0.178, zeta potential of -25.49 mV and %EE of 76.12% and 54.25% for RIF and INH, respectively. Conclusions: Highly hydrophilic INH could be encapsulated with lypophilic RIF with efficiency. In vivo uptake studies of RPNs in PMs suggested endocytosis of RPNs without any surface adsorption phenomenon. Hence, further studies need to be performed for establishing the pharmacokinetic potential of PNs. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.


Mishra D.C.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of the Geological Society of India | Year: 2011

Most of the Proterozoic basins in India, viz. the Vindhyan, the Cuddapah and the Pakhal Basins have experienced long hiatus between the upper and the lower group of rocks. It is proposed that the older group of rocks of Paleoproterozoic period (∼1.9-1.6 Ga) formed during the rifting phase caused by large scale magmatism in respective basins possibly due to plume tectonics. On the other hand, the younger group of rocks of Neoproterozoic (∼1.0-0.7 Ga) are formed during the final phase of convergence after mountain building that supplied sediments. These geological processes explain large scale disturbances in the older group of rocks during subsequent convergence and collision as they usually occurred along the rifted margins of the cratons. These processes also explain the undisturbed nature, devoid of magmatic rocks of the younger group of rocks and hiatus of about 0.5-0.6 Ga in each case. It is suggested that the plume that was responsible for these rifting of the Indian cratons during Paleo-Mesoproterozoic might have also been responsible for the break up of contemporary Columbian agglomeration in this section. Same model can be used to explain the formation of Proterozoic basins and related hiatus any where else where similar geological environment exist. © 2011 Geological Society of India.


Prakash V.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research | Year: 2012

The policy of health and wellness in many countries is mostly looked upon from a medical angle, often neglecting food, nutrition and traditional knowledge, with a clear emphasis on food safety. In this aspect the rich biodiversity in the world of traditional and ethnic foods requires a clear attention in fighting not only under-nutrition but also in promoting a food-based approach to good health. Lifestyle-related diseases also require our attention from the point of convenience and foods consumed for their cognitive benefits, using traditional knowledge on the one hand and modern science on the other hand. Perhaps through the approach of "Team Nutrition International and Global Networking" it is time that the South-South Cooperation must lead to an acceptable solution for the enormous burden of pervasive malnutrition and under-nutrition. Non-communicable diseases are further overpowering families, especially those that are economically impoverished. This review paper addresses some of the issues in overcoming and preventing nutrition-related diseases, and the approach forward in the matter. © 2012 Hans Huber Publishers, Hogrefe AG, Bern.


Chakradhara Rao M.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Bhattacharyya S.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Barai S.V.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2011

This paper presents the experimental results of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) beams prepared with different amount of recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) subjected to low velocity impact. The recycled coarse aggregates are obtained from a demolished RCC culvert. Four concrete mixes with 0%, 25%, 50% and 100% RCA respectively are prepared. With each mix three beam specimens of size 1.15 × 0.1 × 0.15 m are prepared and tested under drop weight impact load. The behavior of the RAC beams are studied in terms of acceleration, strains and support reaction histories under impact load in addition to the physical and mechanical characteristics of RCA and RAC. It is observed that 25% RCA does not influence the strength of concrete. In addition, it is found that for a given impact energy (the energy imparted by the hammer per blow) the reactions and strains of RAC with 50% and 100% RCA are significantly lower and higher respectively than those of normal concrete and RAC with 25% RCA. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ganjewala D.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Luthra R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2010

Essential oils distilled from Cymbopogon species are of immense commercial value as flavors and fragrances in the perfumery, cosmetics, soaps, and detergents and in pharmaceutical industries. Two major constituents of the essential oil, geraniol and citral, due to their specific rose and lemon like aromas are widely used as flavors, fragrances and cosmetics. Citral is also used for the synthesis of vitamin A and ionones (for example, β-ionone, methyl ionone). Moreover, Cymbopogon essential oils and constituents possess many useful biological activities including cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Despite the immense commercial and biological significance of the Cymbopogon essential oils, little is known about their biosynthesis and regulatory mechanisms. So far it is known that essential oils are biosynthesized via the classical acetate-MVA route and existence of a newly discovered MEP pathway in Cymbopogon remains as a topic for investigation. The aim of the present review is to discuss the biosynthesis and regulation of essential oils in the genus Cymbopogon with given emphasis to two elite members, lemongrass (C. flexuosus Nees ex Steud) and palmarosa (C. martinii Roxb.). This article highlights the work done so far towards understanding of essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon. Also, based on our experiences with Cymbopogon species, we would like to propose C. flexuosus as a model system for the study of essential oil metabolism beyond the much studied plant family Lamiaceae.


Chaturvedi D.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Current Organic Chemistry | Year: 2011

Task specific ionic liquids (TSILs) have received increased attention over the last few years as it is possible to form any specific ionic liquid composition depending upon user's need of the desired physical, chemical and biological properties. The present review gives an update of recent developments in the field of TSILs with emphasis on their applications in organic synthesis. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.


Raj A.M.E.,Scott Christian College Autonomous | Jayachandran M.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Sanjeeviraja C.,Alagappa University
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology | Year: 2010

During the past few decades, considerable research effort has been directed towards the development of fundamental peculiarities of wide-gap (E g > 5 eV) inorganic dielectric thin films. Wide-gap dielectrics are used for various technical and technological applications as laser materials, electronic components, radiation resistant materials, spectral transformers for luminescent lamps, detectors and dosimeters of several kind of radiations, various sensors and catalytic agents. The optical characteristics of intrinsic electronic excitations in inorganic wide-gap dielectric are shifted towards the vacuum ultra-violet spectral region and therefore being studied insufficiently that impedes the elaboration of new materials and the modernization of the existing ones based on wide-gap dielectrics. Besides, alkali halides, the value of energy band gap E g >6 eV is typical of numerous wide-gap oxides: MgO, CaO, Al 2O 3, SiO 2, Y 2O 3, etc. Among this, magnesia (MgO) is a well-known refractory oxide, has the potential advantages of a wide band gap (E g ∼ 7.8 eV) and is predominantly preferred to be used as lattice templates for growing oriented ferroelectric and superconducting over layers because of its higher Poisson's ratio and lower Gibb's free energy. Well-defined procedures to prepare MgO surfaces of very high quality is of importance in a number of areas of surface physics and imperfect due to their preparation kinetics, inclusion of foreign matter and compositional variations. Even though, increasing number of researchers, laboratories have engaged in the fabrication and characterization of MgO because of its excellent scientifically based applications. The scope of this review article is to summarize briefly the important research achievements on higher quality MgO thin films with novel physical properties and systematic interrelationship for fabrication conditions, crystal structure, composition predictions, surface morphology, electrical and optical characterizations. Particular attention is given to the secondary electron emission coefficient of the fabricated film due to their applications in the alternating current plasma display panel as a protecting layer of dielectrics to improve the discharge characteristics and the panel's lifetime. © 2010 CIRP.


Sobana S.,Easwari Engineering College | Panda R.C.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Dissolved salts in seawater or brackish water are reduced to a potable level through separation techniques, like, distillation, multiple effect vapor compression, evaporation, or by membrane processes such as electro-dialysis reversal, nano-filtration, and reverse osmosis (RO). RO is the most widely used desalination process. Recent advances in RO technology has led to more efficient separation and now is the most cost effective process to operate. The performance of the reverse osmosis process is dependent on concentration of dissolved solids in the feed-water, feed-water pressure, and the membrane strength to withstand system pressure, membrane solute rejection, membrane fouling characteristics, and the required permeate solute concentration. RO is a promising tool that uses cellulose acetate (or) polyamide membrane and is widely chosen as the cost of production is reduced by the use of energy efficient and process control techniques. This paper presents a review on modelling, identification of parameters from single input-outputs and multi input/output lumped systems, dynamic modelling and control of desalination systems in the past twenty years by collecting more than 60 literatures. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Yadav S.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
South African Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

Plants experience oxidative stress upon exposure to heavy metals that leads to cellular damage. In addition, plants accumulate metal ions that disturb cellular ionic homeostasis. To minimize the detrimental effects of heavy metal exposure and their accumulation, plants have evolved detoxification mechanisms. Such mechanisms are mainly based on chelation and subcellular compartmentalization. Chelation of heavy metals is a ubiquitous detoxification strategy described in wide variety of plants. A principal class of heavy metal chelator known in plants is phytochelatins (PCs), a family of Cys-rich peptides. PCs are synthesized non-translationally from reduced glutathione (GSH) in a transpeptidation reaction catalyzed by the enzyme phytochelatin synthase (PCS). Therefore, availability of glutathione is very essential for PCs synthesis in plants at least during their exposure to heavy metals. Here, I reviewed on effect of heavy metals exposure to plants and role of GSH and PCs in heavy metal stress tolerance. Further, genetic manipulations of GSH and PCs levels that help plants to ameliorate toxic effects of heavy metals have been presented. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Yadav S.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Agronomy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2010

The human population is increasing at an alarming rate, whereas at the same time agricultural productivity is decreasing due to the effect of various environmental problems. In particular, cold stress is a serious threat to the sustainability of crop yields. Indeed, cold stress can lead to major crop losses. Various phenotypic symptoms in response to cold stress include poor germination, stunted seedlings, yellowing of leaves (chlorosis), reduced leaf expansion and wilting, and may lead to death of tissue (necrosis). Cold stress also severely hampers the reproductive development of plants. The major negative effect of cold stress is that it induces severe membrane damage. This damage is largely due to the acute dehydration associated with freezing during cold stress. Cold stress is perceived by the receptor at the cell membrane. Then a signal is transduced to switch on the cold-responsive genes and transcription factors for mediating stress tolerance. Understanding the mechanism of cold stress tolerance and genes involved in the cold stress signaling network is important for crop improvement. Here, I review cold stress tolerance mechanisms in plants. The major points discussed are the following: (1) physiological effects of cold stress, (2) sensing of cold temperatures and signal transduction, and (3) the role of various cold-responsive genes and transcription factors in the mechanism of cold stress tolerance. © 2010 INRA, EDP Sciences.


Sharma A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of Theoretical Biology | Year: 2014

Transgenerational inheritance of environment induced phenotype requires transmission of epigenetic information through the germline. Whereas several epigenetic factors have been implicated in germline transmission, mediators of information transfer from soma to the germline remain unidentified in mammals. Notably, a recent bioinformatic analysis showed association of extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) and altered transcriptomes in diverse instances of mammalian epigenetic inheritance involving different environmental factors, tissues, life cycle stages, generations and genders. It was predicted that regulatory non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) may potentially mediate soma to germline information transfer. Remarkably, the present bioinformatic evidence suggests similar association of exosomal mRNAs and proteins. The differentially expressed genes reported previously in genome level expression profiling studies related to or relevant in epigenetic inheritance showed enrichment for documented set of exosomal mRNAs in a few instances of epigenetic inheritance and of exosomal proteins in a majority of instances. Differentially expressed genes encoding exosomal miRNAs and proteins, directly or indirectly through first and/or second degree interactome networks, overrepresented biological processes related to environmental factors used in these instances as well as to epigenetic alterations, especially chromatin and histone modifications. These findings predict that exosomal mRNAs and proteins, like extracellular miRNAs, may also potentially mediate soma to germline information transfer. A convergent conceptual model is presented wherein extracellular ncRNAs/miRNA, mRNAs and proteins provide the much needed continuum inclusive of epigenetic inheritance. The phrase "transgenerational systems biology" is introduced to signify that the realm of systems biology extends beyond an individual organism and encompasses generations. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Sharma D.,Guru Nanak Dev University | Nagpal A.,Guru Nanak Dev University | Pakade Y.B.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Katnoria J.K.,Guru Nanak Dev University
Talanta | Year: 2010

Use of pesticides has turned out to be an obligatory input to agriculture and public health. Versatile use of pesticides had resulted in contamination of all basic necessities of life, i.e. air, water and food. Among various pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), derivative of phosphoric acid, are the most extensively used insecticides or acaricides in many crops. Due to low persistency and high killing efficiency of OPPs, many agriculturalists regularly use this group of pesticides for various vegetables and fruits crops. The continuous use of pesticides has caused the deleterious effects to ecosystem. In response to this, a number of methods have been developed by several regulatory agencies and private laboratories and are applied routinely for the quantification and monitoring of multi pesticide residues in vegetables and crops. The present review pertains to various extraction and quantification procedures used world wide to analyze OPPs residues in various vegetables and fruits. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Chandrasekar M.S.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Shanmugasigamani,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Malathy P.,Alagappa Chettiar College of Engineering And Technology
Materials Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2010

Pulse electrodeposition was to produce nanocrystalline (nc) zinc from alkaline non-cyanide electrolyte with primary and secondary additives. The combined effect of pulse parameters (ON-time (TON), OFF-time (T OFF), pulse peak current density (IP)) and additives on the corrosion properties (evaluated using electrochemical techniques) of zinc electrodeposits are elucidated in terms of surface morphology (using scanning electron microscope), topography and root mean square (RMS) roughness (using atomic force microscope), crystallite size, its orientations and relative texture co-efficient (RTC, %) were evaluated using X-ray diffraction. The corrosion resistance of zinc electrodeposits obtained at constant TON and IP enhanced (i.e., low Icorr and high Rct values) with increased TOFF. At constant TOFF and I P, the Icorr values increased and Rct values decreased with TON while the former decreases and latter increases with IP at constant TON and TOFF. The inclusion of primary and secondary additives into the electrolyte produced nc zinc electrodeposits at 5 Adm-2, showed enhanced protective properties (Icorr - 16 μA cm-2 and Rct - 481.8 Ω cm-2). Fine grained due to high negative overpotential, reduced roughness and higher percentage of basal plane [0 0. 2] orientation have major impact for the enhanced corrosion resistances. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Venkatraman M.S.,CSIRO | Cole I.S.,CSIRO | Emmanuel B.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2011

A one-dimensional mathematical model is presented for the free corrosion of a bare metal surface (devoid of any oxide film) under a thin electrolyte layer using mixed potential theory where anodic metal dissolution is controlled by oxygen diffusion through the electrolyte layer and by the oxygen reduction at the metal surface. A pseudo-steady state is considered wherein the oxygen diffusion is at steady state while the metal and hydroxyl ions keep accumulating in the thin electrolyte layer due to a decoupling arising from the assumed Tafel laws for corrosion kinetics. Under free corrosion the oxygen diffusion is shown to depend on a non-linear boundary condition with a non-integer power on oxygen concentration at the metal surface which makes the model non-trivial. Analytical and numerical results for the oxygen concentration at the metal surface, corrosion potential, and corrosion current density are reported which depend on several kinetic, thermodynamic and transport parameters in the system. The model is applied to iron and zinc systems with input data taken from the literature. The experimental utility of the model for gathering thin-film corrosion parameters from a study of the corrosion current and potential as a function of the thickness of the electrolyte layer is discussed. Precipitation and passivity, though not the main object of study in this work, are briefly discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kulkarni B.S.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Krishnamurty S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Pal S.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2011

Reactivity of aluminum clusters has been found to exhibit size-sensitive variations. N 2 reduction is a hard process, and its dissociation on the Al surface is one of the few chemical methods available under nonhazardous conditions. In this context, we attempt to understand the adsorption behavior of N 2 molecules as a function of varying size and shape of Al clusters using a Density Functional Theory (DFT) based method. During the complex formation, various N 2 adsorption modes are examined. The results clearly demonstrate that, while the interaction energy does not vary with respect to the cluster size, shape of the cluster is highly contributive toward the chemisorption (a prerequisite for the reactivity) of the N 2 molecule. The underlying electronic and structural factors influencing the adsorption of N 2 molecules on the Al clusters are analyzed with the help of the Electron Localization Function (ELF) and Frontier Molecular Orbitals. As an illustration, the activation barrier calculations on various Al 13 conformations are calculated, and results confirm the experimental propositions that high-energy structures (depending upon their geometrical and electronic orientation) are more favorable for N 2 reduction. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Remona A.M.,Fatima College | Phani K.L.N.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Fuel Cells | Year: 2011

The nanostructured platinum-bismuth catalysts supported on carbon (Pt 3Bi/C, PtBi/C and PtBi 3/C) were synthesised by reducing the aqueous metal ions using sodium borohydride (NaBH 4) in presence of a microemulsion. The amount of metal loading on carbon support was found to be 10 wt.-%. The catalyst materials were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and electroanalytical techniques. The Pt 3Bi/C, PtBi/C and PtBi 3/C catalysts showed higher methanol tolerance, catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) than Pt/C of same metal loading. The electrochemical stability of these nano-sized catalyst materials for methanol tolerance was investigated by repetitive cycling in the potential range of -250 to 150 mV MSE. Bi presents an interesting system to have a control over the activity of the surface for MOR and ORR. All Pt-Bi/C catalysts exhibited higher mass activities for oxygen reduction (1-1.5 times) than Pt/C. It was found that PtBi/C catalyst exhibits better methanol-tolerance than the other catalysts. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Shinde D.B.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Debgupta J.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Kushwaha A.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Aslam M.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2011

Here we report a remarkable transformation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to nanoribbons composed of a few layers of graphene by a two-step electrochemical approach. This consists of the oxidation of CNTs at controlled potential, followed by reduction to form graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) having smooth edges and fewer defects, as evidenced by multiple characterization techniques, including Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. This type of "unzipping" of CNTs (single-walled, multi-walled) in the presence of an interfacial electric field provides unique advantages with respect to the orientation of CNTs, which might make possible the production of GNRs with controlled widths and fewer defects. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Jain H.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Tripathi J.,Samrat Ashok Technological Institute
Materials Today: Proceedings | Year: 2015

In this research paper a new approach for the optimization and evaluation of machining parameters for turning operation on Inconel-625 on CNC machining with the help of Taguchi Methods is presented. Taguchi Parameter Design is a powerful and efficient method for optimizing quality and performance output of manufacturing processes, thus a powerful tool for meeting this challenge. The main objective of this investigation is to obtain an optimal setting of process parameters in turning for maximizing the material removal rate of the manufactured component, the MRR has been investigated by the analysis while machining practically used component. As per Taguchi 'DOE', the number of experiments to be conducted in this analysis very systematic and well calculated, the turning operations are performed as per the machining conditions shown in the orthogonal array. The data for calculating material removal rate in all the test conditions are observed and recorded. The result of this analysis identifies the optimal values of process parameters for effective and efficient machining. The results from confirmation runs indicated that the determined optimal combination of machining parameters improved the performance of the machining process. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Omer A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Expert review of anticancer therapy | Year: 2013

Hematological malignancies is a broad term that includes blood cell cancers including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), Myelodysplastic syndrome, acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), multiple myelomas (MM) and lymphomas. miRNAs are ~22-nt long non-coding RNAs that play a very important role in gene regulation by binding to mRNA at their complementary sequence. These miRNAs are conceptually connected with various signal and pathway networks that make them capable of regulating various diseases including hematological malignancies. These miRNAs are not only playing regulatory roles in hematological malignancies, but are also providing new potent markers for efficient diagnosis and prognosis for hematological malignancies patients. Since the discovery of very first miRNA, the importance and role of miRNAs have been established in various fields, and there is a need to search for new potent miRNAs and their targets. A large amount of sequence data have been generated in last few years, which has further generated the need to develop efficient and reliable computational tools to analyze and extract out relevant information promptly from raw data. Here, we review various possible roles played by miRNA in hematological malignancies, principles involved in miRNA gene identification, target prediction and their preceding role in hematological malignancies research.


ABDUL AZEEZ K.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Acta Geologica Sinica | Year: 2016

Lower crustal earthquake occurrence in the Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ) of the Indian sub-continent was investigated using magnetotelluric (MT) data. MT models across the CITZ, including the new resistivity model across the 1938 Satpura lower crustal earthquake epicenter, show low resistive (<80 Ωm) mid-lower crust and infer small volume (<1 vol%) of aqueous fluids existing in most part of lower crust. This in conjunction with xenoliths and other geophysical data supports a predominant brittle/semi-brittle lower crustal rheology. However, the local deep crustal zones with higher fluid content of 2.2%–6.5% which have been mapped imply high pore pressure conditions. The observation above and the significant strain rate in the region provide favorable conditions (strong/moderate rock strength, moderate temperature, high pore pressure and high strain rate) for brittle failure in the lower crust. It can be inferred that the fluid-rich pockets in the mid-lower crust might have catalyzed earthquake generation by acting as the source of local stress (fluid pressure), which together with the regional stress produced critical seismogenic stress conditions. Alternatively, fluids reduce the shear strength of the rocks to favor tectonic stress concentration that can be transferred to seismogenic faults to trigger earthquakes. © 2016 Geological Society of China


Vijayan V.,St. Josephs College | Panda R.C.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
ISA Transactions | Year: 2012

Setpoint filters are widely used along with a PID controller. The aim of the present paper is to reduce the peak overshoot to a desired/tolerable limit. To design a setpoint filter, numerous methods are available, which need extensive calculations. Moreover, the existing methods need information regarding the process parameters, values of controller settings and are laborious. But the proposed method is very simple and requires only the information about the peak overshoot and peak time of the system response regardless of type and order of the system with arbitrary PID parameters. Several examples are taken to show efficacy of the process. © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Sathe B.R.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Balan B.K.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Pillai V.K.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Pillai V.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2011

A chain-like assembly of rhodium nanoparticles (5-7 nm mean diameter) has been synthesized from rhodium chloride with the help of polydentate molecules like tartaric and ascorbic acids (1:3 in mM scale) as capping agents at room temperature. Subsequent characterization using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals a unique inter-connected network like features, while their electrochemical behavior using cyclic voltammetry and current-time transient suggests potential applications as electrocatalysts in fuel cells. A significant negative shift in the onset potential as well as higher anodic peak current density for formic acid oxidation on Rh-tartaric acid (Rh-TA) as compared to that of bulk Rh metal confirms their higher electrocatalytic activity. Interestingly, the enhancement factor (R) with respect to that of bulk metallic Rh towards formic acid oxidation ranges up to 2000% for Rh-TA and 1200% for Rh-AA (Rh-ascorbic acid) respectively. The composition of Rh nano-chains has been further analyzed with thermogravimetry and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy to demonstrate the importance of controlling the chain topology using polyfunctional organic molecules. These findings open up new possibilities for tailoring nanostructured electrodes with potential benefits since the development of a better electrocatalysts for many fuel cell reactions continues to be an important challenge. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Pandey V.C.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
International Journal of Phytoremediation | Year: 2016

The present study was focused on field research to examine the phytoremediation potential of naturally grown Eichhornia crassipes in fly ash (FA) pond. Field results indicate the efficiency of E. crassipes for remediation of heavy metals from FA pond. The bioconcentration factor trend was Cr (3.75) > Cu (2.62) > Cd (1.05), and Cu (1.35) in root and stem, respectively. The survival and abundance growth of E. crassipes in the circumstance of heavy metal enriched FA pond is another highlight of the present research that reveals its toxitolerant characteristics. Thus, this lesson on phytoremediation proved that E. crassipes is a potential accumulator of Cu, Cr, and Cd from FA ponds and is a promising species for FA pond's remediation globally. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Soodan R.K.,Guru Nanak Dev University | Pakade Y.B.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Nagpal A.,Guru Nanak Dev University | Katnoria J.K.,Guru Nanak Dev University
Talanta | Year: 2014

Soil, an important environmental medium, is exposed to a number of pollutants including toxic heavy metals by various natural and anthropogenic activities. Consequently heavy metal contaminated soil has the potential to pose severe health risks and hazards to humans as well as other living creatures of the ecosystem through various routes of exposure such as direct ingestion, contaminated drinking ground water, food crops, contact with contaminated soil and through food chain. Therefore, it is mandatory to explore various techniques that could efficiently determine the occurrence of heavy metals in soil. A number of methods have been developed by several regulatory agencies and private laboratories and are applied routinely for the quantication and monitoring of soil matrices. The present review is an initiative to summarize the work on pollution levels of soil ecosystem and thus pertains to various extraction and quantication procedures used worldwide to analyze heavy metals in soil. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Khomane R.B.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2011

Mesoporous rutile TiO 2 nanoneedles have been successfully synthesized using a reverse microemulsion-mediated sol-gel method at room temperature. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the Bruauner-Emmet-Teller (BET) adsorption method, and their electrochemical properties were investigated by galvanostatic charge and discharge tests. XRD observations revealed the formation of a pure rutile TiO 2 phase. Furthermore, TEM observation revealed the presence of a highly porous needle-like morphology. The electrochemical measurements show that the nanoneedles deliver an initial capacity of 305mAhg -1 as anode material for Li-ion batteries and sustain a capacity value of 128mAhg -1 beyond 15cycles. The reported synthesis is simple, mild, energy efficient, and without postcalcination. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Debgupta J.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Pillai V.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Nanoscale | Year: 2013

Effective organization of small CdSe quantum dots on graphene sheets has been achieved by a simple solution exchange with thiol terminated graphene prepared by diazonium salt chemistry. This generic methodology of CdSe QD attachment to any graphene surface has remarkable implications in designing hybrid heterostructures. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Biswal B.P.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Shinde D.B.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Pillai V.K.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Pillai V.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Banerjee R.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory
Nanoscale | Year: 2013

Luminescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are encapsulated and stabilized in Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework (ZIF-8) nanocrystals. The GQDs are well confined due to the adsorption on the growing face of the ZIF-8 nanocrystals and have a profound effect on the shape of the nanocrystals from rhombic dodecahedron to spherical. Stabilizing GQDs inside the ZIF-8 nanocrystals results in tailoring of the photoluminescence emission (ca. 32 nm, bathochromic shift) of the GQD@ZIF-8 nanocrystal composite even after 3 months of aging under normal laboratory conditions. Also the water adsorption (at STP) capacity increased for the GQD@ZIF-8 composite as compared to the pristine ZIF-8. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Majumdar D.,Bose Institute of India | Singha A.,Bose Institute of India | Mondal P.K.,Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics | Kundu S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2013

Stable metal nanoclusters (NCs) with uniform interior nanogaps reproducibly offer a highly robust substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) because of the presence of abundant hot spots on their surface. The synthesis of such an SERS substrate by a simple route is a challenging task. Here, we have synthesized a highly stable wirelike cluster of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) with an interparticle gap of ∼1.7 ± 0.2 nm using deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the template by exploiting an easy and inexpensive chemical route. The red shift in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of Ag-NCs compared to SPR of a single Ag-NP confirms the strong interplasmonic interaction. Methylene Blue (MB) is used as a representative Raman probe to study the SERS effect of the NCs. The SERS measurements reveal that uniform, reproducible, and strong Raman signals were observed up to the single-molecule level. The intensity of the Raman signal is not highly dependent on the polarization of the excitation laser. The DNA-based Ag-NCs as a substrate show better isotropic behavior for their SERS intensity compared to the dimer, as confirmed from both the experimental and theoretical simulation results. We believe that in the future the DNA-based Ag-NCs might be useful as a potential SERS substrate for ultrasensitive trace detection, biomolecular assays, NP-based photothermal therapeutics, and a few other technologically important fields. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Raghubir R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Nakka V.P.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Mehta S.L.,North Carolina Central University
Methods in Enzymology | Year: 2011

The efficient functioning of the ER is indispensable for most of the cellular activities and survival. Disturbances in the physiological functions of the ER result in the activation of a complex set of signaling pathways from the ER to the cytosol and nucleus, and these are collectively known as unfolded protein response (UPR), which is aimed to compensate damage and can eventually trigger cell death if ER stress is severe or persists for a longer period. The precise molecular mechanisms that facilitate this switch in brain damage have yet to be understood completely with multiple potential participants involved. The ER stress-associated cell death pathways have been recognized in the numerous pathophysiological conditions, such as diabetes, hypoxia, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and bipolar disorder. Hence, there is an emerging need to study the basic molecular mechanisms of ER stress-mediating multiple cell survival/death signaling pathways. These molecules that regulate the ER stress response would be potential drug targets in brain diseases. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Gahalaut V.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk | Year: 2011

A strong earthquake (6.9 M w) occurred in the Sikkim-Nepal region of the Himalayan arc which caused the death of about 100 people. The earthquake involved predominantly strike-slip motion on a steep fault, which is transverse to the Himalaya. It implies that the rupture of this earthquake did not occur on the Himalayan detachment, which slips in a stick-and-slip manner to accommodate 2 cm/year of convergence within the Himalaya. Although there is uncertainty about the depth estimates and ambiguity in the fault plane, amongst many other rupture models of the earthquake it is suggested that this, and a similar such earthquake on 20 August 1988 in the Himalayan foothills, occurred in response to the subduction of the Munger-Saharsa ridge on the Indian plate. The occurrence of this earthquake highlights the role of transverse features in the Himalayan tectonics. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Saxena N.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Paul D.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
Nuclear Engineering and Design | Year: 2012

The seismic response of nuclear reactor containment building considering the effects of embedment, slip and separation at soil-structure interface requires modeling of the soil, structure and interface altogether. Slip and separation at the interface causes stress redistribution in the soil and the structure around the interface. The embedment changes the dynamic characteristics of the soil-structure system. Consideration of these aspects allows capturing the realistic response of the structure, which has been a research gap and presented here individually as well as taken together. Finite element analysis has been carried out in time domain to attempt the highly nonlinear problem. The study draws important conclusions useful for design of nuclear reactor containment building. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Umadevi S.,University of Manitoba | Umadevi S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Feng X.,University of Manitoba | Hegmann T.,University of Manitoba | Hegmann T.,Kent State University
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2013

Fascinating nematic- and smectic-like self-assembled arrays are observed for gold nanorods partially capped with either laterally or terminally attached nematic liquid crystals upon slow evaporation of an organic solvent on TEM grids. These arrays can be manipulated and reoriented by applying an external magnetic field from quasi-planar to vertical similar to a Fréedericksz transition of common organic nematic liquid crystals. Birefringence and thin film textures of these self-assembled gold nanorod arrays observed by polarized optical microscopy are strongly reminiscent of common organic nematic liquid crystal textures between crossed polarizers and, additionally, support the formation of ordered liquid crystal-like anisotropic superstructures. The ordering within these arrays is also confirmed in bulk samples using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Fascinating nematic- and smectic-like self-assembled arrays are observed for gold nanorods partially capped with either laterally or terminally substituted nematic liquid crystals upon slow evaporation of an organic solvent on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids. These arrays can be manipulated and reoriented by applying an external magnetic field from quasi-planar to vertical similar to a Fréedericksz transition of common organic nematic liquid crystals. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


INdian DIabetes COnsortium,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
HUGO Journal | Year: 2011

The INdian DIabetes COnsortium (INDICO) is an initiative to build a resource for genetic, epigenetic and clinical studies of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in socioeconomically transiting Indians. The consortium aims to follow selected communities which are undergoing rapid urbanization over a period of years to create a knowledge base for the better understanding of the gene-environment interaction in T2D. These resources can eventually be of value to not just the diabetes research community but would be able to contribute towards an improved understanding, diagnosis and prevention of numerous complex human disorders. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Kandhasamy S.,Murdoch University | Nallathamby K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Minakshi M.,Murdoch University
Progress in Solid State Chemistry | Year: 2012

The high rate capability and structural stability of the olivine phosphates attracted a lot of interest as promising cathode materials for high energy density batteries. Alteration on these cathode materials, for instance, reducing particle size, conductive coating and metal ion doping were performed in order to improve the conductivity and to obtain high specific capacity. Wide range of transition metal ions with range of valences (M 1+ to M 5+) was successfully doped both in M 1 site (Li) and M 2 site (M) of olivine LiMPO 4 (M = Fe, Mn, Co and Ni) cathode. The large charge difference between the doped supervalent ions and M cations at the M 2 site, limited the use of supervalent cations in the olivines. However, the supervalent dopants (namely; Cr 3+, Ti 4+, Nb 5+) are reported to be successfully substituted in the olivine with an improvement in electrical and ionic conductivity. The amount of defect can be reduced by low concentration of dopants, choosing suitable synthesis method and optimized reaction conditions. Charge compensation vacancies accomplished through aliovalent doping reduces the grain size and widens the Li + migration path resulting in faster Li + diffusion. However, the drastic improvement in electrical conductivity for the aliovalent doping is still unclear. Rather writing a lengthy standard review, this manuscript intends to describe briefly the lattice defects owing to metal ion doping and its influence in improving the cathode performance of the olivine phosphates. This gives a new approach in this field. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Sharma U.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Kancherla R.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Kancherla R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Naveen T.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | And 2 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2014

A palladium-catalyzed dehydrogenative coupling between diarylamines and olefins has been discovered for the synthesis of substituted indoles. This intermolecular annulation approach incorporates readily available olefins for the first time and obviates the need of any additional directing group. An ortho palladation, olefin coordination, and β-migratory insertion sequence has been proposed for the generation of olefinated intermediate, which is found to produce the expected indole moiety. ©2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA , Weinheim.


Sinha B.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2012

Combined realization of the negative effects of chemical pesticides and the positive attributes of biopesticide led to intensive research programmes on the later by both public and private institutions across nations. This has generated a knowledge pool and accumulated vast scientific literature. This paper tries to capture the nature of basic research in biopesticide and growth of the discipline during the last four decades. Bibliometric methods such as analysis of title-word and author keywords have been used to capture direction of research and to identify thrust areas of research. Growth of biopesticide research output has been encouraging, particularly since 1996. Microbial pesticides, particularly Bacillus thuringiensis-related research has dominated the discipline so far. The paper also identifies the leading institutes, countries, and the nature of inter-country as well as inter-institutional collaboration. As in most other disciplines of science, United States had an upper hand in biopesticide research, followed distantly by India. Two aspects that need immediate attention are the decline in participation of industry and international collaboration in biopesticide research, both of which are critical for developing cost-effective and environment-friendly pesticides having world-wide application.


Mondal G.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Mondal G.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Barui S.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Chaudhuri A.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology
Biomaterials | Year: 2013

Ever since the finding that αvβ3 integrin receptors are over expressed on the endothelial cell surfaces of tumor vasculatures relative to normal resting vasculatures was disclosed in 1994, αvβ3 integrin receptor selective systems are finding increasing applications both for targeting anti-cancer drugs/genes selectively to tumor vasculatures and for imaging growing tumors. Among the cyclic peptide based integrin antagonists identified through both phage display and structure-activity studies, mainly αvβ3 integrin selective cyclic peptide c(RGDfK-) has found most widespread exploitations for targeting chemotherapeutic drugs/genes to both tumor and tumor vasculatures in anti-angiogenic cancer therapy. Herein we show that a lipopeptide containing widely acclaimed αvβ3 integrin receptor selective cyclic RGDfK ligand in its head-group area can effectively deliver genes into both the endothelial and tumor cells via all the three widely used integrin receptors namely αvβ3, αvβ5 & α5β1 integrins. We demonstrate that intravenous administration of the electrostatic complex of the cationic liposomes of an amphiphiles with cyclic RGDfK head-group and the anti-cancer p53 gene leads to significant tumor growth inhibition in a syngeneic mouse tumor model presumably through inducing apoptosis of tumor neovasculatures. The findings delineated herein provide experimental evidence that cyclic-RGDfK-ligand may not be that highly selective for αvβ3 integrin receptor as is popularly believed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Patel S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology | Year: 2014

One of the major concerns of modern society is to identify putative biomarkers that serve as a valuable early diagnostic tool to identify a subset of patients with increased risk to develop neuropsychiatric disorders. Today, proteomic approaches have opened new possibilities in diagnostics of devastating disorders like neuropsychiatric disorders. Proteomics-based technologies for biomarker discovery have been promising because alterations in protein expression and its protein abundance, structure, or function can be used as indicators of pathological abnormalities prior to development of clinical symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders. This is because using mass spectrometry spectra analysis, it is possible to identify biomarkers of these diseases based on the identification of proteins in body fluids that is easily available, for example, the cerebrospinal fluid, serum, or blood. An ideal biomarker should be present in the blood before the disease is clinically confirmed, have high sensitivity and specificity, and be reproducible. Despite of advances in the proteomic technologies, it has not yielded significant clinical application in neuropsychiatry research. The review discusses overall proteomic approaches for elucidating molecular mechanisms and its applicability for biomarker discovery, diagnosis, and therapeutics of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. In addition, we have also discussed issues and challenges regarding the implementation of proteomic approaches as a routine diagnostic tool in the clinical laboratory in context with neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Prasanna X.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Chattopadhyay A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Sengupta D.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory
Biophysical Journal | Year: 2014

The β2-adrenergic receptor is an important member of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, whose stability and function are modulated by membrane cholesterol. The recent high-resolution crystal structure of the β2-adrenergic receptor revealed the presence of possible cholesterol-binding sites in the receptor. However, the functional relevance of cholesterol binding to the receptor remains unexplored. We used MARTINI coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations to explore dimerization of the β2-adrenergic receptor in lipid bilayers containing cholesterol. A novel (to our knowledge) aspect of our results is that receptor dimerization is modulated by membrane cholesterol. We show that cholesterol binds to transmembrane helix IV, and cholesterol occupancy at this site restricts its involvement at the dimer interface. With increasing cholesterol concentration, an increased presence of transmembrane helices I and II, but a reduced presence of transmembrane helix IV, is observed at the dimer interface. To our knowledge, this study is one of the first to explore the correlation between cholesterol occupancy and GPCR organization. Our results indicate that dimer plasticity is relevant not just as an organizational principle but also as a subtle regulatory principle for GPCR function. We believe these results constitute an important step toward designing better drugs for GPCR dimer targets. © 2014 Biophysical Society.


Rao C.N.R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Chimia | Year: 2012

Single-layer graphene (SLG), the 3.4 Å thick two-dimensional sheet of sp2 carbon atoms, was first prepared in 2004 by mechanical exfoliation of graphite crystals using the scotch tape technique. Since then, SLG has been prepared by other physical methods such as laser irradiation or ultrasonication of graphite in liquid media. Chemical methods of synthesis of SLG are more commonly used; the most popular involves preparation of single-layer graphene oxide followed by reduction with a stable reagent, often assisted by microwave heating. This method yields single-layer reduced graphene oxide. Other methods for preparing SLG include chemical vapour deposition over surfaces of transition metals such as Ni and Cu. Large-area SLG has also been prepared by epitaxial growth over SiC. Few-layer graphene (FLG) is prepared by several methods; arc discharge of graphite in hydrogen atmosphere being the most convenient. Several other methods for preparing FLG include exfoliation of graphite oxide by rapid heating, ultrasonication or laser irradiation of graphite in liquid media, reduction of few-layer graphene oxide, alkali metal intercalation followed by exfoliation. Graphene nanoribbons, which are rectangular strips of graphene, are best prepared by the unzipping of carbon nanotubes by chemical oxidation or laser irradiation. Many graphene analogues of inorganic materials such as MoS2, MoSe2 and BN have been prepared by mechanical exfoliation, ultrasonication and by chemical methods involving high-temperature or hydrothermal reactions and intercalation of alkali metals followed by exfoliation. Scrolls of graphene are prepared by potassium intercalation in graphite or by microwave irradiation of graphite immersed in liquid nitrogen. © Schweizerische Chemische Gesellschaft.


Mandal P.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Dhara D.,Bose Institute of India | Misra A.K.,Bose Institute of India
Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2014

A straightforward convergent synthesis has been carried out for the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-specific cell wall lipopolysaccharide of the strain Sp7 of Azospirillum brasilense. The target tetrasaccharide has been synthesized from suitably protected monosaccharide intermediates in 42% overall yield in seven steps by using a [2 + 2] block glycosylation approach. © 2014 Mandal et al; licensee Beilstein-Institut.


Jana A.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Pahari P.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Mal D.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Synlett | Year: 2012

Anionic [4+2] annulation of lithiated furoindolones with dimethyl maleate followed by selective demethoxycarbonylation provides an efficient synthetic route to 3-methoxycarbonylcarbazoles. The route has led to the straightforward synthesis of two natural products, namely clausine E, mukonine, and their 4-prenyl analogues. A new route to cyclohepta[d,e,f]carbazole was also uncovered during the investigations. © 2012 Georg Thieme Verlag StuttgartNew York.


Tiwari P.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2016

Mentha arvensis L defines an important species of the genus Mentha, highlighting socio-economic and pharmacological importance. The plant species attributes its aromatic properties to the presence of essential oil rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes and volatile constituents such as menthol, menthone, carvacol, pulgone and isomenthone, imparting characteristic mint flavor. The research on trichomes and essential oil biosynthesis has received considerable attention from scientific community owing to its pharmaceutical and economic benefits. Although, molecular and biochemical investigations have provided key insights into trichome-specific metabolic pathways and the corresponding genes, however the exact mechanism of action of the enzymes in various trichome developmental stages remains unreported. In an attempt to address the research on trichomes, the review article provides a comprehensive account of M. arvensis L, discussing its taxonomic distribution and cultivation to its commercial applications. Furthermore, genomic investigations on elucidation of essential oil biosynthetic pathway and the respective enzymes would provide a focused insight, opening new possibilities for genetic engineering and development of better varieties of Mentha with improved agro-economic traits. Such studies highlight good prospects of M. arvensis L in commercial applications, owing to its health benefits in aromatherapy and pharmacology. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Haldar S.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Kolet S.P.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Thulasiram H.V.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Thulasiram H.V.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Green Chemistry | Year: 2013

Basic limonoids carrying a 4,4,8-trimethyl-17-furanylsteroid skeleton are a class of triterpenoids and well-known for their insecticidal as well as a vast array of pharmacological activities. Rare and synthetically challenging 12β- and 17β-hydroxylation was achieved on the basic limonoid skeleton to produce a novel series of hydroxylated limonoids using fungi-mediated biocatalysis. The fungal system belonging to the genera of Mucor efficiently converted azadiradione, epoxyazadiradione, gedunin and their derivatives into corresponding 12β- and/or 17β-hydroxy derivatives. The position and stereochemistry of hydroxylation was determined by rigorous spectroscopic and crystallographic studies. This fungi-mediated stereo- and regio-selective hydroxylation process was highly efficient and mild enough to sustain chemically sensitive functional groups around the basic limonoid skeleton. Modifications of specific functional groups and variation in biocatalyst were shown to bring selectivity among 12β- or 17β-hydroxylation. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Amaravathy P.,Anna University | Sowndarya S.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Sathyanarayanan S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Rajendran N.,Anna University
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2014

In recent years, magnesium alloys are considered as a new class of biodegradable alloys. Though they have several favourable properties, higher susceptibility to hydrogen evolution and corrosion have limited their applications in the biomedical field. Recently, several coatings have been developed to overcome their higher degradation rate. In this regard, a new attempt has been made to develop niobium oxide (Nb2O5) coating on magnesium alloys to increase the biocompatibility and reduce the corrosion rate. Phase structure, surface morphology and chemical composition of the coating have been studied by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) Spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis. The prepared coating possesses good bioactivity and hydrophilicity in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). Corrosion rate and hydrogen evolution rate were enormously controlled and the coating possesses excellent bonding strength with the substrate. The higher cell attachment and cell growth with pseudopodia extensions were observed by controlling the release of magnesium ions into the surrounding body tissue. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Ojha M.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Maiti S.,Indian Institute of Geomagnetism DST
Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography | Year: 2013

A novel approach based on the concept of Bayesian neural network (BNN) has been implemented for classifying sediment boundaries using downhole log data obtained during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 323 in the Bering Sea slope region. The Bayesian framework in conjunction with Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)/hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) learning paradigm has been applied to constrain the lithology boundaries using density, density porosity, gamma ray, sonic P-wave velocity and electrical resistivity at the Hole U1344A. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of our supervised classification methodology by comparing our findings with a conventional neural network and a Bayesian neural network optimized by scaled conjugate gradient method (SCG), and tested the robustness of the algorithm in the presence of red noise in the data. The Bayesian results based on the HMC algorithm (BNN.HMC) resolve detailed finer structures at certain depths in addition to main lithology such as silty clay, diatom clayey silt and sandy silt. Our method also recovers the lithology information from a depth ranging between 615 and 655 m Wireline log Matched depth below Sea Floor of no core recovery zone. Our analyses demonstrate that the BNN based approach renders robust means for the classification of complex lithology successions at the Hole U1344A, which could be very useful for other studies and understanding the oceanic crustal inhomogeneity and structural discontinuities. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yasumatsu H.,Toyota Technological Institute | Murugan P.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Kawazoe Y.,Tohoku University
Physica Status Solidi (B) Basic Research | Year: 2012

We studied geometric and electronic structures of a platinum cluster disk consisting 30 Pt atoms on the Si(111)-7×7 surface by STM experiments (see left panel) and first principles calculations. It was found that the high stability of the cluster disk on the Si surface originates from the platinum-silicide bonds as strong as ∼45eV per cluster, which are formed by electron transfer from the 5d orbital of the Pt atoms to the 3s and 3p ones of the Si atoms. This finding gives an essential interpretation to the experimental discovery that valence electrons in an occupied molecular orbital of the Pt 30/Si system are distributed in a wider region than the locations of the Pt atoms. It appeared that electron accumulation at the interface between the cluster and the substrate induces two-dimensional charge polarization in a nanospace as shown in right panel due to a combination of a metallic nature of the cluster disk and a highly resistive nature of the Si surface. STM image (left) of a monatomic-layered platinum cluster disk, Pt 30, constructed on the Si(111) surface. Schematic image (right) of two-dimensional charge polarization; the Pt-5d electrons are distributed out of the cluster, so that the centre and the periphery of the cluster are charged positively and negatively, respectively. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Prathap G.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Scientometrics | Year: 2012

Quantitative assessment of information production processes requires the definition of a robust citation performance indicator. This is particularly so where there is a need to introduce a normalization mechanism for correcting for quality across field and disciplines. In this paper, we offer insights from the "thermodynamic" approach in terms of quality, quantity and quasity and energy, exergy and entropy to show how the recently introduced expected value measure can be rationalized and improved. The normalized energy indicator E is proposed as a suitable single number scalar indicator of a scientist's or group's performance (i. e. as a multiplicative product of quality and quantity), when complete bibliometric information is available. © 2011 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.


Verma S.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Goswami G.K.,Central Bureau of Investigation Academy
Forensic Science International | Year: 2014

Since the discovery of DNA fingerprinting technology in 1985 it has been used extensively as evidence in the court of law world-wide to establish the individual identity both in civil and criminal matters. In India, the first case of parentage dispute solved by the use of DNA fingerprinting technology was in 1989. Since then till date, the DNA technology has been used not only to resolve the cases of paternity and maternity disputes, but also for the establishment of individual identity in various criminal cases and for wildlife forensic identification. Since last half a decade, India is exercising to enact legislation on the use of DNA in the judicial realm and the draft 'Human DNA Bill-2012' is pending in the parliament. Largely, the promoters of forensic DNA testing have anticipated that DNA tests are nearly infallible and DNA technology could be the greatest single advance step in search for truth, conviction of the perpetrator, and acquittal of the innocent. The current article provides a comprehensive review on the status of DNA testing in India and elucidates the consequences of the admissibility of DNA as 'evidence' in the judicial dominion. In this backdrop of civil and criminal laws and changing ethical and societal attitudes, it is concluded that the DNA legislation in India and world-wide needs to be designed with utmost care. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Prathap G.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Scientometrics | Year: 2012

Scalar measures of research performance (Energy, Exergy, and Entropy or EEE) are based on what can be called the bibliometrics-thermodynamics consilience. Here, their application to the percentile ranking normalization scheme is demonstrated. © 2012 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.


Unni S.M.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Pillai V.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Kurungot S.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory
RSC Advances | Year: 2013

Here, we report for the first time the synthesis of a 3-D self-assembled single crystalline platinum nanostructure directly on the graphene surface (PtNAGE) without using any harmful structural directing agents. A slow reduction method is used to prepare the desired platinum morphology. Initial formation of platinum nanoparticles and their homogenous dispersion on the surface of graphene have been observed 10 h after the commencement of the reduction using formic acid as the reducing agent. From these initially deposited seed particles, the growth starts on the {111} facets along the <111> direction and the nanostructure formation is completed within 72 h of the commencement of the reaction. The individual assembly has a diameter of ∼80 nm. PtNAGE shows superior electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction compared to graphene supported platinum (PtGE) and commercial carbon supported platinum (PtC) catalysts. PtNAGE is less vulnerable to strong hydroxyl adsorption compared to PtC and PtGE. Specific activity and mass activity of the catalyst are high compared to PtC by a factor of 6.50 and 1.80, respectively, and 4.00 and 3.05, respectively, compared to PtGE. The limiting current density of PtNAGE is 1.28 and 1.20 times higher than PtGE and PtC, respectively. Kinetic analysis of PtNAGE shows that the oxygen reduction reaction follows first order kinetics involving a four electron transfer mechanism with the direct formation of water. In addition to this, it has been observed that PtNAGE also prevents surface area degradation better than the commercial platinised carbon under potential induced conditions. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Paul R.,Rajiv Gandhi University | Prasad M.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Sah N.K.,Tnb College
Cancer Biology and Therapy | Year: 2011

Neem (Azadirachta indica), a member of the Meliaceae family, is a fast growing tropical evergreen tree with a highly branched and stout, solid stem. Because of its tremendous therapeutic, domestic, agricultural and ethnomedicinal significance, and its proximity with human culture and civilization, neem has been called "the wonder tree" and "nature's drug store." All parts of this tree, particularly the leaves, bark, seed-oil and their purified products are widely used for treatment of cancer. Over 60 different types of biochemicals including terpenoids and steroids have been purified from this plant. Pre-clinical research work done during the last decade has fine-tuned our understanding of the anticancer properties of the crude and purified products from this plant. The anticancer properties of the plant have been studied largely in terms of its preventive, protective, tumor-suppressive, immunomodulatory and apoptotic effects against various types of cancer and their molecular mechanisms. This review aims at scanning scattered literature on "the anticancer biology of A. indica," related toxicity problems and future perspectives. The cogent data on the anticancer biology of products from A. indica deserve multi-institutional clinical trials as early as possible. The prospects of relatively cheaper cancer drugs could then be brighter, particularly for the under-privileged cancer patients of the world. © 2011 Landes Bioscience.


Singh N.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Chikara S.,Xcelris Genomics | Sundar S.,Banaras Hindu University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Known as 'neglected disease' because relatively little effort has been applied to finding cures, leishmaniasis kills more than 150,000 people every year and debilitates millions more. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also called Kala Azar (KA) or black fever in India, claims around 20,000 lives every year. Whole genome analysis presents an excellent means to identify new targets for drugs, vaccine and diagnostics development, and also provide an avenue into the biological basis of parasite virulence in the L. donovani complex prevalent in India. Methodology/Principal Findings: In our presently described study, the next generation SOLiD™ platform was successfully utilized for the first time to carry out whole genome sequencing of L. donovani clinical isolates from India. We report the exceptional occurrence of insect trypanosomatids in clinical cases of visceral leishmaniasis (Kala Azar) patients in India. We confirm with whole genome sequencing analysis data that isolates which were sequenced from Kala Azar (visceral leishmaniasis) cases were genetically related to Leptomonas. The co-infection in splenic aspirate of these patients with a species of Leptomonas and how likely is it that the infection might be pathogenic, are key questions which need to be investigated. We discuss our results in the context of some important probable hypothesis in this article. Conclusions/Significance: Our intriguing results of unusual cases of Kala Azar found to be most similar to Leptomonas species put forth important clinical implications for the treatment of Kala Azar in India. Leptomonas have been shown to be highly susceptible to several standard leishmaniacides in vitro. There is very little divergence among these two species viz. Leishmania sp. and L. seymouri, in terms of genomic sequence and organization. A more extensive perception of the phenomenon of co-infection needs to be addressed from molecular pathogenesis and eco-epidemiological standpoint. © 2013 Singh et al.


Basu A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Scientometrics | Year: 2010

In this paper, we examine the question whether it is meaningful to talk about the scientific productivity of nations based on indexes like the Science Citation Index or Scopus, when the journal set covered by them keeps changing with time. We hypothesize from the illustrative case of India's declining productivity in the 1980s which correlated with a fall in its journals indexed, that an apparent increase/decrease in productivity for any country, based on observed change in its share of papers could, in fact, be an effect resulting from the inclusion of more/less journals from the country. To verify our hypothesis we have used SCIMAGO data. We found that for a set of 90 countries, the share of journals regressed on the share of papers gave a linear relationship that explained 80% of the variance. However, we also show that in the case of China's unusual rise in world scientific productivity (to second rank crossing several other countries), there is yet another factor that needs to be taken into account. We define a new indicator-the JOURNAL PACKING DENSITY (JPD) or average number of papers in journals from a given country. We show that the packing density of Chinese journals has steadily increased over the last few years. Currently, Chinese journals have the highest 'packing density' in the world, almost twice the world average which is about 100 papers per journal per annum. The deviation of the JPD from the world average is another indicator which will affect so called 'national productivities' in addition to the number of national journals indexed. We conclude that in the context of a five fold increase in the number of journals indexed over 20 years, the simplistic notion of 'scientific productivity' as equivalent to papers indexed needs to be re-examined. © 2010 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.


Rangarajan J.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Langmuir | Year: 2016

In a heuristic endeavor based on electrostatics-dynamics considerations, an attempt has been made to explain the significant enhancement (∼20%) observed in initial capacity for the as-synthesized, sharp-edged cathode particles of lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide, and lithium nickel manganese oxide cathode systems which are considered here as illustrative examples. Also, the impressive capacity retention (∼90%) observed for the milled blend of these, comprising smooth surfaced particles with cells made using respective cathode particles, has been explained. Enhancement in initial capacity observed for the edged particles can be squarely attributed to a corona-gain process. On the contrary, impressive capacity retention possible for the milled blend (of near-spherical particles) can be rationalized in terms of the absence of predominant energy drain encountered while shuttling charges across edges of the as-synthesized cathode particles, a process described as corona yank. (Chemical Equation Presented). © 2016 American Chemical Society.


Pandey V.C.,Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University | Kumar A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2013

Leucaenaleucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. is native to Central America and Mexico, but now grows naturally in most tropical areas globally. It is a neglected and underutilized; medium to small sized tree of multiple values. It is commonly known as wild tamarind in English and subabul in Hindi. In recent years, Leucaena has gained a great attention for its utilization as raw material on large scale for pulp and paper industries and manufacturing of packaging material. Present paper deals with distribution, morphological description, current utilization, future prospective and propagation of this species. During the present study we have standardized macro-propagation technique for L. leucocephala. We used fly ash amended sand to develop rooting media for vegetative propagation of L. leucocephala and assess its potential as a rooting media. Root formation was significantly high (p < 0. 05) in 10 % FA amended sand in comparison to other used media. Rooted plants showed nutrient deficiency symptoms after 40-50 days in sand while in 10 % FA amended sand they were healthy, greener and do not showed nutrient deficiency symptoms. On the basis of present study, it is concluded that 10 % fly ash amended sand is a suitable rooting media for vegetative propagation of L. leucocephala. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Kumar P.,Hanyang University | Deep A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Kim K.-H.,Hanyang University
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2015

A metal organic framework (MOF) represents a new class of hybrid material built from metal ions with well-defined coordination geometry and organic bridging ligands. Over the past few years, MOFs have attracted a great deal of attention due to their intriguing framework architecture, topology, and optical properties. MOFs have provided promising perspectives in various research fields, such as catalysis, energy storage, drug-delivery systems, non-linear optics, and gas storage. Recently, the application of MOFs was further extended to cover new, interesting fields of sensing toward various target components, including small molecules, solvents, pesticides, explosives, and biological markers. In this review, we focus on recent progress achieved in MOF research with respect to general sensing principles and analytical performance. This review also discusses future industrial applications in sensing that are of immense research interest. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Raj A.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research | Kumar S.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research | Haq I.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research | Singh S.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2014

The present study deals with the bioremediation of potentially hazardous pulp and paper mill effluent by a laccase producing Paenibacillus sp. strain LD-1 (JX499920) isolated from contaminated soil sample by lignin enrichment method. The bacterium effectively reduced pollution parameters (colour 68%, lignin 54%, phenol 86%, BOD 83% and COD 78%) after 144. h of treatment at 34. ±. 1. °C and 120. rpm. GC-MS analysis of control and treated samples showed that concentration of most of the low molecular weight phenolic compounds like 2-methoxyphenol, 2,6-dimethoxy phenol, 2-methoxy-4-ethyl-phenol, 3-allyl-6-methoxyphenol, ethanone 1-(-4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl), benzoic acid, 2-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl) phenol and 4-methoxycinnamic acid present in control untreated effluent were reduced after bacterial treatment. The toxicity assessments were carried out with treated and untreated effluent by studying the growth and germination of seeds of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.). The mung bean bioassay confirmed the detoxification of effluent after bacterial treatment. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Misra A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2010

The genus Swertia is well known for its medicinal properties, as described in the Indian pharmacopoeia. Different members of this genus, although somewhat similar in morphology, differ widely in their pharmacological and therapeutic properties. The most important species of this genus, with maximal therapeutic properties, is S. chirayita, which is often adulterated with other less-potent Swertia spp. There is an existing demand in the herbal drug industry for an authentication system for Swertia spp, in order to enable their commercial use as genuine phytoceuticals. To this end, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to produce DNA fingerprints for six Swertia species. Nineteen accessions (2 of S. chirayita, 3 of S. angustifolia, 2 of S. bimaculata, 5 of S. ciliata, 5 of S. cordata, and 2 of S. alata) were used in the study, which employed 64 AFLP selective primer pairs. Only 46 selective primer pairs were found to be useful for all the accessions. A total of 5312 fragments were produced by these 46 primer pairs. Species-specific markers were identified for all six Swertia species (131 for S. chirayita, 19 for S. angustifolia, 181 for S. bimaculata, 47 for S. ciliata, 94 for S. cordata, and 272 for S. alata). These AFLP fingerprints of the Swertia species could be used to authenticate drugs made with Swertia spp and to resolve adulteration-related problems faced by the commercial users of these herbs.


Actin-related proteins are ubiquitous actin-like proteins that show high similarity with actin in terms of their amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure. However, in lower eukaryotes, such as trypanosomatids, their functions have not yet been explored. Here, we show that a novel actin-related protein (ORF LmjF.13.0950) is localized mainly in the Leishmania mitochondrion. We further reveal that depletion of the intracellular levels of this protein leads to an appreciable decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential as well as in the ATP production, which appears to be accompanied with impairment in the flagellum assembly and motility. Additionally, we report that the mutants so generated fail to survive inside the mouse peritoneal macrophages. These abnormalities are, however, reversed by the episomal gene complementation. Our results, for the first time indicate that apart from their classical roles in the cytoplasm and nucleus, actin-related proteins may also regulate the mitochondrial function, and in case of Leishmania donovani they may also serve as the essential factor for their survival in the host cells. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Mishra D.C.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of Seismology | Year: 2016

Kachchh and the Shillong plateau are located in the intraplate region but are seismically active almost on par with the plate boundaries. This is an enigma and requires suitable explanation. Bouguer anomaly and isostatic residual anomaly maps of Kachchh and adjoining region in Pakistan derived from satellite gravity data show gravity highs over Kachchh that is connected to the gravity highs of the Western fold belt (WFB) through the NW-SE oriented gravity highs of the Karachi arc. They are part of the western boundary of the Indian plate and are seismically active. Gravity highs in the western part of Kachchh show NW-SE trend related to the Kachchh mainland uplift (KMU) and Kachchh mainland fault (KMF) north of it are indicated by its sharp gradient. Their orientation is similar to that of the Karachi arc. In fact, the KMU may be considered as subsurface basement extension of the Karachi arc in Kachchh. This trend changes to E-W trend in the eastern part of Kachchh where it encounters the NE-SW trend of the Delhi fold belt and Bhuj-Jaisalmer-Ganganagar-Lahore ridge. The latter interacts with the Lahore-Sargodha ridge west of Lahore where several seismic activities have been reported. The epicenter of the Bhuj earthquake of 2001 (M = 7.8) and its aftershocks are located at the intersection of these two prominent regional trends due to the Karachi arc and the KMU on the western side and Delhi fold belt and Bhuj-Jaisalmer-Ganganagar-Lahore ridge on the eastern side. The connection of Kachchh to the western plate boundary through Karachi arc and intersection of the two major regional trends have played important roles in seismicity of Kachchh including Bhuj earthquake of 2001. Modeled crustal structures across the WFB shows ramp type variation in Moho increasing from 36 to 56 km and most of the seismicity of the WFB coincide with this ramp in Moho. Similarly, the Shillong plateau in east India is surrounded by faults and lineaments that connect it to the plate boundaries of the Indian plate towards the east and the north. Notable among them are the Dauki, Dubri, Dudhnoi, Brahmputra and Oldham faults, and Kopili lineament. The Bouguer anomaly map shows gravity highs over the Shillong plateau, and faults are reflected as gradients and trends in the Bouguer anomaly which extend to the eastern and northern boundary of the Indian plate. The gravity gradient related to Dauki, Brahmaputra and Oldham faults towards the south and the north of the plateau, respectively, extend to the Arakan Yoma fold belt (AYFB) that represent eastern boundary of the Indian plate. The gravity trend related to the Kopili lineament extends to the Himalayan fold belt towards the north and Arakan Yoma fold belt towards the east. These connections of the Shillong plateau to plate boundaries may be responsible for seismic activity of the Shillong plateau. Epicenter of the Shillong earthquake of 1897 (M = 8.4) is located close to the junction of the Dudhnoi and Oldham and Brahmaputra faults. Modeled crustal structures across the Shillong plateau show a crustal bulge under the plateau that may be related to the flexure of the Indian plate due to Himalaya and may be an additional factor for the seismicity of the Shillong plateau including the Shillong earthquake of 1897. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Bindumadhavan K.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Srivastava S.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Mahanty S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)-multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) hybrids have been prepared by simple dry grinding. Excellent initial charge capacity (1214 mA h g-1) and ∼85% retention after 60 discharge-charge cycles at different current densities (100-500 mA g -1) make MoS2-MWCNT (1:1) hybrids a superior anode in Li-ion batteries. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Mandal P.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Precambrian Research | Year: 2016

Based on fast axes orientation (ψ) and delay time (δt) measurements at fifteen broadband stations, the Archean Eastern Indian Craton (EIC) is classified into three main tectonic zones viz. Singhbhum-Odisha craton (SOC) [ψ = (82 ± 8)° and δt = (1.5 ± 0.2)s], Chotanagpur granitic gneissic terrain (CGGT) [ψ = (63 ± 9)° and δt = (1.4 ± 0.3)s] and Eastern Ghats mobile belt (EGMB) [ψ = (70 ± 10)° and δt = (1.3 ± 0.2)s]. The results in the Archean province of EIC depict a moderate to large delay times (1.0-1.9 s) with azimuths that reveals an upper mantle anisotropy with a mean orientation of (74.5° ± 5.6°) sub-parallel to the E-W trending structural grain of the Archean craton, evidencing frozen lithospheric anisotropy. The direction of anisotropy (~N39° E) in northern Meso-Proterozoic CGGT is found to be consistent with the direction of current absolute plate motion of Indian plate. Regional variation of observed orientation of fast axes near the flanking Paleo- and late- Archean orogenic belts is attributed to the tectonic control rather than current plate motion. Nevertheless, estimated large mean delay times (1.41 ± 0.27 s) do also suggest a contribution from the anisotropy associated with asthenospheric mantle flow. Most interestingly, our study detects a transition zone (coinciding with the location of Damodar Graben) separating south (late Archean) and north (Meso-Proterozoic) CGGT across which the fast axes orientation changes from E-W (ψ = 71°) to NE (ψ = 39°), which could be evidencing the signatures of the eastward extension of Pan African (550-500 Ma) suture as also observed in Antarctica. © 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Park D.M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Park D.M.,Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory | Akhtar M.S.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Akhtar M.S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2013

Despite the importance of maintaining redox homeostasis for cellular viability, how cells control redox balance globally is poorly understood. Here we provide new mechanistic insight into how the balance between reduced and oxidized electron carriers is regulated at the level of gene expression by mapping the regulon of the response regulator ArcA from Escherichia coli, which responds to the quinone/quinol redox couple via its membrane-bound sensor kinase, ArcB. Our genome-wide analysis reveals that ArcA reprograms metabolism under anaerobic conditions such that carbon oxidation pathways that recycle redox carriers via respiration are transcriptionally repressed by ArcA. We propose that this strategy favors use of catabolic pathways that recycle redox carriers via fermentation akin to lactate production in mammalian cells. Unexpectedly, bioinformatic analysis of the sequences bound by ArcA in ChIP-seq revealed that most ArcA binding sites contain additional direct repeat elements beyond the two required for binding an ArcA dimer. DNase I footprinting assays suggest that non-canonical arrangements of cis-regulatory modules dictate both the length and concentration-sensitive occupancy of DNA sites. We propose that this plasticity in ArcA binding site architecture provides both an efficient means of encoding binding sites for ArcA, σ70-RNAP and perhaps other transcription factors within the same narrow sequence space and an effective mechanism for global control of carbon metabolism to maintain redox homeostasis. © 2013 Park et al.


Prasad P.S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Ramana G.V.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Geotextiles and Geomembranes | Year: 2016

Imperial Smelting Furnace slag is an industrial waste generated during extraction of zinc. The present study experimentally evaluates the suitability of Imperial Smelting Furnace slag (ISFS) as a structural fill for mechanically stabilized walls and reinforced slopes. Experimentally determined gradation, physical and shear strength characteristics as well as electrochemical properties of ISFS used in the present study satisfied the standard specifications for a structural fill of different Guidelines/Codes of Practice. Pullout tests were conducted on a newly designed and fabricated large size pullout test apparatus to evaluate the bond coefficient (fb)/interface apparent coefficient of friction (μS/GSY) between the geogrids and ISFS. The influence of geogrid geometry, ultimate tensile strength and type of polymer (HDPE and PET) on the geogrid - ISFS interaction was also examined, and the results were compared with those of geogrids in Badarpur sand (reference material). The μS/GSY value of all geogrids in ISFS were slightly lower as compared to those of geogrids in Badarpur sand, which is due to weak structure of ISFS particles compared to Badarpur sand. The experimental pullout test results were analysed using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to model and capture the influence of several geogrid parameters and structural fill properties on μS/GSY. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Wahajuddin,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Wahajuddin,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Rae Bareli | Arora S.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Rae Bareli
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2012

A targeted drug delivery system is the need of the hour. Guiding magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with the help of an external magnetic field to its target is the principle behind the development of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as novel drug delivery vehicles. SPIONs are small synthetic γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite) or Fe3O4 (magnetite) particles with a core ranging between 10 nm and 100 nm in diameter. These magnetic particles are coated with certain biocompatible polymers, such as dextran or polyethylene glycol, which provide chemical handles for the conjugation of therapeutic agents and also improve their blood distribution profile. The current research on SPIONs is opening up wide horizons for their use as diagnostic agents in magnetic resonance imaging as well as for drug delivery vehicles. Delivery of anticancer drugs by coupling with functionalized SPIONs to their targeted site is one of the most pursued areas of research in the development of cancer treatment strategies. SPIONs have also demonstrated their efficiency as nonviral gene vectors that facilitate the introduction of plasmids into the nucleus at rates multifold those of routinely available standard technologies. SPION-induced hyperthermia has also been utilized for localized killing of cancerous cells. Despite their potential biomedical application, alteration in gene expression profiles, disturbance in iron homeostasis, oxidative stress, and altered cellular responses are some SPION-related toxicological aspects which require due consideration. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of SPIONs with regard to their method of preparation, their utility as drug delivery vehicles, and some concerns which need to be resolved before they can be moved from bench top to bedside. © 2012 Wahajuddin and Arora, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.


Mittala R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Annals of Library and Information Studies | Year: 2016

The paper discusses the steps taken for the system migration from DOS based CDS/ISIS to Windows Server platform. A web based system has been developed using SQL Server 2005 as backend and asp.net 3.5 Microsoft Technology as front end. The unique feature of the developed system is compatibility with web and Desktop Publishing (DTP) which makes it more useful. A brief description and need for the system migration/ development are discussed. © 2016, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.


Gahalau V.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Arora B.R.,Uttarakhand Council for Science and Technology
Episodes | Year: 2012

The seismicity along the Himalayan arc varies significantly with some well defined patterns of segmentations. We show that the earthquakes along the Himalayan Seismic Belt (HSB) are influenced by the structural heterogeneities existing in the underthrusting Indian plate as well as by the presence of various north-south trending active rifts in the overriding wedge of the Himalaya. Model calculations of stress distribution show that stress change due to strain accumulation is more on moderately steeper fault, simulating the midcrustal ramp under the southern Higher Himalaya, than on the sub-horizontal thrust. Thus it is surmised that the presence of the ramp which connects the shallow section of seismically active detachment to the aseismically slipping deeper section of the detachment, causes high seismicity in the HSB region. It implies that the seismicity variation along the HSB may also be linked to the presence or absence of the ramp. Further, subsurface ridges on the down-going Indian plate probably control the rupture extent of the great Himalayan earthquakes. Over these ridges the seismicity of the HSB is generally low and it may imply that ramp may be absent in those regions. Finally, we show that the approximately north-south extending active rifts of the Tibetan and Higher Himalaya, cause stress shadow near their southern extent in the HSB which inhibit the occurrence of small and moderate magnitude thrust earthquakes.


Prasad B.E.,Bangalore University | Kamath P.V.,Bangalore University | Vijayamohanan K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Langmuir | Year: 2011

Coatings of hydrotalcite-like nitrate-intercalated Mg/Al layered double hydroxides are electrochemically deposited on a Pt electrode by electrogeneration of base by reduction of a mixed metal nitrate aqueous solution. As-prepared coatings are stable to workup and function as rugged electrodes. The voltammetric response generated by anion exchange of intercalated nitrate for dissolved anions from solution under equilibrium conditions is employed to estimate the thermodynamic stabilities of the Mg/Al layered double hydroxides comprising different anions relative to the nitrate-containing phase. Among monovalent anions, the most stable is the fluoride-containing LDH (δG° = -48.7 kJ mol -1) relative to the nitrate-containing LDH. The stability in aqueous phase decreases as F - > Cl - > Br - > NO 2 - > NO 3 -, whereas, among divalent anions, SO 4 2- (δG° = -8.7 kJ mol -1) > CO 3 2- (δG° = 14.3 kJ mol -1). The results of monovalent ions match well with the Miyata series, whereas the divalent anion series is at variance with the commonly held belief that carbonate-LDHs are more stable than sulfate-LDHs. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Pandit D.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of the Geological Society of India | Year: 2012

The lattice preferred orientation analysis of quartz c-axis has been used to study the fabric elements in deformed quartz. Application of X-ray texture goniometer attached with high resolution X-ray diffractometer is used to improve the quality of the studies related to texture analysis, which is difficult to observe under conventional optical microscopic method. A comparison is made in between the conventional optical microscope and XTG method using a quartz sample from Malanjkhand reef is used to demonstrate the difference obtained within fabric elements. In photomicrograph, only one fabric component is observed while pole figure analysis using XTG method depicts three components of deformation. This technique is also very useful in the study of polymineralic rocks as well as deformation induced in synthetic materials. © 2012 Geological Society of India.


Gahalaut K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Hassoup A.,National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth | Year: 2012

Continuing seismicity for about 30 years near a large western embayment of the Lake Nasser, about 50 km from the Aswan High Dam in Egypt, has led to a debate about the possibility of its relation with the reservoir impoundment. The largest event in the region occurred on 14 November 1981 (M 5.3), 20 km beneath the Wadi Kalabsha embayment, a westward extension of the Lake Aswan. Since then, continuous monitoring of seismic activity has given an excellent opportunity to study the spatiotemporal distribution of seismicity in the area. Most of the immediate aftershocks of the 1981 main shock were located in the Gebel Marawa area at depths between 15 and 30 km. Depths of almost all earthquakes away from this zone were shallower than 12 km. To quantify the effect of the reservoir impoundment on the seismicity of the Aswan area, we calculated changes in stress and pore pressure due to the reservoir impoundment using Green's function approach. The change in Coulomb stress (ΔS) is calculated on the fault planes responsible for majority of the seismicity of the region. We found that for all the seismogenic faults, ΔS is negative, i.e., stabilizing, when we consider the effect of the reservoir load only, whereas it is positive, i.e., destabilizing, when we include pore pressure. For example, at the hypocenter of the main earthquake, shear stress, normal stress, and pore pressure due to reservoir operation are estimated as 5.5, 13.2, and 13.5 kPa, respectively, which suggest that ΔS is -3.1 kPa when we do not consider the effect of pore pressure and 5.7 kPa when contribution from pore pressure is considered. Hence, the seismicity in the Aswan lake region is driven by the pore pressure due to reservoir impoundment. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.


Kumar D.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of the Geological Society of India | Year: 2012

Electrical Resistivity Tomography is a versatile, fast and cost effective technique for mapping the shallow subsurface anomaly. It covers a wide spectrum of resistivity ranging from <1 Ohm.m to several thousands of Ohm.m. In this paper applications and utility of two-dimensional Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) technique are discussed to look into huge data density coverage, different signal strengths of data from subsurface and their implications in resolving the aquifer zones, related geological structures etc. of the substratum ranging from alluvium to tectonically disturbed hard rock ridge region of the country. The major advantages and flexibility of ERT over conventional resistivity methods are also discussed. © GEOL. SOC. INDIA.


Parashar G.,Panjab University | Parashar N.C.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Capalash N.,Panjab University
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Curcumin and resveratrol were evaluated for their potential to cause reversal of promoter hypermethylation and associated gene expression of FANCF in SiHa cell line. Methylation specific PCR along with bisulphite sequencing revealed the demethylation of 12 CpG sites out of 15 CpG sites spanning +280 to +432 region of FANCF promoter after treatment with curcumin and fivefold up regulation of FANCF gene expression as shown by qRT-PCR. In vitro methylation assay also showed that M.SssI an analogue of DNMT1 was effectively inhibited at 50 μM concentration of curcumin. Resveratrol was not found to be effective in causing reversal of promoter hypermethylation of FANCF gene when used at 20 μM for 4 days in SiHa cell line. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Dutta G.P.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy | Year: 2016

This INSA commissioned report on "New antimalarial drug discovery in India and future strategy for malaria control" focuses on development of : (A) new fast-acting blood schizontocides which could (1) control the multidrug resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum/P. vivax, (2) reduce high malaria related mortality among complicated/comatose cerebral malaria cases, and (3) save children dying due to severe malaria; (B) safe anti-relapse (Radical Curative) drugs for P. vivax/ P. ovale, to replace toxic primaquine (which is the only drug in clinical use for the last six decades); (C) new Transmission Blocking Drugs which prevent the spread of multidrug resistant P. falciparum: primaquine is the only transmission blocking drug that sterilizes gametocytes in man (vertebrate host) and thus interrupts transmission of P. falciparum but which is contraindicated for infants, children and pregnant women and G-6-PD deficient red cell cases by World Health Organization Safety Committees; (D) safe 8-aminoquinolines (to replace primaquine) which do not cause methaemoglobinaemia, cyanosis, hemolytic anaemia; (E) effective antimalarials for emerging artemisinin resistance/MDR strains of P. falciparum and P. vivax; (F) a safe antimalarial drug for pregnancy, and (G) a safe effective ACT drug combination for control of uncomplicated/ MDR P. falciparum infections. During the past five years, nearly 32 Malaria Eradication Agenda sponsored by International Malaria Experts have expressed that the present armamentarium may not achieve malaria eradication or prevent malaria related mortality because of lack of effective antimalarials. CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute has developed the following new antimalarials which will be helpful to achieve some of the malarial control/eradication objectives: (a) Fast-Acting Blood Schizontocides like α/β-Arteether (patented 1990), α-Arteether, β-Arteether (in groundnut oil), Dihydroartemisinin (patented Internationally in Sixteen Countries, 1999 and 2000), Dihydroartemisinin and Piperaquine (ACT approved by WHO 2010), α/β-artelinate (patented in 1989), Pyronaridine (2000), Synthetic 1,2,4-Trioxanes (Fenozan), Azithromycin, Tafenoquine (a broad spectrum antimalarial) (jointly developed by WRAIR and CDRI 1988); (b) New Leads for Gametocytocidal Drugs: Artemisinin which kills P. cynomolgi B gametocytes in anopheles mosquitoes (1989), α/β-Arteether as intra-muscular (single) or oral dose for P. cynomolgi B. (1990, 1996), Sod. β-artelinate (1996); (c) New Safe Leads: gametocytocidal/transmission blocking drugs Tafenoquine (WR 238605), Bulaquine (CDRI 80/53) (2005) gametocytocidal for P. falciparum; (d) New Anti-Relapse Drugs (Hypnozoiticidal) as safe substitutes for Primaquine: CDRI 80/53/Elubaquine/Bulaquine (1989, patented), Aablaquine (Bulaquine + Chloroquine) (patented, 2000), Tafenoquine (WR 236805, 1988); (e) New Causal Prophylactic Drugs: Bulaquine (Elubaquine), Tafenoquine (WR 238605) and (f) Rectal Suppositories as Pre-Referal Emergency Treatment for children suffering from severe malaria/cerebral malaria: α/β-Arteether (CDRI-CIMAP Joint Patent 2001), Dihydroartemisinin (CDRI-CIMAP Joint Patent 1999 and 2000). © Printed in India.


Murali K.R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics | Year: 2014

SnSe films were pulse electrodeposited on tin oxide coated glass substrates at different duty cycles. The films were single phase with orthorhombic structure. Optical absorption measurements indicated a band gap in the range of 1.28-1.50 eV with decrease of duty cycle. Transmission spectra exhibited interference fringes. Using the envelope method, refractive index was calculated. From the refractive index and extinction coefficient data, real and imaginary part of dielectric constant were estimated. Optical conductivity was evaluated from the absorption coefficient and refractive index data. Optical data were analysed by the single-effective oscillator model. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Luqman S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2012

Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the first enzyme in the polyamine biosynthesis, plays an important role in tumor progression, cell proliferation and differentiation. In recent years, ODC has been the subject of intense study among researchers, as a target for anti-cancer therapy and specific inhibitory agents, have the potential to suppress carcinogenesis and find applications in clinical therapy. In particular, it is suggested that ODC is a promising candidate target for natural products in cancer chemoprevention. Future exploration of ornithine decarboxylase inhibitors present in nature may offer great hope for finding new cancer chemopreventive agents.


Vedalakshmi R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Structures and Buildings | Year: 2012

The uncertainties that exist in the chloride diffusion model may lead to considerable error in the prediction of the time to initiation of corrosion in the service life estimation of concrete structures. An alternative approach based on polarisation resistance (R p value) has been proposed. Enhancement of the service life of concrete made using blended cements was measured experimentally using the electrochemical impedance technique (EIS) in the presence of 0, 0.5 and 1% of added chloride. The time to initiation of corrosion (T i) predicted from the R p value agreed well with the value from the weight loss measurement, whereas it was overestimated by the chloride diffusion model. Using the Maaddawy mathematical model, the time to propagation (T p) was obtained. From the results it was concluded that in the presence of 1% of added chloride, the time to failure T f (T i + T p) of Portland pozzolana cement (PPC) and Portland slag cement (PSC) concrete was four and ten times higher than that of ordinary Portland cement concrete, respectively, even in low-strength concrete of 20 MPa. Parameter T f increased as the strength of the concrete increased. The T f value predicted by the corrosion rate model agreed very well with the T f from the weight loss measurement and cracks on the concrete surface. The reduced rate of diffusion of chloride due to pore constriction and the higher chloride binding ability of blended cements lead to the enhancement of the service life of concretes when exposed to marine atmospheric conditions. The estimation revealed that a rebar embedded at 25 mm cover in 40 MPa PPC and PSC concrete (0% Cl - added) could have a service life of more than 100 years.


Mandal P.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
RSC Advances | Year: 2014

A general strategy was developed for the synthesis of glycosyl iminocoumarins (5a-x) in a one-pot, copper-catalyzed multicomponent reaction involving a domino reaction of sulfonyl azides, sugar alkynes, and salicylaldehydes via ketenimine intermediate formation. Similarly, glycosyl 3-triazolyl-2-iminocoumarin derivatives (6a-o) have also been synthesized in a one-pot, three component condensation via tandem "CuAAC-aldol-cyclization- dehydration" sequence. In this event, a copper-catalyzed cycloaddition reaction between 2-azidoacetonitrile and sugar alkynes furnished a triazole derivative in situ and activated the neighboring methylene group, inducing an aldol-cyclization-dehydration sequence in the presence of a salicylaldehyde. The yields were very good in all reactions. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Park K.-H.,Chosun University | Dhayal M.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Electrochemistry Communications | Year: 2014

Simultaneous growth of 1D/3D-nanorod/nanoflower like structures of TiO2 on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates has been achieved in one-step hydrothermal process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirms the formation of rutile phase whereas enhanced light scattering in 1D/3D nanorod/nanoflower TiO2 photoanode was observed at longer wavelengths of 600-750 nm. Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) prepared with 1D/3Dnanorod/nanoflower structures had about 90% increases in efficiency as compared to 1D nanorod like structure. Thus, simultaneous assembly of TiO2 as 1D/3D-nanorod/nanoflower like structure without significant change in their surface oxidation states (Ti3+ and Ti4+) had better capabilities for light harvesting and efficient electron transportation for improving electrochemical responses of photo-electrode in DSSC to achieve higher sensitivity. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Nithya C.,National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli | Gopukumar S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment | Year: 2015

Vehicle electrification is one of the most significant solutions that address the challenges of fossil fuel depletion, global warming, CO2 pollution, and so on. To mitigate these issues, recent research mainly focuses on finding clean energy storage devices such as batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells, and so forth. Owing to the outstanding energy and power density, lithium-ion batteries (LIB) have captured the market for portable electronics, hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and so on. During 1970-1980s, electrode materials for both LIBs and sodium-ion batteries (NIBs) were investigated but higher energy and power density of LIBs have made it a popular candidate for portable electronics. Issues arise on the availability of lithium reserves, so it is high time we take a look at finding alternative energy storage system without compromising on the energy and power density of the state-of-the-art LIBs. Therefore, researchers have revisited NIBs and recent developments have contributed towards discovering new electrode materials to match the energy and power density of LIBs at low cost. While a variety of positive and negative electrode materials have been investigated for NIBs so far, the influence of voltage, capacity, cycle life, and volume expansion of negative electrodes on Na+ ion extraction and insertion are more as compared with LIBs. This affects the energy and power density of NIBs but cost-effective partial replacement of LIBs is viable and is widely pursued. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Agrawal A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Prakash Y.S.,Mayo Medical School
Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America | Year: 2014

Multiple studies have determined that obesity increases asthma risk or severity. Metabolic changes of obesity, such as diabetes or insulin resistance, are associated with asthma and poorer lung function. Insulin resistance is also found to increase asthma risk independent of body mass. Conversely, asthma is associated with abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, and obesity. Here we review our current understanding of how dietary and lifestyle factors lead to changes in mitochondrial metabolism and cellular bioenergetics, inducing various components of the cardiometabolic syndrome and airway disease. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Sharma A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2015

New discoveries are increasingly demanding integration of epigenetics, molecular biology, genomic networks and physiology with evolution. This article provides a proof of concept for evolutionary transgenerational systems biology, proposed recently in the context of epigenetic inheritance in mammals. Gene set enrichment analysis of available genome-level mammalian data presented here seem consistent with the concept that: (1) heritable information about environmental effects in somatic cells is communicated to the germline by circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) or other RNAs released in physiological fluids; (2) epigenetic factors including miRNA-like small RNAs, DNA methylation and histone modifications are propagated across generations via gene networks; and (3) inherited epigenetic variations in the form of methylated cytosines are fixed in the population as thymines over the evolutionary time course. The analysis supports integration of physiology and epigenetics with inheritance and evolution. This may catalyze efforts to develop a unified theory of biology. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.


Kumar S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Annals of Library and Information Studies | Year: 2016

The study examines the conformity of Lotka’s law to authorship distribution in the field of Artificial Neural Networks research (ANNs) in India during 1991–2014 using Science Citation Index-Expanded. There were 3411 articles contributed by 5654 unique authors. Lotka’s law was tested using methodology suggested by Pao and compared with maximum likelihood method advocated by Nicholls. The main elements involved in fitting in Lotka’s law were identified. These includes criterion for taking a certain pair of observed data points for calculating Lotka’s gradient, the constant for measurement of single author productivity and assessing goodness-of-fit. The results suggested that author productivity distribution, predicted by the modified Lotka’s Law suggested by Pao, was confirmed to the ANNs discipline in India whereas methodology suggested by Nicholls was not able to explain the author productivity distribution for the same. Evaluation of the prolific authors indicated that most of them are among the top position in their respective institutions. However, they were not listed as first author in their publications supporting that all the authors should be considered while analysing author productivity. © 2016, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.


Prakash K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2015

Amplitude versus offset analysis of P to P reflection is often used in exploration seismology for hydrocarbon exploration. In the present work, the feasibility to estimate crustal velocity structure from transmitted P to S wave amplitude variation with ray-parameter has been investigated separately for dipping layer and anisotropy medium. First, for horizontal and isotropic medium, the approximation of P-to-s conversion is used that is expressed as a linear form in terms of slowness. Next, the intercept of the linear regression has been used to estimate the shear wave velocity contrast (δβ) across an interface. The formulation holds good for isotropic and horizontal layer medium. Application of such formula to anisotropic medium or dipping layer data may lead to erroneous estimation of δβ. In order to overcome this problem, a method has been proposed to compensate the SV-amplitude using shifted version of SH-amplitude, and subsequently transforming SV amplitudes equivalent to that from isotropic or horizontal layer medium as the case may be. Once this transformation has been done, δβ can be estimated using isotropic horizontal layer formula. The shifts required in SH for the compensation are φ/2 and φ/4 for dipping layer and anisotropic medium, respectively. The effectiveness of the approach has been reported using various synthetic data sets. The methodology is also tested on real data from HI-CLIMB network in Himalaya, where the presence of dipping Moho has already been reported. The result reveals that the average shear wave velocity contrast across the Moho is larger towards the Indian side compared to the higher Himalayan and Tibetan regions. © The Author 2015.


Kumar B.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of Crop Improvement | Year: 2012

Indian basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an essential oil and aromatic chemical-producing crop of India. Optimal germination potential and seed vigor are essential for commercial growers and farmers to justify buying premium-priced seed and ensure performance of their crop. Seed germination tests of Ocimum basilicum variety CIM-Saumya were carried out in Petri dishes at constant temperatures of 15°, 20°, 25°, 30°, 35°, and 40°C at 16 h light/8 h dark daily regimes. The temperature of 25°C was found to be optimal, and germination percentage and seedling vigor indexes I and II were 75.6, 496.7, and 0.358, respectively. Seeds produced abnormal seedlings at 40°C. Significant decreases in germination percentage and seedling vigor indexes I and II were observed at 15°C, 20°C, 30°C, and 35°C. Days 2-3 and days 6-7 after seed sowing were ideal times for first and final count, respectively, for seed germination of Indian basil. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Pandey V.C.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2015

The present article briefly describes a strategy regarding the remediation and management of fly ash (FA) dumps to mitigate all environmental problems of FA hazards. The onsite remediation of FA dumps through phytoremediation is still a critical challenge due to unfavorable conditions of ash deposit which inhibit plant establishment and growth. However, some naturally growing plant species colonize FA dumps as sparse cover, and rest areas of FA dumps are still naked in absence of vegetation. The entire FA dumps can be covered by "assisted phytoremediation" through naturally colonized plant species on ash disposal sites for FA dumps' management. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Sindu B.S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Sasmal S.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research | Gopinath S.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2014

Cementitious composites are limited to the applications due to their lesser tensile strength and strain capacity. In the present study, an attempt has been made to improve the properties of cementitious composites using nano filament like materials such as carbon nano tube (CNT). Since, there is no well-established technique to determine the engineering properties of CNT of various geometries which is essential for effective application of the same to cementitious composite, a unified approach has been proposed by combining the classical and numerical method. Further, a square RVE of CNT incorporated cement paste is developed in which CNT is simulated as an equivalent continuum model at micro-level. The effect of variation of the percentage of CNT in the cementitious matrix on the strength and stiffness of CNT incorporated cement matrix is evaluated. Finally, with the evaluated properties of CNT reinforced cement both at nano and micro-level, non-linear FE investigation has been carried out to evaluate the macro response of structural component with varied degree and disposition of CNT incorporated composite. The findings of the present study will provide insight into the newly emerged material and its alluring scopes for application as construction and building materials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Srinivas S.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Subramanyam Reddy A.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Ramamohan T.R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2012

The present study investigates the thermal-diffusion and diffusion-thermo effects of a viscous fluid in a two-dimensional channel between slowly expanding or contracting walls with weak permeability. Assuming symmetric injection or suction along the uniformly expanding porous walls and using similarity transformation, the governing flow equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The resulting equations are then solved analytically using a perturbation technique in permeation Reynolds number and wall dilation ratio. The effects of various physical parameters on flow variables have been discussed numerically and explained graphically. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Raheja J.L.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Kumar S.,Amity University
Optik | Year: 2013

Fabric defect detection has been an active area of research since a long time and still a robust systemis needed which can fulfill industrial requirements. A robust automatic fabric defect detection system(FDDS) would results in quality products and more revenues. Many different approaches and methodhave been tried to implement FDDS. Most of them are based on two approaches, one is statistical likegray level co-occurrence (GLCM) and other is transform based like Gabor filter. This paper presents anew scheme for automated FDDS implementation using GLCM and also compare it with Gabor filterapproach. GLCM texture statistics are extracted and plotted against the inter-pixel distance of GLCMas signal graph. The non-defective fabric image information is compared with the test fabric image. InGabor filter based approach, a bank of Gabor filter with different scales and orientations is generated andfabric images are filtered with convolution mask. The generated magnitude responses are compared fordefect decision. In our implementation of both approaches in same environment, the GLCM approachproduces higher defect detection accuracies than Gabor filter approach and more computationallyefficient. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.


Devadas A.,University of Poitiers | Vasudevan S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Epron F.,University of Poitiers
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011

An attempt is made to improve the catalytic nitrate reduction on Pd/CeO2 catalysts by the addition of a second metal. The influence of the second metal such as Sn, In and Ag on the Pd/CeO2 for nitrate reduction is explored. The second metal is introduced over monometallic Pd/CeO2 by a redox reaction. Pd/CeO2 is more active than the bimetallic catalysts under pure hydrogen flow. Whereas in presence of CO2 the monometallic Pd/CeO2 is inactive for nitrate reduction, bimetallic catalysts are found to be more active than under pure hydrogen flow and also than the monometallic catalyst with a low selectivity towards ammonium ions, undesired product of the reaction. The Pd-Sn/CeO2 catalyst is comparatively the most suited for nitrate reduction. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Senthil Kumar S.,University of Texas at Austin | Senthil Kumar S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Bard A.J.,University of Texas at Austin
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

The background electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) emission observed only upon electrochemical oxidation of tri-n-propylamine (TPrAH) on a platinum electrode is a limiting factor in ECL analytical techniques and is poorly understood. We studied this reaction in aerated acetonitrile (MeCN) solution with TPrAH oxidized at a constant potential at the Pt surface and observed ECL spectra with an emission band at 630 nm, which is characteristic of the emission of the dimeric 1Δg state of O2. No ECL emission was observed when the same solution was deaerated. This background ECL emission is attributed to the reaction between dissolved oxygen and two different products of TPrAH oxidation: the TPrAH• radical that reduces O2 to the superoxide ion and the TPrAH•+ radical cation that oxidizes this species to singlet O2. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Adarsh N.,Indian National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology | Shanmugasundaram M.,Indian National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology | Ramaiah D.,Indian National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology | Ramaiah D.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

We have developed a novel aza-BODIPY probe for the sensitive colorimetric detection of the nitrite ions in the aqueous medium by a simple and direct method. This probe selectively recognizes the nitrite ions through a distinct visual color change from bright blue to intense green with a sensitivity of 20 ppb. Uniquely, this probe can be coated on a glass surface to fabricate a simple solid-state dipstick device that can be used for the visual detection of the nitrite ions in the presence of other competing anions in distilled as well as natural water resources like a sea, lake, and river. Furthermore, this probe can be used for the sensitive detection of the nitrate ions when coupled to a reduction step. Our results demonstrate that this probe not only can be used for the on-site analysis and quantification but also can replace the conventional spot test carried out for the nitrite ions in the laboratory practical experiments. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Sharma A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Plant Gene | Year: 2015

Osmotic stress is one of the abiotic conditions for plants responsible for osmotic imbalance. The genes have the capability to show differential expression in response to such conditions. In order to understand the role of genes towards multiple stresses simultaneously, a coexpression study is required. In our analysis, the coexpressed genes of Solanum tuberosum showed a positive correlation (0.91) in salt and drought stresses. The genes showing similar expression were grouped into five sub groups. Sub group 2 revealed the highest number of genes and formed a network. The genes of this network were found to be coding for different stress related proteins. The largest portion (25%) of genes was found to be coding for lipoxygenase revealing its role in jasmonic acid pathway responsible for abiotic stresses. The coexpressed genes were further analyzed for their regulation by the same regulatory factor. The results suggest that the coexpressed genes were regulated due to presence of similar binding sites for EREBP/AP2. The gene expression, their coexpression, functional annotation and coregulation were integrated to form a network. This approach could yield that the coexpressed genes are under the control of the same regulatory system thus are coregulated and form a network. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.


Zhang R.,University of Texas at Austin | Sen M.K.,University of Texas at Austin | Sen M.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Srinivasan S.,University of Texas at Austin
Geophysics | Year: 2013

Resolving thin layers and clearly delineating layer boundaries in inverted seismic sections are very important goals for exploration and production. Many seismic inversion methods based on a least-squares optimization approach with Tikhonov-type regularization can lead to unfocused transitions between adjacent layers. A basis pursuit inversion (BPI) algorithm based on the L1 norm optimization method can, however, resolve sharp boundaries between layers. We have formulated a BPI algorithm for amplitude-versus-angle inversion and investigated its potential to improve contrasts between layers. Like the BPI for poststack case, the sparse layer constraint, rather than the sparse spike constraint, is used to construct the model space as a wedge dictionary. All the elements of the dictionary are bed reflectivities, which include solutions consisting of thin beds as well. With this dictionary, we use an L1 norm optimization framework to derive three reflectivities, namely, Rp, Rs, and Rρ Although BPI does not require a starting model, highresolution absolute velocities (VP, VS) and density (ρ) can be obtained by incorporating initial models in the BPI derived reflectivities. Tests on synthetic and field data show that the BPI algorithm can indeed detect and enhance layer boundaries by effectively removing the wavelet interference. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.


Mandal P.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Tectonophysics | Year: 2016

We herein study variations of seismic velocities in the main rupture zone (MRZ) of the Mw 7.7 2001 Bhuj earthquake for the time periods [2001-05, 2006-08, 2009-10 and 2011-13], by constructing dVp(%), dVs(%) and d(Vp/Vs)(%) tomograms using high-quality arrival times of 28,902 P- and 28,696 S-waves from 4644 precise JHD (joint hypocentral determination) relocations of local events. Differential tomograms for 2001-05 reveal a marked decrease in seismic velocities (low dVp, low dVs and high d(Vp/Vs)) in the MRZ (at 5-35 km depths) during 2001-10, which is attributed to an increase in crack/fracture density (higher pore fluid pressure) resulted from the intense fracturing that occurred during the mainshock and post-seismic periods. While we observe a slight recovery or increase in seismic velocities 2011-13, this could be related to the healing process (lower pore fluid pressure due to sealing of cracks) of the causative fault zone of the 2001 Bhuj mainshock. The temporal reduction in seismic velocities is observed to be higher at deeper levels (more fluid enrichment under near-lithostatic pressure) than that at shallower levels. Fluid source for low velocity zone (LVZ) at 0-10 km depths (with high d(Vp/Vs)) could be attributed to the presence of meteoric water or soft alluvium sediments with higher water content, while fluid source for LVZ at 10-35 km depths could be due to the presence of brine fluids (released from the metamorphic dewatering) and volatile CO2 (emanating from the crystallization of carbonatite melts in the asthenosphere), in fractures and pores. We also imaged two prominent LVZs associated with the Katrol Hill fault zone and Island Belt fault zone, extending from shallow upper-crust to sub-crustal depth, which might be facilitating the deeper circulation of metamorphic fluids/volatile CO2, thereby, the generation of lower crustal earthquakes occurring in the Kachchh rift zone. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Rao C.R.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Rao C.R.K.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2012

An electrochemical method for depositing redispersible, lower size gold nanoparticles from a novel polyelectrolyte-gold complex is described. The size of gold nanoparticles is in the range 6.2-15.4 nm. The gold nanoparticles, first deposited on platinum surface are transferable into water. They can also be directly in situ-electrodeposited on to materials like carbon, carbon nanotubes or conducting polymers for an end use as electro catalysts. The composites Au-MWCNT, Pt-MWCNT, Au-Carbon, and Pt-Carbon are synthesized and tested for their electrocatalytic activity. The composites exhibit good catalytic activity in sensing dopamine or electrooxidation of methanol. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Vasudevan S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering | Year: 2012

In practice, direct current (DC) is used in an electrocoagulation processes. In this case, an impermeable oxide layer may form on the cathode as well as corrosion formation on the anode due to oxidation. This prevents the effective current transfer between the anode and cathode, so the efficiency of electrocoagulation processes declines. These disadvantages of DC have been diminished by adopting alternating current (AC) in electrocoagulation processes. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of AC and DC on the removal of iron from water using zinc as anode and cathode. The results showed that the optimum removal efficiency of 99.6% and 99.1% with the energy consumption of 0.625 and 0.991kWhkL -1 was achieved at a current density of 0.06Adm -2, at pH of 7.0 using AC and DC, respectively. For both AC and DC, the adsorption of iron was preferably fitting Langmuir adsorption isotherm, the adsorption process follows second order kinetics and the temperature studies showed that adsorption was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. © 2011 Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering.


Late D.J.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Shirodkar S.N.,Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research | Waghmare U.V.,Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research | Dravid V.P.,Northwestern University | Rao C.N.R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
ChemPhysChem | Year: 2014

We report the temperature-dependent Raman spectra of single- and few-layer MoSe2 and WSe2 in the range 77-700 K. We observed linear variation in the peak positions and widths of the bands arising from contributions of anharmonicity and thermal expansion. After characterization using atomic force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, the temperature coefficients of the Raman modes were determined. Interestingly, the temperature coefficient of the A22u mode is larger than that of the A1g mode, the latter being much smaller than the corresponding temperature coefficients of the same mode in single-layer MoS2 and of the G band of graphene. The temperature coefficients of the two modes in single-layer MoSe2 are larger than those of the same modes in single-layer WSe2. We have estimated thermal expansion coefficients and temperature dependence of the vibrational frequencies of MoS2 and MoSe2 within a quasi-harmonic approximation, with inputs from first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. We show that the contrasting temperature dependence of the Raman-active mode A1g in MoS2 and MoSe2 arises essentially from the difference in their strain-phonon coupling. Special effects in 2D: The temperature-dependent Raman spectra of single- and few-layer MoSe2 and WSe2 in the 77-700 K range are reported. Linear variation is observed in the peak positions and widths of the bands arising from contributions of anharmonicity and thermal expansion. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Cell suspension cultures of Arnebia euchroma were raised from in vitro leaf-derived friable callus on liquid MS [Murashige and Skoog] medium supplemented with BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) (10.0 μM) and IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) (5.0 μM). A two-stage culture system was employed using growth and production medium for cell biomass and shikonin derivatives, respectively. Factors such as light, temperature, sucrose and pH (hydrogen ion concentration) were studied to observe their effect on the shikonin derivative production. Light conditions completely inhibited shikonin derivative production. Out of different temperature regimes tested, the highest yield (586.17 μg/g FW) was found at 25°C. Maximum production (656.14 μg/g FW) was observed in 6% sucrose. An alkaline pH (7.25-9.50) favoured shikonin derivative production. The results showed that physical and chemical factors greatly influence the production of shikonin derivatives in cell suspension cultures of A. euchroma. Therefore, by employing optimum culture conditions, it is possible to enhance the production of secondary compounds from the cells. The factors optimized for in vitro production of shikonin derivatives during the present study can successfully be employed for their large-scale production in bioreactors.


Azarudeen R.S.,Oxford Engineering College | Subha R.,Oxford Engineering College | Jeyakumar D.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Burkanudeen A.R.,Jamal Mohamed College Autonomous
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2013

Chelating terpolymer resin was synthesized from anthranilic acid and 2-amino pyridine with formaldehyde to remove the heavy metal ions present in the solutions. The synthesized terpolymer resin was characterized by spectral techniques such as FTIR, NMR (1H and 13C) and elemental analysis to elucidate the structure of the resin. The physico-chemical parameters have also been evaluated for the terpolymer resin. The surface morphology of the terpolymer resin without the metal ion uptake and with the incorporation of the metal ion was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The chelation ion-exchange property of the terpolymer resin was evaluated by batch equilibrium method for specific metal ions viz. Fe3+, Co 2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, and Pb 2+. The study was extended to three variations such as evaluation of metal ion uptake in presence of various electrolytes in different concentrations, evaluation of the distribution of metal ion uptake at different pH ranges and evaluation of the rate of metal ion uptake at different time intervals. The adsorption isotherm was evaluated by means of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The order of the kinetics was also determined and the resin follows first order kinetics which shows that physisorption may be involved in the ion-exchange process. From the results, it was observed that the terpolymer resin acts as an excellent cation-exchanger. Compared to the commercially available phenolic and polystyrene resins, the synthesized terpolymer resin showed an excellent ion-exchange capacity with the selected metal ions. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Sharma N.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Singh S.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Reviews in Medical Virology | Year: 2016

The advances in RNA sequencing have unveiled various non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which modulate the gene expression. ncRNAs do not get translated into proteins. These include transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNAs, microRNA (miRNA), short interfering RNA, long non-coding RNA, piwi-interacting RNA and small nuclear RNA. ncRNAs regulate gene expression at various levels and control cellular machinery. miRNAs have been reported in plants, animals, several invertebrates and viruses. The miRNAs regulate the gene expression post-transcriptionally. Viral infection strongly influences the abundance and the distribution of miRNAs and other ncRNAs within the host cells. Viruses may encode their own miRNA, which help in the viral life cycle and other aspects of pathogenesis. Viruses are known to successfully modulate the expression pattern of ncRNAs. The ncRNA-based strategies adopted by viruses for their survival present a complex picture of host-virus interactions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Thamattoor Raman K.M.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine | Year: 2012

A simulation model for the spread and control of lesions in the brain is constructed using a planar network (graph) representation for the central nervous system (CNS). The model is inspired by the lesion structures observed in the case of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic disease of the CNS. The initial lesion site is at the center of a unit square and spreads outwards based on the success rate in damaging edges (axons) of the network. The damaged edges send out alarm signals which, at appropriate intensity levels, generate programmed cell death. Depending on the extent and timing of the programmed cell death, the lesion may get controlled or aggravated akin to the control of wild fires by burning of peripheral vegetation. The parameter phase space of the model shows smooth transition from uncontrolled situation to controlled situation. The simulations show that the model is capable of generating a wide variety of lesion growth and arrest scenarios. Copyright © 2012 Krishna Mohan Thamattoor Raman.


Bharati K.A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Sharma B.L.,NREC College
Ethnobotany Research and Applications | Year: 2012

Field work was conducted to document the ethnoveterinary medicine used by members of the indigenous community in Sikkim Himalayas, India, in order to treat ailments of their livestock. This research detailed the use of 37 medicinal plants to treat ailments in animals such as diarrhea, dysentery, digestive disorders, injury, wound, fever, maternity complications, skin disease, urinary problems, cough and cold, skeleto-muscular disorders, inflammation, scorpion sting, snake and insect bite, weakness, parasite, ulcer and bleeding. 12 medicinal plants being used in Sikkim Himalayas have not been documented in ethnoveterinary medicine elsewhere in the world. 15 plant species were found to contain previously unreported medicinal properties.


Srivastava A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Sinha S.,India Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Proteins in thermophilic organisms remain stable and function optimally at high temperatures. Owing to their important applicability in many industrial processes, such thermostable proteins have been studied extensively, and several structural factors attributed to their enhanced stability. How these factors render the emergent property of thermostability to proteins, even in situations where no significant changes occur in their three-dimensional structures in comparison to their mesophilic counter-parts, has remained an intriguing question. In this study we treat Lipase A from Bacillus subtilis and its six thermostable mutants in a unified manner and address the problem with a combined complex network-based analysis and molecular dynamic studies to find commonality in their properties. The Protein Contact Networks (PCN) of the wild-type and six mutant Lipase A structures developed at a mesoscopic scale were analyzed at global network and local node (residue) level using network parameters and community structure analysis. The comparative PCN analysis of all proteins pointed towards important role of specific residues in the enhanced thermostability. Network analysis results were corroborated with finer-scale molecular dynamics simulations at both room and high temperatures. Our results show that this combined approach at two scales can uncover small but important changes in the local conformations that add up to stabilize the protein structure in thermostable mutants, even when overall conformation differences among them are negligible. Our analysis not only supports the experimentally determined stabilizing factors, but also unveils the important role of contacts, distributed throughout the protein, that lead to thermostability. We propose that this combined mesoscopic-network and fine-grained molecular dynamics approach is a convenient and useful scheme not only to study allosteric changes leading to protein stability in the face of negligible over-all conformational changes due to mutations, but also in other molecular networks where change in function does not accompany significant change in the network structure. © 2014 Srivastava, Sinha.


Bhattacharya A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Transgenic research | Year: 2014

Drought is a major stress that affects the yield and quality of tea, a widely consumed beverage crop grown in more than 20 countries of the world. Therefore, osmotin gene-expressing transgenic tea plants produced using earlier optimized conditions were evaluated for their tolerance of drought stress and their quality. Improved tolerance of polyethylene glycol-induced water stress and faster recovery from stress were evident in transgenic lines compared with the normal phenotype. Significant improvements in growth under in-vitro conditions were also observed. Besides enhanced reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme activity, the transgenic lines contained significantly higher levels of flavan-3-ols and caffeine, key compounds that govern quality and commercial yield of the beverage. The selected transgenic lines have the potential to meet the demands of the tea industry for stress-tolerant plants with higher yield and quality. These traits of the transgenic lines can be effectively maintained for generations because tea is commercially cultivated through vegetative propagation only.


Thakur T.S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Dubey R.,Indian Institute of Science | Desiraju G.R.,Indian Institute of Science
Annual Review of Physical Chemistry | Year: 2015

The notion of structure is central to the subject of chemistry. This review traces the development of the idea of crystal structure since the time when a crystal structure could be determined from a three-dimensional diffraction pattern and assesses the feasibility of computationally predicting an unknown crystal structure of a given molecule. Crystal structure prediction is of considerable fundamental and applied importance, and its successful execution is by no means a solved problem. The ease of crystal structure determination today has resulted in the availability of large numbers of crystal structures of higher-energy polymorphs and pseudopolymorphs. These structural libraries lead to the concept of a crystal structure landscape. A crystal structure of a compound may accordingly be taken as a data point in such a landscape. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Vasudevan S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Oturan M.A.,University Paris Est Creteil
Environmental Chemistry Letters | Year: 2014

This article reviews both the pollution by the electrochemical industry and the use of electrochemistry to clean water. Main pollutants include Pd, Cd, Ni, Hg and other metals and cyanide as well as organic pollutants. The cause for water pollution by electrochemistry is due to the effluents from different electrochemical industries such as mercury from chlor-alkali industry; lead, cadmium and mercury from battery industry; heavy metals and organic contaminants from electroplating wastes; contaminants from corrosion processes; and persistent organic pollutants from the synthesis and use of pesticides, dyes and pharmaceuticals. Most pollutants can be successfully eliminated or converted to non-toxic materials by methods based on the electrochemical principles. Electrochemical depolluting methods are mainly electrodialysis, electrocoagulation, electroflotation, anodic processes, cathodic processes and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Manzoor D.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Krishnamurty S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Pal S.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2014

Doping is known to be an excellent and simple way of catalyst design. Although notable progress has been made in understanding the reactivity and catalytic activity of gas-phase and supported gold clusters, very few studies have been carried out on the doped gold clusters. In the present work, we have carried out density functional theory calculations to investigate the effect of silicon doping on the reactivity and catalytic activity of gold nanoclusters. The present work particularly focuses on the adsorption and activation of molecular oxygen on the pristine and silicon-doped gold clusters. The results confirm that the silicon-doped Au7Si cluster shows considerable binding and activation of the O2 molecule in comparison to the pristine Au8 cluster as reflected in the relevant geometrical parameters (O-O and Au-O bond lengths) and O-O stretching frequency. However, silicon doping has no contrasting effect on the reactivity and catalytic activity of the Au7 cluster. In addition to the stronger binding and activation of the O2 molecule, the doped Au7Si cluster leads to a significant reduction in the activation barrier (0.57 eV) for the environmentally important CO oxidation reaction in contrast to the catalytically inactive pristine Au8 cluster (1.22 eV). Thus, our results highlight the critical role of doping foreign impurities for future endeavors in the field of gold nanocatalysis. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Bordoloi A.,University of Ottawa | Halligudi S.B.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Applied Catalysis A: General | Year: 2010

WOx/SBA-15 nanocomposite materials with different WOx loadings were prepared by one step hydrothermal synthesis and used in the vapor-phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to ε-caprolactam. The catalysts were thoroughly characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), sorption analysis, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and Raman spectroscopy. The acidities of the catalysts were estimated by ammonia temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) and Fourier transform infrared studies of adsorbed pyridine (pyridine-FTIR). The optimum temperature for the Beckmann rearrangement was 350 °C. Using WOx/SBA-15(20) under the vapor-phase reaction conditions [temperature = 350 °C, WHSV = 0.6 h-1, oxime concentration = 2.5% (w/w) in MeOH] gave 79% cyclohexanone oxime conversion with 93%, ε-caprolactam selectivity. The ε-caprolactam selectivity was found to be dependent on temperature and space velocity. A correlation has been made between the rearrangement activity and acidity and the structural properties of the catalysts. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Shinde D.B.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Pillai V.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Quantum dots: A sequential, single-electron charging process of monodisperse graphene quantum dots (GQDs) encapsulated in a dodecylamine envelope, facilitating a capacitance of a few attofarads is reported. The average GQDs dimensions, as ascertained from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, of about 3±0.3, 2.6±0.2, and 2.2±0.3 nm control this unprecedented behavior (see picture). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Mathur V.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Taneja V.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Taneja V.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Sun Y.,University of California at Berkeley | Liebman S.W.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Molecular Biology of the Cell | Year: 2010

Various proteins, like the infectious yeast prions and the noninfectious human Huntingtin protein (with expanded polyQ), depend on a Gln or Asn (QN)-rich region for amyloid formation. Other prions, e.g., mammalian PrP and the [Het-s] prion of Podospora anserina, although still able to form infectious amyloid aggregates, do not have QN-rich regions. Furthermore, [Het-s] and yeast prions appear to differ dramatically in their amyloid conformation. Despite these differences, a fusion of the Het-s prion domain to GFP (Het-sPrD-GFP) can propagate in yeast as a prion called [Het-s]y. We analyzed the properties of two divergent prions in yeast: [Het-s]y and the native yeast prion [PSI+] (prion form of translational termination factor Sup35). Curiously, the induced appearance and transmission of [PSI+] and [Het-s]y aggregates is remarkably similar. Overexpression of tagged prion protein (Sup35-GFP or Het-sPrD-GFP) in nonprion cells gives rise to peripheral later internal, ring/mesh-like aggregates. The cells with these ring-like aggregates give rise to daughters with one (perivacuolar) or two (perivacuolar and juxtanuclear) dot-like aggregates per cell. These line, ring, mesh, and dot aggregates are not really the transmissible prion species and should only be regarded as phenotypic markers of the presence of the prions. Both [PSI+] and [Het-s]y first appear in daughters as numerous tiny dot-like aggregates, and both require the endocytic protein, Sla2, for ring formation, but not propagation. © 2010 by The American Society for Cell Biology.


Sahu B.D.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Kumar J.M.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Sistla R.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Acute renal failure is a serious complication of the anticancer drug cisplatin. The potential role of baicalein, a naturally occurring bioflavonoid on cisplatin-induced renal injury is unknown. Here, we assessed the effect of baicalein against a murine model of cisplatininduced acute renal failure and investigated the underlying possible mechanisms. Renal function, kidney histology, inflammation, oxidative stress, renal mitochondrial function, proteins involved in apoptosis, nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and effects on intracellular signaling pathways such as MAPKs, and NF-κB were assessed. Pretreatment with baicalein ameliorated the cisplatin-induced renal oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation and improved kidney injury and function. Baicalein inhibited the cisplatin-induced expression of iNOS, TNF-α, IL-6 and mononuclear cell infiltration and concealed redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB activation via reduced DNA-binding activity, IκBα phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation in kidneys. Further studies demonstrated baicalein markedly attenuated cisplatin-induced p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation in kidneys. Baicalein also restored the renal antioxidants and increased the amount of total and nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and downstream target protein, HO-1 in kidneys. Moreover, baicalein preserved mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities and inhibited cisplatin-induced apoptosis by suppressing p53 expression, Bax/Bcl-2 imbalance, cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP. Our findings suggest that baicalein ameliorates cisplatin-induced renal damage through up-regulation of antioxidant defense mechanisms and down regulation of the MAPKs and NF-κB signaling pathways. © 2015 Sahu et al.


Singh A.G.,Tribhuvan University | Kumar A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Tewari D.D.,Maharani Lal Kunwari Post Graduate College
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine | Year: 2012

Background: Nepal Himalayas have been known as a rich source for valuable medicinal plants since Vedic periods. Present work is the documentation of indigenous knowledge on plant utilization as natural remedy by the inhabitants of terai forest in Western Nepal.Methods: Study was conducted during 2010-2011 following standard ethnobotanical methods. Data about medicinal uses of plants were collected by questionnaire, personal interview and group discussion with pre identified informants. Voucher specimens were collected with the help of informants, processed into herbarium following standard methods, identified with the help of pertinent floras and taxonomic experts, and submitted in Department of Botany, Butwal Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal for future references.Results: During the present study 66 medicinal plant species belonging to 37 families and 60 genera has been documented. These plants were used to treat various diseases and ailments grouped under 11 disease categories, with the highest number of species (41) being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by dermatological disorders (34). In the study area the informants' consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.93 to 0.97 with an average value of 0.94. Herbs (53%) were the primary source of medicine, followed by trees (23%). Curcuma longa (84%) and Azadirachta indica (76%) are the most frequently and popularly used medicinal plant species in the study area. Acacia catechu, Bacopa monnieri, Bombax ceiba, Drymaria diandra, Rauvolfia serpentina, and Tribulus terrestris are threatened species which needs to be conserved for future use.Conclusions: The high degree of consensus among the informants suggests that current use and knowledge are still strong, and thus the preservation of today's knowledge shows good foresight in acting before much has been lost. The connections between plant use and conservation are also important ones, especially as the authors note that neither the local inhabitants nor the government is addressing the potential loss of valuable species in this region. © 2012 Singh et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Kumar A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Hamilton M.A.,University of Toronto | Halls H.C.,University of Toronto
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems | Year: 2012

Identical high precision U-Pb baddeleyite ages, together with paleomagnetic and geochemical data, on mafic dykes occurring over an area of 140,000 km 2, define a Paleoproterozoic giant dyke swarm at ca. 2.367 Ga in the Dharwar craton, south India, referred to here as the Dharwar giant dyke swarm. All six U-Pb ages on these dykes are identical within error and suggest emplacement of this swarm within a geologically short time span of ∼5 Myr. A systematic southward progression in the trend of dykes from N48°E to N90°E, defines a fan angle of about 40° with convergence to a focal point about 300 km west of the present-day Dharwar craton boundary, resulting in a spectacular radiating dyke swarm extending across the entire eastern Dharwar craton. The large areal extent, radiating dyke pattern and short duration imply a mantle plume origin for the Dharwar giant dyke swarm. Despite their large areal distribution, all dykes in this swarm are geochemically coherent and have similar primitive mantle-normalized trace element patterns and rare earth element characteristics. Although the NE part of the swarm is magnetically overprinted, a remanence survives that has the same direction as primary magnetizations from dykes in the southern part of the swarm. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.


Reddy D.V.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Gunasekar A.,WHO Country Office for India
Environmental Geochemistry and Health | Year: 2013

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been reported in a few coastal regions of Srikakulam district and Chimakurthy mandal (~30-40 km away from the coast) in the Prakasham district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Some medical experts and the local population have apprehensions that the drinking water is the sole reason for this disease in these areas. As the source of drinking water for these two regions is only groundwater, major ions and trace elements were measured on waters from different sources to identify the causative element(s), if any. Comparison of hydrochemical data of both the areas indicates that groundwater in Srikakulam coastal region is less mineralized than that of the Prakasham region, which may be due to geological, hydrological and climatic reasons. However, the concentrations of various inorganic chemicals are within the permissible limits of drinking water. Hence, for the inorganic chemicals to cause ill health, including CKD, is unlikely or is ruled out in the study areas. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Selvam M.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Surface Engineering | Year: 2011

In this investigation, a porous oxide coating has been formed on aluminium using direct current anodising technique, sensitised in stannous ion followed by colouring in dilute silver ion at different concentrations and durations to produce pleasing colours ranging from yellow to brown and black. The metallically coloured surface has been analysed using EDAX, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectrophotometer, and a suitable mechanism has been proposed. © 2011 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.


Rayasam G.V.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Balganesh T.S.,Indian Institute of Science
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2015

host-directed need for treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is to find novel therapies that are efficacious, safe, and shorten the duration of treatment. Drug discovery approaches for TB primarily target essential genes of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) but novel strategies such as host-directed therapies and nonmicrobicidal targets are necessary to bring about a paradigm shift in treatment. Drugs targeting the host pathways and nonmicrobicidal proteins can be used only in conjunction with existing drugs as adjunct therapies. Significantly, host-directed adjunct therapies have the potential to decrease duration of treatment, as they are less prone to drug resistance, target the immune responses, and act via novel mechanism of action. Recent advances in targeting host-pathogen interactions have implicated pathways such as eicosanoid regulation and angiogenesis. Furthermore, several approved drugs such as metformin and verapamil have been identified that appear suitable for repurposing for the treatment of TB. These findings and the challenges in the area of host- and/or pathogen-directed adjunct therapies and their implications for TB therapy are discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Sagar V.,Florida International University | Pilakka-Kanthikeel S.,Florida International University | Pottathil R.,Florida International University | Saxena S.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Nair M.,Florida International University
Reviews in Medical Virology | Year: 2014

SUMMARY: Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in remarkable decline in the morbidity and mortality in AIDS patients, controlling HIV infections still remain a global health priority. HIV access to the CNS serves as the natural viral preserve because most antiretroviral (ARV) drugs possess inadequate or zero delivery across the brain barriers. Thus, development of target-specific, effective, safe, and controllable drug-delivery approach is an important health priority for global elimination of AIDS progression. Emergence of nanotechnology in medicine has shown exciting prospect for development of novel drug delivery systems to administer the desired therapeutic levels of ARV drugs in the CNS. Neuron-resuscitating and/or antidependence agents may also be delivered in the brain through nanocarriers to countercheck the rate of neuronal degradation during HIV infection. Several nanovehicles such as liposomes, dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, and solid lipid nanoparticles have been intensively explored. Recently, magnetic nanoparticles and monocytes/macrophages have also been used as carrier to improve the delivery of nanoformulated ARV drugs across the blood-brain barrier. Nevertheless, more rigorous research homework has to be elucidated to sort out the shortcomings that affect the target specificity, delivery, release, and/or bioavailability of desired amount of drugs for treatment of neuroAIDS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Mittal M.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries | Year: 2014

Explosion characteristics of micron- and nano-size magnesium powders were determined using CSIR-CBRI 20-L Sphere, Hartmann apparatus and Godbert-Greenwald furnace to study influence of particle size reduction to nano-range on these. The explosion parameters investigated are: maximum explosion pressure (Pmax), maximum rate of pressure-rise (dP/dt)max, dust explosibility index (KSt), minimum explosible concentration (MEC), minimum ignition energy (MIE), minimum ignition temperature (MIT), limiting oxygen concentration (LOC) and effect of reduced oxygen level on explosion severity. Magnesium particle sizes are: 125, 74, 38, 22, 10 and 1 μm; and 400, 200, 150, 100, 50 and 30 nm. Experimental results indicate significant increase in explosion severity (Pmax: 7-14 bar, KSt: 98-510 bar·m/s) as particle size decreases from 125 to 1 μm, it is maximum for 400 nm (Pmax: 14.6 bar, KSt: 528 bar·m/s) and decreases with further decrease of particle size to nano-range 200-30 nm (Pmax: 12.4-9.4 bar, KSt: 460-262 bar·m/s) as it is affected by agglomeration of nano-particles. MEC decreases from 160 to 30 g/m3 on decreasing particle size from 125 to 1 μm, its value is 30 g/m3 for 400 and 200 nm and 20 g/m3 for further decrease in nano-range (150-30 nm). MIE reduces from 120 to 2 mJ on decreasing the particle size from 125 to 1 μm, its value is 1 mJ for 400, 200, 150 nm size and <1 mJ for 50 and 30 nm. Minimum ignition temperature is 600 °C for 125 μm magnesium, it varies between 570 and 450 °C for sizes 38-1 μm and 400-350 °C for size range 400-30 nm. Magnesium powders in nano-range (30-200 nm) explode less violently than micron-range powder. However, likelihood of explosion increases significantly for nano-range magnesium. LOC is 5% for magnesium size range 125-38 μm, 4% for 22-1 μm, 3% for 400 nm, 4% for 200, 150 and 100 nm, and 5% for 50 and 30 nm. Reduction in oxygen levels to 9% results in decrease in Pmax and KSt by a factor of 2-3 and 4-5, respectively, for micron as well as nano-sizes. The experimental data presented will be useful for industries producing or handling similar size range micron- and nano-magnesium in order to evaluate explosibility of their magnesium powders and propose/design adequate safety measures. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Bharati K.A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Kumar M.,Sahu Jain Post Graduate College
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2014

The herbal healers are descendants of ancient medicine men. They sell raw herbal drugs used against various common ailments at road side. A total of 22 herbal raw samples were purchased from these healers. The information on therapeutic properties, price, dosage and duration of treatment has been documented. Out of them, 13 plant species have been identified and their medicinal properties were compared with the Indian Materia Medica. It has been observed that medicinal systems of the herbal healers are independent (only 22.22% similarities) from Indian Materia Medica.


Among key potential drug target proteolytic systems in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are falcipains, a family of hemoglobin-degrading cysteine proteases, and the ubiquitin proteasomal system (UPS), which has fundamental importance in cellular protein turnover. Inhibition of falcipains blocks parasite development, primarily due to inhibition of hemoglobin degradation that serves as a source of amino acids for parasite growth. Falcipains prefer P2 leucine in substrates and peptides, and their peptidyl inhibitors with leucine at the P2 position show potent antimalarial activity. The peptidyl inhibitor MG132 (Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-CHO) is a widely used proteasome inhibitor, which also has P2 leucine, and has also been shown to inhibit parasite development. However, the antimalarial targets of MG132 are unclear. We investigated whether MG132 blocks malaria parasite development by inhibiting hemoglobin degradation and/or by targeting the UPS. P. falciparum was cultured with inhibitors of the UPS (MG132, epoxomicin, and lactacystin) or falcipains (E64), and parasites were assessed for morphologies, extent of hemoglobin degradation, and accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins. MG132, like E64 and unlike epoxomicin or lactacystin, blocked parasite development, with enlargement of the food vacuole and accumulation of undegraded hemoglobin, indicating inhibition of hemoglobin degradation by MG132, most likely due to inhibition of hemoglobin-degrading falcipain cysteine proteases. Parasites cultured with epoxomicin or MG132 accumulated ubiquitinated proteins to a significantly greater extent than untreated or E64-treated parasites, indicating that MG132 inhibits the parasite UPS as well. Consistent with these findings, MG132 inhibited both cysteine protease and UPS activities present in soluble parasite extracts, and it strongly inhibited recombinant falcipains. MG132 was highly selective for inhibition of P. falciparum (IC50 0.0476 μM) compared to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (IC50 10.8 μM). Thus, MG132 inhibits two distinct proteolytic systems in P. falciparum, and it may serve as a lead molecule for development of dual-target inhibitors of malaria parasites.


Hamid A.A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Current medicinal chemistry | Year: 2014

Malaria is one of the deadliest diseases on the planet affecting about 50% of the population worldwide. It is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Plasmodium falciparum, a tiny parasite is the major cause of malaria and is possibly the most dangerous stow-away in history. Malaria has become a major economic concern to some of the tropical and sub-tropical countries. Though a number of antimalarials have been developed from plants as such or their semi-synthetic analogues, there is again an alarming situation of drug resistance against most of the antimalarial drugs. Plants have been an excellent source of antimalarial compounds. There are several plant leads exhibiting antimalarial activity better than the existing drugs. A systematic evaluation of these plant based leads is the need of the time to develop safe, effective and affordable new antimalarials. The present review is an update of plant based antimalarial agents.


Lal J.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Contraception | Year: 2010

This article provides a brief review of the information available regarding the published pharmacokinetics data for the nonsteroidal, once-a-week oral contraceptive, centchroman (INN: ormeloxifene). This agent is a unique need-oriented contraceptive agent which is included in the National Family Welfare Programme of India. Since 1991, centchroman has been used as a need-oriented contraceptive and is being given for treating dysfunctional bleeding of the uterus. Information regarding absorption, tissue distribution, elimination and kinetic interactions is discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Sharma A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Gene | Year: 2014

Experimental evidence supports a role of mobile small non-coding RNAs in mediating soma to germline hereditary information transfer in epigenetic inheritance in plants and worms. Similar evidence in mammals has not been reported so far. In this bioinformatic analysis, differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) or mRNAs reported previously in genome level expression profiling studies related to or relevant in epigenetic inheritance in mammals were examined for circulating miRNA association. The reported sets of differentially expressed miRNAs or miRNAs that are known to target the reported sets of differentially expressed genes, in that order, showed enrichment of circulating miRNAs across environmental factors, tissues, life cycle stages, generations, genders and species. Circulating miRNAs commonly representing the expression profiles enriched various epigenetic processes. These results provide bioinformatic evidence for a role of circulating miRNAs in epigenetic inheritance in mammals. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Jha N.S.,Indian Institute of Science | Mishra S.,Indian Institute of Science | Jha S.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Surolia A.,Indian Institute of Science
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2015

Here, we report studies on the antioxidant activity and redox behavior of curcumin and its structurally modified synthetic analogues. We have synthesized a number of analogues of curcumin which abrogate its keto-enol tautomerism or substitute the methylene group at the centre of its heptadione moiety implicated in the hydride transfer and studied their redox property. From cyclic voltammetric studies, it is demonstrated that H- atom transfer from CH2 group at the center of the heptadione link also plays an important role in the antioxidant properties of curcumin along with that of its phenolic -OH group. In addition, we also show that the conversion of 1, 3- dicarbonyl moiety of curcumin to an isosteric heterocycle as in pyrazole curcumin, which decreases its rotational freedom, leads to an improvement of its redox properties as well as its antioxidant activity. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Rajkumar,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
European Journal of Physics | Year: 2015

Interferometry is an important part of optics courses taught at the undergraduate level in universities throughout the world. It is used to explain to students the wave nature of light and is also used to measure parameters like length, refractive index, thickness of test samples and wavelength of light source, etc. The shape of interference fringes (linear, conic or circular) gives vital information about the interfering wavefronts and is used for firsthand visual inspection in optical shop testing and other applications of scientific and engineering importance. The present work describes a simple laboratory technique to generate fringes with different shapes in a single interferogram. This is achieved by using our diffraction-Lloyd mirror interferometer where two portions of the diffracted field are superimposed to generate the interference fringes. The technique is quite helpful in explaining the role of source orientation on the shape of interference fringes to students. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Adlakha Y.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Cell death & disease | Year: 2013

Aberrant regulation of cholesterol homeostasis is associated with obesity as well as multiple types of cancer. However, the mechanism behind these is largely missing. Here, we show that microRNA (miRNA)-128-2 is not only a pro-apoptotic microRNA but it also alters the expression of genes involved in cellular cholesterol homeostasis. Cholesterol efflux via ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABCA1 and ABCG1) is a mechanism for cells to eliminate excess cholesterol and prevent cellular cholesterol accumulation. The regulation of these pathways is complex with transcriptional regulation by sterol-regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) and liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor (RXR) transcription factors but poorly understood at the post-transcriptional levels. MiR-128-2 increases the expression of SREBP2 and decreases the expression of SREBP1 in HepG2, MCF7 and HEK293T cells independent of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) status. MiR-128-2 inhibits the expression of ABCA1, ABCG1 and RXRα directly through a miR-128-2-binding site within their respective 3'untranslated regions. The administration of miR-128-2 leads to decline in the protein and mRNA levels of ABCA1, ABCG1 and RXRα. Conversely, anti-miRNA treatment leads to increased ABCA1, ABCG1 and RXRα expression. The inverse correlation between miR-128-2 and its targets viz. ABCA1 and ABCG1 was also established during high-fat diet in different mice tissues. Our data show that cholesterol efflux is attenuated by miR-128-2 overexpression and, conversely, stimulated by miR-128-2 silencing. Further, we also observed the induction of ER stress response by miR-128-2. In this study, we provide the first evidence of miR-128-2 to be a new regulator of cholesterol homeostasis. Our study shows dual role of miR-128-2, as a pro-apoptotic molecule as well as a regulator of cholesterol homeostasis.


Deb G.,University Hospitals Case Medical Center | Deb G.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati | Singh A.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Gupta S.,University Hospitals Case Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Cancer Research | Year: 2014

Seminal discoveries have established that epigenetic modifications are important for driving tumor progression. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are highly conserved epigenetic effectors that maintain, by posttranslational modification of histones, the silenced state of genes involved in critical biologic processes, including cellular development, stem cell plasticity, and tumor progression. PcG proteins are found in two multimeric protein complexes called Polycomb repressive complexes: PRC1 and PRC2. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), catalytic core subunit of PRC2, epigenetically silences several tumor-suppressor genes by catalyzing the trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27, which serves as a docking site for DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylases. Evidence suggests that overexpression of EZH2 is strongly associated with cancer progression and poor outcome in disparate cancers, including hematologic and epithelial malignancies. The regulatory circuit and molecular cues causing EZH2 deregulation vary in different cancer types. Therefore, this review provides a comprehensive overview on the oncogenic role of EZH2 during tumorigenesis and highlights the multifaceted role of EZH2, as either a transcriptional activator or repressor depending on the cellular context. Additional insight is provided on the recent understanding of the causes and consequences of EZH2 overexpression in specific cancer types. Finally, evidence is discussed on how EZH2 has emerged as a promising target in anticancer therapy and the prospects for targeting EZH2 without affecting global methylation status. Thus, a better understanding of the complex epigenetic regulatory network controlling EZH2 expression and target genes facilitates the design of novel therapeutic interventions. © 2014 American Association for Cancer Research.


Sasmal S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Nath D.,Vellore Institute of Technology
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics | Year: 2016

Beam-column sub-assemblages are the one of the most vulnerable structural elements to the seismic loading and may lead to devastating consequences. In order to improve the performance of the poorly/under-designed building structures to the critical loading scenarios, introduction of steel bracing at the RC beam-column joint is found to be one of the modern and implementable techniques. In the present work, a diagonal metallic single haunch/bracing system is introduced at the beam-column joints to provide an alternate load path and to protect the joint zone from extensive damage because of brittle shear failure. In this paper, an investigation is reported on the evaluation of tae influence of different parameters, such as angle of inclination, location of bracing and axial stiffness of the single steel bracing on improving the performance through altering the force transfer mechanism. Numerical investigations on the performance of the beam-column sub-assemblages have been carried out under cyclic loading using non-linear finite element analysis. Experimentally validated numerical models (both GLD and upgraded specimen) have been further used for evaluating the performance of various upgrade schemes. Cyclic behaviour of reinforcement, concrete modelling based on fracture energy, bond-slip relations between concrete and steel reinforcement have been incorporated. The study also includes the numerical investigation of crack and failure patterns, ultimate load carrying capacity, load displacement hysteresis, energy dissipation and ductility. The findings of the present study would be helpful to the engineers to develop suitable, feasible and efficient upgrade schemes for poorly designed structures under seismic loading. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Pandey A.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Structural Engineering and Mechanics | Year: 2010

There is world wide concern for safety of nuclear power installations after the terrorist attack on World Trade Center in 2001 and several other civilian structures in the last decade. The nuclear containment structure in many countries is a double shell structure (outer shell a RCC and inner a prestressed concrete). The outer reinforced concrete shell protects the inner shell and is designed for external loading like impact and blast. A comparative study of non-linear response of reinforced concrete nuclear containment cylindrical shell subjected to impact of an aircraft (Phantom) and explosion of different amounts of blast charges have been presented here. A material model which takes into account the strain rate sensitivity in dynamic loading situations, plastic and visco-plastic behavior in three dimensional stress state and cracking in tension has been developed earlier and implemented into a finite element code which has been validated with published literature. The analysis has been made using the developed software. Significant conclusions have been drawn for dissimilarity in response (deflections, stresses, cracks etc.) of the shell for impact and blast loading.


Venkateshwarlu M.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Chalapathi Rao N.V.,Banaras Hindu University
Precambrian Research | Year: 2013

New palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic results are reported for 1.1Ga Mesoproterozoic kimberlites from the distinct fields of Wajrakarur (WKF), Narayanpet (NKF) and Raichur (RKF) occurring within the Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India. In all, 35 oriented block samples were collected from ten kimberlite pipes and our results constitute first of their kind for the kimberlites from NKF and RKF. Palaeomagnetic data reveal that characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) directions of the studied kimberlites show a mean declination of 39 and mean inclination of -16 (N=4, k=37.6 and α95=15.2) and yield a virtual geomagnetic pole at 44.5°N, 195.4°E (dp=8.0, dm=15.6). This new pole position is identical to the earlier reported palaeomagnetic pole that lies at 36.8°N, 212.5°E for some Wajrakarur kimberlites and other such global results at 1100Ma from Umkondo dolerites, Kalahari craton, southern Africa. The newly obtained palaeomagnetic pole also correlates well with the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) generated from the 1.1Ga Majhgawan kimberlite, Mahoba dyke and the Bhander-Rewa sedimentary Group in the Upper Vindhyan sequence within the Bundelkhand craton of Northern India. Our results support a Mesoproterozoic closure age of the upper sedimentary horizons for the 'Purana' sedimentary basins and provide evidence for accretion of the northern and southern Indian cratonic blocks prior to 1.1Ga. Our study also demonstrates that in ~1.1Ga palaeomagnetically based Rodinia reconstructions, India occupies a lower palaeolatitudinal position, was much separated from Australia and that East Gondwana very likely did not form an assembly until the terminal Neoproterozoic. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..


Pandey A.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Computers and Concrete | Year: 2013

Computation of flexural ductility of reinforced concrete beam sections has been proposed by taking into account strain rate sensitive constitutive behavior of concrete and steel, confinement of core concrete and degradation of cover concrete during load reversal under earthquake loading. The estimate of flexural ductility of reinforced concrete rectangular sections has been made for a wide range of tension and compression steel ratios for confined and unconfined concrete at a strain rate varying from 3.3 × 10-5 to 1.0/sec encountered during normal and earthquake loading. The parametric studies indicated that flexural ductility factor decreases at increasing strain rates. Percentage decrease is more for a richer mix concrete with the similar reinforcement. The confinement effect has marked influence on flexural ductility and increase in ductility is more than twice for confined concrete (0.6 percent volumetric ratio of transverse steel) compared to unconfined concrete. The provisions in various codes for achieving ductility in moment resisting frames have been discussed. © 2013 Techno-Press, Ltd.


Shukla R.K.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research | Kumar A.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research | Gurbani D.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research | Pandey A.K.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research | And 2 more authors.
Nanotoxicology | Year: 2013

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), widely used in consumer products, paints, pharmaceutical preparations and so on, have been shown to induce cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenic responses in vitro and in vivo. The present study revealed that TiO2 NPs induce significant (p < 0.05) oxidative DNA damage by the Fpg-Comet assay even at 1 g/ml concentration. A corresponding increase in the micronucleus frequency was also observed. This could be attributed to the reduced glutathione levels with concomitant increase in lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species generation. Furthermore, immunoblot analysis revealed an increased expression of p53, BAX, Cyto-c, Apaf-1, caspase-9 and caspase-3 and decreased the level of Bcl-2 thereby indicating that apoptosis induced by TiO2 NPs occurs via the caspase-dependent pathway. This study systematically shows that TiO2 NPs induce DNA damage and cause apoptosis in HepG2 cells even at very low concentrations. Hence the use of such nanoparticles should be carefully monitored. © Informa UK, Ltd. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd.


Kumar B.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
International Journal of Pavement Engineering | Year: 2013

The work reported in this paper is based on a laboratory study carried out to investigate the feasibility of using copper slag, a by-product of copper refineries, as a partial replacement of sand in the preparation of pavement quality concrete (PQC) and dry lean concrete (DLC) mixes. A control mix for PQC was prepared with 400 kg/m3 of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and water-cement (w-c) ratio of 0.40. Other concrete mixtures were then prepared by substituting 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% copper slag in control mix. Workability and bleeding of green concrete, compressive strength, flexural strength at 7 and 28 days, drying shrinkage and abrasion resistance were measured for all the concrete mixtures. DLC mixtures were designed with 150 kg/m3 of OPC and different blends of stone dust with 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% copper slag as fine aggregate. DLC mixes were then prepared with different water contents with a view to find out the optimum water content for achieving maximum density, and corresponding compressive strength at 7 and 28 days for each blend of stone dust and copper slag. The laboratory test results showed that the compressive strength of PQC 7 and 28 days was not affected by inclusion of any content of copper slag as fine aggregate in the concrete mixture. Small gradual increase in flexural strength at 28 days was observed with an increase in copper slag content. Drying shrinkage of PQC decreased with the increase in slag and the decrease in stone dust content. Abrasion resistance of concrete mixes containing slag was observed to be less as compared with that of non-slag concrete. Compressive strength of DLC decreased with the increase in copper slag content beyond 40%. Keeping in view the strength and other important requirement of PQC such as cohesiveness, segregation, finishing, texturing, shrinkage and abrasion resistance, it was concluded that a blend of stone dust with copper slag content up to 40% could be used as fine aggregate for PQC as well as DLC. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Bansal A.R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Ogata Y.,The Institute of Statistical Mathematics of Tokyo | Ogata Y.,University of Tokyo
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth | Year: 2013

We study temporal changes in seismicity in Sumatra-Andaman Islands region before the M 9.1 earthquake of December 26, 2004. We applied the epidemic type aftershock sequence (ETAS) models to the seismicity. The two-stage non-stationary ETAS model with a single change-point provides a better statistical fit to the seismicity data than the stationary ETAS model throughout the whole period. We made further change-point analysis of data sets by dividing into two sub-regions. The best fitted models suggest that the seismic activation relative to the ETAS rates started in the middle of July 2000 (about 4.5 years before the M 9.1 earthquake). This includes an increase in the background seismicity rates, particularly in the southern part of the seismogenic zone near the epicenter. A space-time ETAS model also suggests that the background seismicity throughout the entire Sumatra-Andaman Islands area had increased after the change-point time. © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Sunder Raju P.V.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of the Geological Society of India | Year: 2013

The anorthosite complexes and related rock types of the Indian Precambrian shield are primarily associated with either cratons or mobile belts. They were metamorphosed under amphibolites to granulite facies conditions. The major rock types are chromite-bearing meta-anorthosites, amphibolites, basic granulites, pink granites and gneisses. This study was carried out on chromitite bearing samples from Sittampundi layered anorthosite complex, Tamil Nadu, to evaluate the textural and compositional relationships of rutile and chromite. The pristine composition of the chromites is still preserved inspite of intense metamorphic and tectonic process. The rutiles are differentiated into isolated, clustered and exsolved rutile grains. © 2013 Geological Society of India.


Vijaya Rao V.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Krishna V.G.,Fashions Apts.
Tectonophysics | Year: 2013

Deep seismic reflection images across the late Mesoproterozoic South Delhi Fold Belt (SDFB), NW India, provide evidence for crustal-scale tectonic imbrication and collisional tectonism. An Andean-type margin with eastward subduction of oceanic lithosphere and subsequent collision of volcanic arc with Mewar craton is responsible for the evolution of the SDFB. Contrasting geophysical (particularly the deep seismic and gravity models) and geological signatures found across the SDFB suggest this as a suture, the Phulad Suture Zone (PSZ) with its extension into the Himalaya. Post-collisional delamination and orogenic collapse are responsible for the equilibrated younger Moho and evolution of Malani magmatism in the region. The present study envisages an evolutionary model for the Malani volcanics, unambiguously identifying for the first time the SDFB rocks as their basement. This model successfully resolves the ambiguity by correlating the Marwar Terrain with the Rodinia assembly rather than later Pan-African orogeny located further west. Evolution of the SDFB and Malani magmatism are coeval with the Rodinia assembly and breakup. The South Delhi orogeny, located between the east- and the west-Gondwana fragments, plays an important role for reconstruction of the Gondwana. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Balaram V.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2016

Elemental impurities have been regulated in pharmaceutical products for many decades. Metal impurities such as As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg, V and Pt in pharmaceuticals and drugs are known to originate from sources like raw materials, catalysts, metal reagents and even manufacturing equipments. An account of the recent changes implemented by the European Pharmacopoeia (EP), the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) and other International regulatory bodies for constraining inorganic impurities in pharmaceutical and drug products coupled with new strategies to be adopted for heavy metal analyses is presented. Rapid methods of screening during quality control operations, and a brief account of classical spectrophotometry and the role of instrumental techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the accurate determination of inorganic impurities in pharmaceutical materials are presented. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Seismogenesis of aftershocks occurring in the Kachchh seismic zone for more than last 10 years is investigated through modeling of fractal dimensions, b-value, seismic velocities, stress inversion, and Coulomb failure stresses, using aftershock data of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake. Three-dimensional mapping of b-values, fractal dimensions, and seismic velocities clearly delineate an area of high b-, D-, and Vp/Vs ratio values at 15-35 km depth below the main rupture zone (MRZ) of the 2001 mainshock, which is attributed to higher material heterogeneities in the vicinity of the MRZ or deep fluid enrichment due to the release of aqueous fluid/volatile CO2 from the eclogitisation of the olivine-rich lower crustal rocks. We notice that several aftershocks are occurred near the contacts between high (mafic brittle rocks) and low velocity regions while many of the aftershocks including the 2001 Bhuj mainshock are occurred in the zones of low velocity (low dVp, low dVs and large Vp/Vs) in the 15-35 km depth range, which are inferred to be the fractured rock matrixes filled with aqueous fluid or volatiles containing CO2. Further support for this model comes from the presence of hydrous eclogitic layer at sub-lithospheric depths (34-42 km). The depth-wise stress inversions using the P- and T-axes data of the focal mechanisms reveal an increase in heterogeneity (i. e., misfit) with an almost N-S σ1 orientation up to 30 km depth. Then, the misfit decreases to a minimum value in the 30-40 km depth range, where a 60o rotation in the σ1 orientation is also noticed that can be explained in terms of the fluid enrichment in that particular layer. The modeling of Coulomb failure stress changes (ΔCFS) considering three tectonic faults [i. e., NWF, GF, and Allah bund fault (ABF)] and the slip distribution of the 2001 mainshock on NWF could successfully explain the occurrences of moderate size events (during 2006-2008) in terms of increase in positive ΔCFS on GF and ABF. In a nutshell, we propose that the fluid-filled mafic intrusives are acting as stress accentuators below the Kachchh seismic zone, which generate crustal earthquakes while the uninterrupted occurrence of aftershocks is triggered by stress transfer and aqueous fluid or volatile CO2 flow mechanisms. Further, our results on the 3-D crustal seismic velocity structure, focal mechanisms, and b-value mapping will form key inputs for understanding wave propagation and earthquake hazard-related risk associated with the Kachchh basin. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Bafana A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
BioMetals | Year: 2011

Mercuric reductase (MerA) enzyme plays an important role in biogeochemical cycling and detoxification of Hg and recently, has also been shown to be useful in clean up of Hg-contaminated effluents. Present study describes isolation of a heavy metalresistant isolate of Sporosarcina, which could tolerate up to 40, 525, 210, 2900 and 370 lMof Cd, Co, Zn, Cr and Hg respectively. It was found to reduce and detoxify redox-active metals like Cr and Hg. The chromate reductase and MerA activities in the crude cell extract of the culture were 1.5 and 0.044 units/mg protein respectively. The study also describes designing of a new set of highly degenerate primers based on a dataset of 23 Firmicute merA genes. As the primers encompass the known diversity of merA genes within the phylum Firmicutes, they can be very useful for functional diversity analysis. They were successfully used to amplify a 787 bp merA fragment from the current isolate. A 1174 bp merA fragment was further cloned by designing an additional downstream primer. It was found to show 92% similarity to the putative merA gene from Bacillus cereus AH820. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of mercury resistance and merA gene sequence from Sporosarcina. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2010.


Mitra A.,University of Calcutta | Ray A.,University of Calcutta | Datta R.,University of Calcutta | Sengupta S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Sarkar S.,University of Calcutta
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2014

Myocardial infarction (MI) is defined as cardiac cell death due to prolonged ischemia. Although necrotic cell death was considered to be solely responsible for myocyte death during MI, it was recently revealed that apoptosis also plays its part in this death process. Our laboratory has recently shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis is the predominant route for apoptosis during MI and the conventional mitochondrial pathway is bypassed by activation of a small heat shock protein α-crystallin B (CRYAB). Since CRYAB is a direct target of P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, we were prompted to check the role of P38 MAPK in 20-week-old male Wister rats immediately after infarct formation. Interestingly, parallel activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway with an increase in ER stress-induced apoptotic load was observed along with decreased activation of CRYAB and Nrf2 (a pro-survival protein activated in response to ER stress) in MI rats treated with SB203580, a specific inhibitor of P38α and P38β compared to the MI alone. As a cumulative effect, this inhibitor treatment also resulted in significant increase in the levels of caspase3 activity and TUNEL positivity, the end point apoptotic markers. Furthermore, SB203580-treated hypoxic adult cardiomyocytes showed formation of desmin aggregates which were previously associated with impaired cardiac function. Thus, this study shows for the first time the precise mechanism by which P38 MAPK plays a pro-survival role and confers protection of cardiomyocytes, during infarct formation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Rayasam G.V.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets | Year: 2014

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is still a leading cause of mortality in the developing world and there is an unmet clinical need for new drugs with novel mechanism of action. Targeting the complex and unique cell wall of TB-causing pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has been a mainstay of TB drug discovery. Though, the composition of the cell wall of Mtb is well understood, little is known about the assembly process of the cell wall such as the transport of mycolic acids across the cell wall. Areas covered: Recent research demonstrating MmpL3 protein as a transmembrane transporter of mycolic acids is discussed. In addition, MmpL3 has also been implicated in heme transport. Research describing several diverse chemical inhibitors that inhibit MmpL3 is reviewed. Expert opinion: Evidence so far suggests MmpL3 is a transporter of mycolic acids. It has emerged as a novel therapeutic target for Mtb that is essential and for which several small molecule inhibitors have been identified. Identifying the interacting partners, understanding the substrate specificity and the mechanism of transport by MmpL3 are some of the gaps in knowledge that need to be addressed. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.


Chhabra R.,Panjab University | Saini N.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Tumor Biology | Year: 2014

The presence of stem-like cells in cancer, popularly known as cancer stem cells, have been known for a long time but it was the research of Bonnet and Dick in leukemia which got cancer researchers interested in them. Over the past few years, a lot of research has gone into the characterization of cancer stem cells (CSCs) from different tumors. CSCs have been elucidated in almost all solid tumors. The growth of this field has not been without controversies as many researchers considered CSCs to be a transient population of little consequence. The field has nevertheless progressed providing us not only a better understanding of cancer and its related facets like proliferation, EMT, and metastasis but also generating a hope for new generation therapeutics with CSCs as their targets. This search for drugs which target CSCs has also focused on miRNAs. miRNAs are small non-coding regulatory RNA molecules capable of fine-tuning the gene expression. The miRNA profile of CSCs is remarkably different from non-stem cancer cells and many miRNAs have also been shown to regulate self-renewal and differentiation properties of CSCs. The differential miRNA profile in CSCs make them probable biomarkers for the prognosis of cancer and their specificity in targeting the properties of CSCs make them potential targets for therapeutic intervention. This review critically analyzes the advancement of the miRNA research in CSC context and also explores the prospect of miRNA therapies against CSCs. © 2014, International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM).


Lee K.-M.,National Central University | Chiu W.-H.,National Central University | Suryanarayanan V.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Wu C.-G.,National Central University
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2013

The present study focuses on enhancing the efficiency of bifacial and back-illuminated dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) by incorporating SiO 2 mesoporous layer on TiO2 electrode. The performance of DSCs is investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy, incident photon conversion efficiency (IPCE) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It is observed that the current ratio of back- to front-DSC increases with the increase in the thickness of SiO2 layer, which in turn influences the incident light to dyed-TiO2 electrode, especially in the wavelength of 400-600 nm. The Ti foil based flexible small (0.28 cm2) and sub-module (5 cm × 10 cm) DSCs having this modification show high conversion efficiencies of 6.76 and 5.54% respectively under 100 mW cm -2 (AM 1.5). © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Kumar K.,New York University | Chopra S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2013

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains a leading cause of bacterial infections worldwide, with a dwindling repertoire of effective antimicrobials active against it. This review aims to provide an update on novel anti-MRSA molecules currently under pre-clinical and clinical development, with emphasis on their mechanism of action. This review is limited to molecules that target the pathogen directly and does not detail immunomodulatory anti-infectives. ©The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.


Singh H.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2016

Rigid polyurethane foam (RPUF) is typically prepared by the reaction of an isocyanate, such as methyl diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) with a polyol blend. During the polymerization reaction, a blowing agent expands the reacting mixture. The finished product is a solid, cellular polymer with a high thermal resistance. RPUF is an outstanding material for different applications. It has many desirable properties such as low thermal conductivity, low density, low water absorption, low moisture permeability, excellent dimensional stability, high strength to weight ratio. So, it is the best insulating material for industrial buildings, cold storages, telecom and defense shelters due to low thermal conductivity, low density, low moisture permeability and high porosity. It works to reduce heating and cooling loss, improving the efficiency of the building envelope. Thus, RPUF insulation in building envelopes brings additional benefits in energy savings, resulting in lower energy bills and protecting the environment by cutting CO2 emissions. © 2016 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Surinaidu L.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Hydrology Research | Year: 2016

Groundwater salinization is an ever increasing problem in coastal aquifers due to seawater intrusion resulting from excessive groundwater withdrawals, lithological conditions of the aquifer and industrial and agriculture pollutant loads. Identification of salinity sources is challenging and a prerequisite for the protection of coastal fresh water aquifers. The present aim of the study is to identify the salinity sources and to understand its dynamics in the central Godavari delta, Andhra Pradesh where groundwater is highly saline with total dissolved solids (TDS) of 5000 mg/L at shallow depths of <3 m bgl. Groundwater samples were collected from 42 representative observation wells in the area and analyzed for major ions and stable isotopes (δ18O). Different hydro-chemical mixing models and multivariate statistical techniques, including factor and cluster analysis, are applied to these data sets. The results revealed that very high salinity (25,000 mg/L) in pumping wells is due to up-coning of salt water and the salinity is palaeo in origin. The salinity in the wells along the drains and near the coast (10,000 mg/L) is due to the infiltration of marine waters resulting from backwaters and intrusion of seawater along the drains. The salinity (5000 mg/L) in the wells away from the coast is attributed to dissolution of evaporites in the groundwater and ion exchange process. © IWA Publishing 2016.


Subramanian B.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Materials Science and Engineering C | Year: 2015

The growth of multi-component thin film metallic glasses (TFMGs) of Ti40Cu36Pd14Zr10 (at.%) alloys fabricated using magnetron sputtering on bioimplantable 316L stainless steel substrates has been investigated. The vapor-solid quenching during sputtering enables the amorphous phases to be formed. The amorphous films consist of a single glassy phase, as evidenced by a broad hump and no detectable crystalline peaks as observed from XRD and selective area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns. The average surface roughness (Ra) of the coated film as observed from AFM was 0.3 nm. Nanohardness of about 7.7 GPa and Young's modulus of 110 GPa were measured from nanoindentation analysis. The potentiodynamic polarization and impedance measurements showed that coated stainless steel substrates have higher corrosion resistance compared to uncoated SS substrate in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. The cytotoxicity studies using L929 fibroblast cells showed that these coatings were non-cytotoxic in nature. The interactions between the coated surface and bacteria were investigated by agar diffusion method, solution suspension and wet interfacial contact methods. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Sekar R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing | Year: 2015

Copper is the presently favoured and future interconnect material in high-end microprocessors and memory devices because of its low electrical resistivity and higher electromigration than aluminium. The present investigation deals with the electrodeposition of nanocrystalline copper onto brass metallic foil from electrolytes containing copper sulphate (CuSO4·5H2O) as the source ofmetal ionand sulphuric acid (H2SO4). Benzotriazole (0.5 g L-1) and sodium lauryl sulphate (0.1 g L-1) were used as additives. The electrolyte was mechanically agitated and the temperature was maintained at 3°C±2°C. These additives have been found to be effective in reducing the grain size, grain boundaries and improving surface morphology of the copper films. They also improve the throwing power of the deposition electrolytes and hardness of deposits. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns obtained for the electrodeposited copper films showed polycrystalline cubic structure. Thecrystal size of the copper films was calculated by both XRD and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. A uniform and pore free surface morphology was observed under SEM, and AFM investigation revealed the grain refining brought about by the additives. © 2015 Institute of Materials Finishing.


Das P.,H+ Technology | Sharma D.,H+ Technology | Shil A.K.,H+ Technology | Kumari A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2011

Solid-supported nano and microparticles of Pd(0) (SS-Pd) were prepared and used as a heterogeneous catalysts for Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling reactions of aryl halides (chloro, bromo and iodo) and phenyl boronic acid under mild and ligand-free conditions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and UV-vis based studies were performed to observe the distribution of nano and microparticles of palladium over solid surface and their oxidation states. In addition, the catalyst could be reused up to seven runs without significant loss of activity and stable enough under moist conditions. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Gnanamuthu R.M.,Kyung Hee University | Mohan S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Lee C.W.,Kyung Hee University
Materials Letters | Year: 2012

A nanoscaled Sn-Cu alloy film material is intended to improve charge-discharge capacities with respect to the negative electrode in Li-ion batteries. Sn-Cu alloy film electrodes are prepared using sulfate electrolyte by a pulse current plating method. Pulse duty cycles of 10% at a frequency of 10 Hz with a peak current density 1 A dm -2 are employed. The electrochemical discharge-charge capacities of the lithium insertion process and the reversible charging process are 1058 mA h g -1 and 612 mA h g -1 in the initial cycling, respectively. Also, Coulombic efficiency was 87.2% at the end of the 30th cycle. Thus, nanoscaled Sn-Cu alloy film electrodes are good candidates for anode material in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Uniyal S.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2013

Taxus wallichiana Zucc. (Himalayan yew) represents one of the most threatened medicinal tree species of the Himalayan region. Heavy exploitation of its bark and leaves for taxol® has resulted in decline in its population. Generating quantitative information on Himalayan yew has therefore been stressed. The present paper provides information on the population and bark removal of Himalayan yew from one of the interior areas of Himalaya. Total count and quadrat method were deployed to generate quantitative information on its population while bark removal was estimated based on depth and extent of bark removed. After analyzing the existing information and the results of the study, a rapid vulnerability assessment (RVA) of the species was carried out. Taxus reported a density of 72 individuals/ha and was present as an under canopy of Picea smithiana. Complete stripping of bark was observed in 11 % of the Taxus population which amounted to ca. 18,152.86 cm3 of bark removed. The age class distribution showed complete absence of seedlings and saplings. RVA scores also reported higher values (26) thereby pointing toward the high vulnerability of this species. Across its entire distributional range, Taxus population is under severe pressure. It is high time when few patches of Taxus are demarcated as Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas, and detailed studies on its autecology are initiated. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Thirunakaran R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology | Year: 2014

LiMn2O4 and LiZnxPryMn 2-x-yO4 (x = 0.10-0.24; y = 0.01-0.10) powders have been synthesized by sol-gel method using palmitic acid as chelating agent. The synthesized samples have been subjected to thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The sol-gel route bestows low calcination temperature, shorter heating time, high purity, good control over stoichiometry, small particle size, high surface area, good surface morphology and better homogeneity, The XRD patterns reveal high degree of crystallinity and better phase purity. SEM and TEM images exhibit nano-sized nature particles with good agglomeration. EDAX peaks of Zn, Pr, Mn and O have been confirmed in actual compositions of LiMn2O 4 and LiZnxPryMn2-x-yO4. Charge-discharge studies of pristine spinel LiMn2O4 heated at 850 C delivers discharge capacity of 132 mA h g-1 corresponding to columbic efficiency of 73 % during the first cycle. At the end of 10th cycles, it delivers maximum discharge capacity of 112 mA h g-1 with columbic efficiency of 70 % and capacity fade of 0.15 mA h g-1 cycle-1 over the investigated 10 cycles. Inter alia, all dopants concentrations, LiZn0.10Pr0.10Mn1.80O 4 exhibits the better cycling performance (1st cycle discharge capacity: 130 mA h g-1 comparing to undoped spinel 132 mA h g -1) corresponding to columbic efficiency of 73 % with capacity fade of 0.12 mA h g-1 cycle-1. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Selvam M.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing | Year: 2010

An unconventional way of plating Ag by electroless means is by using the oxidation process of Co(II) to Co(III) in an ammonia complex to reduce the ionic Ag to metal. The present work deals with electroless Ag deposition on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic. Detailed studies on the effect of bath constituents, bath operating conditions and addition agents on the deposition rate, quality of the Ag deposit and crystalline nature of the deposit on ABS plastic discs were carried out and the results discussed. © 2010 Maney Publishing.


Tiwari R.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Rajesh R.,AcSIR NGRI
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2014

Multiple spectral and statistical analyses of a 700 yearlong temporal record of groundwater recharge from the dry lands, Badain Jaran Desert (Inner Mongolia) of Northwest China reveal a stationary harmonic cycle at ~200±20 year. Interestingly, the underlying periodicity in groundwater recharge fluctuations is similar to those of solar-induced climate cycle "Suess wiggles" and appears to be coherent with phases of the climate fluctuations and solar cycles. Matching periodicity of groundwater recharge rates and solar and climate cycles renders a strong impression that solar-induced climate signals may act as a critical amplifier for driving the underlying hydrographic cycle through the common coupling of long-term Sun-climate groundwater linkages. Key Points Long-period solar impact on groundwater recharge Reported the probable link between solar activity and groundwater fluctuations Account for the long-term groundwater fluctuation and recharge variability © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Maiti S.,Indian School of Mines | Tiwari R.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2014

Predictive modeling of hydrological time series is essential for groundwater resource development and management. Here, we examined the comparative merits and demerits of three modern soft computing techniques, namely, artificial neural networks (ANN) optimized by scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) (ANN.SCG), Bayesian neural networks (BNN) optimized by SCG (BNN.SCG) with evidence approximation and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) in the predictive modeling of groundwater level fluctuations. As a first step of our analysis, a sensitivity analysis was carried out using automatic relevance determination scheme to examine the relative influence of each of the hydro-meteorological attributes on groundwater level fluctuations. Secondly, the result of stability analysis was studied by perturbing the underlying data sets with different levels of correlated red noise. Finally, guided by the ensuing theoretical experiments, the above techniques were applied to model the groundwater level fluctuation time series of six wells from a hard rock area of Dindigul in Southern India. We used four standard quantitative statistical measures to compare the robustness of the different models. These measures are (1) root mean square error, (2) reduction of error, (3) index of agreement (IA), and (4) Pearson's correlation coefficient (R). Based on the above analyses, it is found that the ANFIS model performed better in modeling noise-free data than the BNN.SCG and ANN.SCG models. However, modeling of hydrological time series correlated with significant amount of red noise, the BNN.SCG models performed better than both the ANFIS and ANN.SCG models. Hence, appropriate care should be taken for selecting suitable methodology for modeling the complex and noisy hydrological time series. These results may be used to constrain the model of groundwater level fluctuations, which would in turn, facilitate the development and implementation of more effective sustainable groundwater management and planning strategies in semi-arid hard rock area of Dindigul, Southern India and alike. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Roy S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Chapman D.S.,University of Utah
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2012

Seventy-five borehole temperature-depth profiles in south India, located between 8 and 15N, are analyzed to infer past changes in surface ground temperature. Solutions for a linear surface temperature change indicate average warming of about 0.90.3C over the past 12725years at the 95% level of confidence for the entire data set, albeit with considerable geographic variability. Some sites in a restricted region exhibit surface ground temperature cooling during the last 50 to 100years while a number of other borehole sites show large surface warming amplitudes in the range 1-3C with onset times during the last few decades to less than a Century. Such rapid changes may represent effects of local land use changes superimposed on the long-term climate change. Results of borehole analysis do not support a latitude effect in climate change. A set of 28 meteorological surface air temperature (SAT) records, distributed in the three major climatic provinces (Interior Peninsula, West Coast and East Coast) in south India yield an average warming trend of 0.60.2C/100years over the period 1901-2006 for which records exist. Combined analysis of borehole temperatures and SAT data yields a long-term, pre-observational mean temperature (baseline) 0.60.1C lower than the 1961-1990 mean SAT. With an additional 0.35C of warming beyond the 1961-1990 mean, the total warming from the ∼1800 baseline is 0.95C. Given multiple uncertainties, we consider the 0.9C of warming from borehole temperature inversion and 0.95C of warming from the hybrid borehole temperature-SAT analysis to be consistent if significant warming occurred in the 19th Century, prior to the onset of SAT records. The present data set together with the set of 70 temperature profiles in India analyzed earlier constitute an extensive documentation of climatic warming for the low latitude region 0-20 N that was previously under-sampled in global geothermal climate change studies. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.


Lal R.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2015

Mucuna {Mucuna pruriens (L.)} is a climber plant belonging to the family 'Fabaceae', found as the wild/cultivated form in subtropical/tropical areas worldwide. The present experiment/study was carried out to determine the adaptability and stability among forty genetic stocks of velvet beans assembled from different places in India for high and stable seed yield by using AMMI analysis. Five high seed yielding and most stable genetic stocks, namely G-37, G-30, G-8, G-23 and G-18, were identified based on seed yield performance for commercial exploitation. The performance-wise mean data of seed yield indicated that one genotype G-37. =. 57.03 (ql/ha) was selected for stable and high seed yield. Based on the AMMI model, these five genotypes of Mucuna showed the widest adaptability and stability over the years. © 2014.


Singh R.K.,Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology | Sharma A.M.,Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology | Das B.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Optics Letters | Year: 2014

We report a new technique for the recovery of quantitative phase and amplitude information of an object hidden behind a scattering medium. Two-point intensity correlation measurement together with digital holography principles are utilized for this purpose. The holograminformation of the object and a reference beam is scrambled by the presence of a scattering medium in its path. A direct digital holographic recording of this scattered light does not lead to the reconstruction of actual object information. We propose the idea of recovering this hologram information from the spatially fluctuating field of a laser speckle pattern using the intensity correlation, and subsequently apply digital reconstruction of the hologram for recovery of quantitative phase and amplitude information of objects hidden by a random diffuser. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


Hokey D.A.,405 Research Boulevard | Misra A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Tuberculosis | Year: 2011

Pulmonary delivery of vaccines against airborne infection is being investigated worldwide, but there is limited effort directed at developing inhaled vaccines for tuberculosis (TB). This review addresses some of the challenges confronting vaccine development for TB and attempts to link these challenges to the promises of mucosal immunity offered by pulmonary delivery. There are several approaches working toward this goal including subunit vaccines, recombinant strains, a novel vaccine strain Mycobacterium w, and DNA vaccine approaches. While it is clear that lung-resident adaptive immunity is an attainable goal, vaccine platforms must ensure that damage to the lung is limited during both vaccination and when memory cells respond to pathogenic infection. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Upadhyay R.,S S L Jain PG College | Hasan A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2010

Yamuna river pollution has been extensively studied with regard to some selected parameters in five locations at Palla, Nizamuddin Midstream, Nizamuddin Quarter Stream, Agra Canal Midstream, and Agra Canal Quarter Stream in Delhi, India. Seasonal and location-wise variation of pollutants namely dissolve oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia (AMM), total coliform and fecal coliform were studied for 6 years during the period of 2000-2005. The study results revealed the lowest level of pollution during monsoon. The statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation between DO, BOD, COD, TKN, and AMM. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Cameotra S.S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2013

Native microorganisms in their original form cannot be patented. However, microbes like yeasts, bacteria, protozoa, unicellular algae, fungi, actinomycetes and viruses can be patented if they have been genetically modified. The process and the product obtained can also be patented. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Lal R.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2014

The investigation was carried out to determine the stability and adaptability among 40 genetic stocks of basil belonging to six Ocimum species assembled from India and abroad for high oil yield by using AMMI analysis. Some new specific chemotypes were identified: one each high oil content (1.00%), oil yield 92.43. g/plot with high citral 76.62% (geranial. = 46.59. +. neral 30.03. = 76.62%) chemotype G 26; an ever green, cold tolerant with spreading habit recombinant developed between Ocimum basilicum and O. kilimandscharicum - G 34; one high linalool content in oil G 39 and two high oil (1.2%), 105.92. g/plot, 0.95% oil content and 95.20. g/plot oil yield with methyl chavicol chemotypes - G 14 (methyl chavicol. = 55.00%), G 25 (methyl chavicol. = 89.75%). Based on the AMMI model, these chemotypes showed the widest adaptability and stability due to its ability to tolerate wide environmental conditions over years. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Shukla A.K.,Indian Institute of Science | Prem Kumar T.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment | Year: 2013

Manipulation of matter at the nanoscale is a way forward to move beyond our current choices in electrochemical energy storage and conversion technologies with promise of higher efficiency, environmental benignity, and cost-effectiveness. Electrochemical processes being basically surface phenomena, tailored multifunctional nanoarchitecturing can lead to improvements in terms of electronic and ionic conductivities, diffusion and mass transport, and electron transfer and electrocatalysis. The nanoscale is also a domain in which queer properties surface: those associated with conversion electrodes, ceramic particles enhancing the conductivity of polymer electrolytes, and transition metal oxide powders catalyzing fuel cell reactions, to cite a few. Although this review attempts to present a bird's eye view of the vast literature that has accumulated in this rather infant field, it also lists a few representative studies that establish the beneficial effects of going 'nano'. Investigations on nanostructuring and use of nanoparticles and nanoarchitectures related to lithium-ion batteries (active materials and electrolytes), supercapacitors (electrical double-layer capacitors, supercapacitors based on pseudo-capacitance, and hybrid supercapacitors), and fuel cells (electrocatalysts, membranes and hydrogen storage materials) are highlighted. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Demir-Cakan R.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Morcrette M.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Gangulibabu,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Gangulibabu,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2013

Although promising improvements have been made in the field of Li-S rechargeable batteries, they are still far from reaching the market place due to several drawbacks. To combat the solubility of polysulphides, confinement approaches aiming to trap sulphur within the cathode side have been pursued, but success has been limited. Herein, we drastically deviate from this approach and use a liquid cathode obtained either by dissolving polysulphides within the electrolyte or by placing sulphur powders in contact with the Li negative electrode. Such approaches are shown to result in greater performance than confinement approaches. Such a strategy eliminates the detrimental Li 2S formation inside a porous carbon matrix and moreover leads to the formation of a protective SEI layer at the Li electrode, as deduced by impedance spectroscopy and XPS, which seems beneficial to the cell cycling performance. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.


Mittal M.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries | Year: 2013

Investigation of explosion characteristics of coal dust was undertaken as a part of regular research program at CSIR-CBRI, Roorkee, India, for designing explosion safety measures for coal dust handling installations. This paper presents results of detailed experimental work on determination of Limiting Oxygen Concentration (LOC) and influence of reduced oxygen levels on explosion severity data for two types of coals with varying volatile matter as 27.18% (coal A) and 19.69% (coal B) from Jharia coalfield of India determined at ambient conditions with 20-L Spherical Vessel established at CSIR-CBRI. The effects of coal particle size and moisture content were evaluated. Data presented will be used for hazard analysis, designing explosion preventive measures, and explosion severity reduction by involving the use of inert gases for installations handling pulverized coal with similar nature. The importance of ignition source energy in determining LOC data is highlighted. The data collected lead to an extension of the current data for coal dusts as found in the literature. Limiting oxygen concentrations were found as 7% for coal A and 8% for coal B for the size representative to that used in pulverized coal boilers and moisture content ~4%. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Thiruvasagam P.,SASTRA University | Vijayan M.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of Polymer Research | Year: 2012

Two diimide-diacid monomers 4,4'-bis[4"-(trimellitimido)phenyl isopropylidene-4"'-phenoxy]diphenyl sulfone and 4,4'-bis[4"- (trimellitimido)phenylisopropylidene-4"'-phenoxy] were synthesized. The structures of the monomers were characterized by FT-IR and H-NMR spectroscopy. A series of novel poly(amide-imide)s were prepared from this two diacids and aromatic diamines through phosphorylation reaction. The PAIs were characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, XRD, TGA, and DSC, solution viscosity, solubility test and electrical properties. Poly(amide-imide)s showed excellent solubility due to the presence of flexible groups and isopropylidene unit in the polymer backbone. They also exhibited good thermal stability and the temperatures at which 10% weight loss occurred in the range 385-465 °C. These PAIs found to have a dielectric constant in the range 3.25-4.20 at 10 kHz and have excellent electrical insulation character and can be used as insulation materials for electrical items operating at elevated temperatures. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012.


Joshi R.K.,University of South Australia | Joshi R.K.,Okayama University | Alwarappan S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Yoshimura M.,Toyota Technological Institute | And 3 more authors.
Applied Materials Today | Year: 2015

A perfect molecular level separating unit for any kind of species to be filtered is on very high demand. In recent years, graphene oxide has emerged as an important material which can filter ions and molecules. This is an emerging field of research which has drawn extensive attention after the work by Nair et al. [1]. Following their work, various research groups started working in this area in last three years. Herein, we briefly review the recent development on graphene oxide membranes. This review is a summary of some very recent results and contributions made so far in this emerging research field. We have discussed recently developed mechanisms and models to understand the transport through GO based membranes. This review begins with a basic background on membrane technology followed by discussion related to developments of carbon materials based membrane technology. At the end we summarize advantages and disadvantages of membranes based on graphene oxide and discuss their future prospective. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Mandal P.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Synthesis (Germany) | Year: 2015

An efficient synthesis of the pentasaccharide repeating unit of the O-antigen of Escherichia coli O36 is reported. A stereoselective [2 + 3] block glycosylation method has been exploited to obtain the target pentasaccharide derivative using thioglycoside, trichloroacetimidate, and halide-exchange glycosylation procedures. The 2-azidoethyl group has been used as the anomeric protecting group to make the glycone moiety with a readily available linker for its conjugation to a protein without destroying the cyclic structure at the reducing end. Yields were high in all the intermediate steps. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart New York.


Panigrahy B.,Indian Institute of Science | Sarma D.D.,Indian Institute of Science | Sarma D.D.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
RSC Advances | Year: 2015

Inhibition of electron-hole pair recombination is the most desirable solution for stimulating photocatalytic activity in semiconductor nanostructures. To implement this, herein we study the photocatalytic efficiency of elemental Au, Pd and bimetallic AuPd nanoalloy decorated pristine and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) hybridized ZnO nanorods for degrading rhodamine 6G (R6G) dye. Fabrication of Au, Pd and AuPd nanoalloy on pristine and RGO modified ZnO nanorods is simple and more importantly surfactant or polymer free. AuPd nanoalloyed ZnO-RGO nanocomposites exhibit higher photocatalytic activity for degrading dye than both Au and Pd hybridized ones, indicating the promising potential of bimetallic nanoalloys over elemental components. A non-monotonic dependence on the composite composition was found by analyzing photodegradation efficiency of a series of ZnO-RGO-AuPd hybrid nanostructures with different weight percentages of RGO. The hybrid nanostructure ZnO-RGO (5 wt%)-AuPd (1 wt%) exhibits highest photodegradation efficiency (∼100% degradation in 20 min) with an improvement in rate constant (k) by a factor of 10 compared to that of the ZnO-RGO nanocomposite. The enhancement of the photocatalytic activity is attributed to the better separation of photogenerated charge carriers in photocatalysts thereby suggesting possible usefulness in a broad range of applications, such as sensing, photocatalysis and solar energy conversion. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.


Karade S.R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2016

The growing environmental concern throughout the globe has led architects &engineers to design energy efficient buildings. Consequently, they are looking for building materials that can reduce the energy consumption in buildings to maintain the comfort level. Use of proper thermal insulating materials can reduce the energy required for heating or cooling of the buildings. Presently mineral wool and various foams are used for this purpose. Efforts are being made to use wastes in making thermal insulation materials so that the impact on environment can be further reduced. Cork granules are obtained as waste from the cork processing industries that make 'bottle stoppers' as a main product. These granules have a low density and could be used as lightweight aggregates for making concrete with low thermal conductivity. This article describes the physico-mechanical properties of lightweight cementitious composites made using cork granules. Further, environmental benefits of their application in thermal insulation of buildings has been discussed. © (2016) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Khokhani M.,Nirma University | Khomane R.B.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Kulkarni B.D.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory
Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Nano squares of sodium-doped lithium zirconate have been synthesized by a simple citrate based sol-gel method at room temperature in the presence of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a surfactant. The structural and morphological properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) respectively. XRD analysis of sample calcined at 900°C for 4 h shows the formation of monoclinic lithium zirconate phase. The TEM shows the interesting morphology of formation of nano squares of sodium doped lithium zirconate sample. The carbon dioxide sorption capacity was carried out by TGA analysis at different high temperatures. It is observed that the sample shows ~20 wt% carbon dioxide sorption at higher temperature (650°C) within 20 min which are better than the known reports. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Balamurugan J.,Anna University | Thangamuthu R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Pandurangan A.,Anna University
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2013

High quality MWCNT material based counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using a novel route and their power-conversion efficiency was studied. Transition metals such as Fe, Ni, V, Mn, Cr, Mo, Ru and Pd loaded on Co-SBA-15 molecular sieves were synthesized and tested for the formation of MWCNTs at different temperatures (700-1000 °C) using a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method. This result showed that Fe/Co-SBA-15 and Ru/Co-SBA-15 systems are highly suitable sources as catalysts for the growth of MWCNTs compared to other bimetallic systems. TEM and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the synthesized MWCNTs were of high quality and well-graphitized. The MWCNTs were applied to the counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Cyclic voltammetry measurements proved that the catalytic activity of the MWCNT coated electrode towards I3 - reduction was significantly higher than that of the Pt coated electrode. Electrochemical impedance measurement of the symmetric cell revealed that the charge transfer resistance of the MWCNT coated electrode was less than that of the Pt coated electrode. Due to the low charge transfer resistance of the synthesized MWCNTs, the DSSCs with MWCNTs as counter electrode gave better photoelectric performance compared to DSSCs equipped with a conventional Pt counter electrode. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.


Manzoor D.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Pal S.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Krishnamurty S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2013

Conformation and electronic charge on a gold cluster are known to determine its catalytic property. However, little is known on the finite temperature behavior of various gold cluster conformations. Much less is known on the role of charge or a ligand in stabilizing a conformation at finite temperatures. In this work, we have carried out relativistic density functional theory (DFT) based molecular dynamical simulations on neutral and charged Au6 clusters with an aim of understanding the stability of ground state conformations as a function of charge on the cluster. Our simulations reveal that cationic and anionic Au6 clusters undergo conformational transitions at 500 K where as neutral Au6 cluster retains its ground state conformation up to a temperature of 1100 K. In order to look into the factors leading to the stabilization of neutral Au6 cluster (or destabilization of cationic and anionic Au6 clusters), structural and electronic properties are analyzed. Factors such as charge redistribution within the atoms and composition of molecular orbitals are seen to contribute towards stronger Au-Au bonds in Au60 thereby stabilizing it considerably. Following the analysis, simulations are also extended to neutral, cationic, and anionic Au6-COn (n = 1,2) complexes. In the case of CO chemisorbed Au6 clusters, neutral and negatively charged ground state conformations are stable up to nearly 800 K, while the positively charged Au6 ground state conformation collapses at room temperature. This work, in short demonstrates how charge or even a ligand can be used to moderate the physical properties of a gold cluster. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Gogoi S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Synlett | Year: 2010

(A) Boruah and co-workers3 reported an efficient synthesis of indolizines in excellent yields via a microwave-mediated, one-pot, three-component reaction of 2-bromoacetophenone, pyridine, and acetylene, catalyzed by basic Al2O3. (Image Presented) (B) Yadav et al. reported vic-diallylation and dipropargylation of 2- bromoacetophenone with allyl and propargyl indium reagents, generated in situ from metallic indium and allyl or propargyl bromide to produce 4-aryl-octa-1,7-dien-4-ol derivatives in good yields.4 (Image Presented) (C) Das et al.5 developed a convenient method for the rapid and high-yielding synthesis of thiazoles and amino thiazoles by treatment of 2-bromoacetophenone with thioamides or thiourea in the presence of ammonium-12- molybdophosphate (AMP) at room temperature. (Image Presented) (D) An efficient synthetic procedure for fused 2,3-dihydrofuran derivatives was developed by Chao-Guo Yan and co-workers 6 with the assistance of pyridinium ylide. A sequential one-pot, two-step tandem reaction starting from pyridine, aromatic aldehyde, dimedone or 4-hydroxy coumarin and 2-bromoacetophenone with triethyl amine as catalyst proceeded smoothly in acetonitrile. (Image Presented) (E) Anabha and co-workers7 reported the synthesis of substituted 2-ylidene-1,3-oxathioles from aroyl dithiocarboxylates and 2-bromoacetophenone in good yields. The aroyl dithiocarboxylates were prepared by treatment of active methylene ketones with trithiocarbonate in the presence of sodium hydride. (Image Presented) (F) An efficient method for the synthesis of 2,4,6-triarylpyridines has been accomplished via microwave-promoted and BF 3·OEt2-catalyzed one-pot reaction of ω-pyrrolidinoacetophenone with chalcone. ω-Pyrrolidinoacetophenone was prepared via condensation of 2-bromoacetophenone with pyrrolidine in refluxing methanol.8 (Image Presented). © 2010 Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, New York.


Jatana N.,University of Delhi | Thukral L.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Latha N.,University of Delhi
Proteins: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics | Year: 2015

Human dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), a member of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family, plays a central role in cell signaling and trafficking. Dysfunctional activity of DRD4 can lead to several psychiatric conditions and, therefore, represents target for many neurological disorders. However, lack of atomic structure impairs our understanding of the mechanism regulating its activity. Here, we report the modeled structure of DRD4 alone and in complex with dopamine and spiperone, its natural agonist and antagonist, respectively. To assess the conformational dynamics induced upon ligand binding, all-atom explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations in membrane environment were performed. Comprehensive analyses of simulations reveal that agonist binding triggers a series of conformational changes in the transmembrane region, including rearrangement of residues, characteristic of transmission and tyrosine toggle molecular switches. Further, the trajectories indicate that a loop region in the intracellular region--ICL3, is significantly dynamic in nature, mainly due to the side-chain movements of conserved proline residues involved in SH3 binding domains. Interestingly, in dopamine-bound receptor simulation, ICL3 represents an open conformation ideal for G protein binding. The structural and dynamical information presented here suggest a mode of activation of DRD4, upon ligand binding. Our study will help in further understanding of receptor activation, as acquiring structural information is crucial for the design of highly selective DRD4 ligands. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Reddy K.K.,Alagappa University | Singh P.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Singh S.K.,Alagappa University
Molecular BioSystems | Year: 2014

HIV-1 integrase (IN) mediates integration of viral cDNA into the host cell genome, an essential step in the retroviral life cycle. The human lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is a co-factor of HIV-1 IN that plays a crucial role in viral integration. Because of its crucial role in early steps of HIV replication, the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction represents an attractive target for anti-HIV drug discovery. In this study, the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction was studied by in silico mutational studies and molecular dynamics simulations. The results showed that all of the key residues in the LEDGF/p75 binding pocket of IN protein are important for stabilization of the complex. Structure-based virtual screening against HIV-1 IN using the ChemBridge database was performed through three different protocols of docking simulations with varying precisions and computational intensities. Six compounds based on the docking score, binding affinity and pharmacokinetic parameters were selected and an analysis of the interactions with key amino acid residues of IN was carried out. Subsequently, molecular dynamics simulations of these compounds in the LEDGF/p75 binding site of IN were carried out in order to study the stability of complexes and their hydrogen bonding interactions. IN residues Glu170, His171, and Thr174 in chain A as well as Gln95 and Thr125 in chain B were discovered to play important roles in the binding of compounds. These findings could be helpful for blocking IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction, and provide a method for avoiding viral resistance and cross-resistance. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Chaturvedi D.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Current Organic Synthesis | Year: 2011

Ionic liquids have been emerging as a versatile class of green solvents with many projected advantages compared with conventional media. They have been described as "designer solvents" whose properties such as solubility, density, refractive index, and viscosity can be adjusted to suit requirements simply by making changes to the structure of either anion or cation or both. In organic synthesis, ionic liquids have been extensively used for the variety of synthetic transformations. Recently, plethoras of nitrogen heterocycles have been synthesized using variety of structurally diverse ionic liquids. In the present review, I would account the synthesis of various kinds of nitrogen heterocycles using variety of ionic liquids from the beginning to the recent reports. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.


Maiti S.,Indian Institute of Geomagnetism | Tiwari R.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth | Year: 2010

A new probabilistic approach based on the concept of Bayesian neural network (BNN) learning theory is proposed for decoding litho-facies boundaries from well-log data. We show that how a multi-layer-perceptron neural network model can be employed in Bayesian framework to classify changes in litho-log successions. The method is then applied to the German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB) well-log data for classification and uncertainty estimation in the litho-facies boundaries. In this framework, a posteriori distribution of network parameter is estimated via the principle of Bayesian probabilistic theory, and an objective function is minimized following the scaled conjugate gradient optimization scheme. For the model development, we inflict a suitable criterion, which provides probabilistic information by emulating different combinations of synthetic data. Uncertainty in the relationship between the data and the model space is appropriately taken care by assuming a Gaussian a priori distribution of networks parameters (e.g., synaptic weights and biases). Prior to applying the new method to the real KTB data, we tested the proposed method on synthetic examples to examine the sensitivity of neural network hyperparameters in prediction. Within this framework, we examine stability and efficiency of this new probabilistic approach using different kinds of synthetic data assorted with different level of correlated noise. Our data analysis suggests that the designed network topology based on the Bayesian paradigm is steady up to nearly 40% correlated noise; however, adding more noise (∼50% or more) degrades the results. We perform uncertainty analyses on training, validation, and test data sets with and devoid of intrinsic noise by making the Gaussian approximation of the a posteriori distribution about the peak model. We present a standard deviation error-map at the network output corresponding to the three types of the litho-facies present over the entire litho-section of the KTB. The comparisons of maximum a posteriori geological sections constructed here, based on the maximum a posteriori probability distribution, with the available geological information and the existing geophysical findings suggest that the BNN results reveal some additional finer details in the KTB borehole data at certain depths, which appears to be of some geological significance. We also demonstrate that the proposed BNN approach is superior to the conventional artificial neural network in terms of both avoiding "over-fitting" and aiding uncertainty estimation, which are vital for meaningful interpretation of geophysical records. Our analyses demonstrate that the BNN-based approach renders a robust means for the classification of complex changes in the litho-facies successions and thus could provide a useful guide for understanding the crustal inhomogeneity and the structural discontinuity in many other tectonically complex regions. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.


Lyubushin A.A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Parvez I.A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Natural Hazards | Year: 2010

A straightforward procedure of estimating maximum values of seismic peak ground acceleration and quantiles of its probabilistic distribution on a future time interval of 100 years is applied to territory of India. The input information for the method is seismic catalog and regression relation between peak ground acceleration at a given point and magnitude and distance from the considered site to hypocenter (seismic effect attenuation law). The method is based on Bayesian approach, which simply allows account the influence of uncertainties of seismic acceleration values. The main assumptions for the method are Poissonian character of seismic events flow, a frequency-magnitude law of Gutenberg-Richter's type with cutoff maximal value for estimated parameter and a seismic catalog, having a rather big number of events. The results obtained in this study show high hazard values in terms of peak ground acceleration in northeast India, Himalayan belt, Andaman region and Kachhach region. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Lal K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Universal Access in the Information Society | Year: 2016

The information society (IS) can be defined as a society that will witness creation, storage, processing, and distribution of information as major source of economic and cultural activity. IS has also been defined in social, economic, technological, and cultural domains. This study peruses the technological parameter into consideration to look into the role information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure can play to build and promote IS in India. India’s progress on millennium development goals (MDGs) is scrutinized to benchmark with average rates of various economies around the world. Extensive literature survey has been conducted to contextualize IS in India. In three of the important parameters of MDGs, India struggles in the bottom of the benchmarked nations in terms of internet users and telephone lines. However, its performance in mobile density has surpassed low-income, South Asian, and sub-Saharan African countries. India must invest in these technologies to perform better, as UN considers these three parameters on a par with literacy, water, sanitation, etc. A large portion of the population in the country, specially in rural areas, is not able to access ICT infrastructure that if often characterized as poor in quality. There is consistent need from the government to dedicate a larger sum of ICT expenditure on its mega project ‘National e-Governance Plan’ (NeGP). However, just like an oasis in the desert, India remains one of the most affordable nations to offer prices for fixed lines, mobile telephones, and the internet. In terms of ICT usage, India also attains the distinction of highest uses of mobile telephone (minutes/user per month). These strengths can definitely uplift the sagging morale of the Indian economy to get on the path of contemporary IS. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Mukul M.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Mukul M.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Journal of Asian Earth Sciences | Year: 2010

The Indian Plate has collided with the Eurasian Plate along an arcuate boundary over the last 55-60 million years defining the Himalayan Mountain belt. The geometry of the collision boundary is wedge-shaped; the base of this wedge is defined by a decollement named the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). In the Darjiling-Sikkim-Tibet (DaSiT) Himalayan wedge, a crustal-scale fault-bend fold (Kangmar Anticline) and the Lesser Himalayan Duplex (LHD) are dominant structures that have built taper and controlled the foreland-ward propagation of the thrust sheets. A frontal physiographic half-window has eroded through the Main Central Thrust (MCT) sheet to expose the LHD in the DaSiT wedge. Preliminary data suggest that active tectonics and seismicity in the DaSiT wedge may be concentrated in the half-window; this suggests that LHD may be an active structure. High-precision Global Positioning System measurements in the DaSiT wedge suggest that a minimum of 12. mm/yr convergence is being accommodated in the Darjiling-Sikkim Himalaya out of which ∼4. mm/yr convergence is being taken up in the LHD. Given that decollement earthquakes with minimum internal deformation in a deforming wedge occur when it attains critical taper, continued deformation within the DaSiT wedge and the lack of great decollement earthquakes indicate that the DaSiT Himalayan wedge is presently sub-critical and in the process of building taper. The sub-critical nature of the DaSiT wedge is probably the result of low topographic and decollement slopes, weaker rocks and pronounced erosion in the frontal part of the wedge. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Ghosh J.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
International Journal of Production Research | Year: 2013

This paper provides a simulation model for scheduling service task operations and distributing related human resources in dispersed work centres. The managerial concern for the minimisation of temporal overhead costs of task operations in the face of fluctuating, short-term service demands is examined under restrictions imposed by resource availability, work hour flexibility and task-backlog fulfilment. Scheduling strategies are developed directly from the constrained reduction of temporal overheads of appointment and release operations in distributed, non-interlinked work centres. To ensure the models structural validity, simulated task backlogs are adjusted to the actual backlog-reducing procedures in real applications. The model provides means for setting up balanced work schedules that can greatly lower temporal overheads of appointment and release operations if workers are selected in accordance with compatible time availability and task qualifications. Direct comparisons of worker productivities in the different centres can also be made, allowing managers to locate bottleneck points of service operations when productivity falls short of desired expectations. The robustness of the model is ensured by finding significant parameter domains through Monte Carlo simulations, centred on data points collected from real-time demand functions in actual service operations. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Zareen N.,Columbia University | Biswas S.C.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Greene L.A.,Columbia University
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2013

The mechanisms governing neuron death following NGF deprivation are incompletely understood. Here, we show that Trib3, a protein induced by NGF withdrawal, has a key role in such death via a loop involving the survival kinase Akt and FoxO transcription factors. Trib3 overexpression is sufficient to induce neuron death, and silencing of endogenous Trib3 strongly protects from death when NGF is withdrawn. Mechanism studies reveal that Trib3 interferes with phosphorylation/activity of Akt and contributes to Akt inactivation after NGF deprivation. FoxO1a, a direct Akt substrate, is dephosphorylated upon NGF withdrawal and consequently undergoes nuclear translocation and activates pro-apoptotic genes. We find that Trib3 is required for FoxO1a dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation after NGF deprivation. Conversely, Trib3 induction requires FoxO transcription factors, which show enhanced occupancy of the Trib3 promoter region following NGF withdrawal. Collectively, these findings support a mechanism in which NGF deprivation, Akt dephosphorylation/inactivation, FoxO dephosphorylation/activation and Trib3 induction are linked in a self-amplifying feed-forward loop that culminates in neuron death. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Gupta P.,University of Calcutta | Das P.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Ukil A.,University of Calcutta
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2015

18β-Glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA), a natural immunomodulator, greatly reduced the parasite load in experimental visceral leishmaniasis through nitric oxide (NO) upregulation, proinflammatory cytokine expression, and NF-κB activation. For the GRA-mediated effect, the primary kinase responsible was found to be p38, and analysis of phosphorylation kinetics as well as studies with dominant-negative (DN) constructs revealed mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3) and MKK6 as the immediate upstream regulators of p38. However, detection of remnant p38 kinase activity in the presence of both DN MKK3 and MKK6 suggested alternative pathways of p38 activation. That residual p38 activity was attributed to an autophosphorylation event ensured by the transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-binding protein 1 (TAB1)-p38 interaction and was completely abolished upon pretreatment with SB203580 in DN MKK3/6 double-transfected macrophage cells. Further upstream signaling evaluation by way of phosphorylation kinetics and transfection studies with DN constructs identified TAK1, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1R)-activated kinase 1 (IRAK1), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) as important contributors to GRA-mediated macrophage activation. Finally, gene knockdown studies revealed Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 as the membrane receptors associated with GRA-mediated antileishmanial activity. Together, the results of this study brought mechanistic insight into the antileishmanial activity of GRA, which is dependent on the TLR2/4-MyD88 signaling axis, leading to MKK3/6-mediated canonical and TAB1-mediated noncanonical p38 activation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Tiwari R.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Maiti S.,Indian Institute of Geomagnetism DST
Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics | Year: 2011

A novel technique based on the Bayesian neural network (BNN) theory is developed and employed to model the temperature variation record from the Western Himalayas. In order to estimate an a posteriori probability function, the BNN is trained with the Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC)/Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations algorithm. The efficacy of the new algorithm is tested on the well known chaotic, first order autoregressive (AR) and random models and then applied to model the temperature variation record decoded from the tree-ring widths of the Western Himalayas for the period spanning over 1226-2000 AD. For modeling the actual tree-ring temperature data, optimum network parameters are chosen appropriately and then cross-validation test is performed to ensure the generalization skill of the network on the new data set. Finally, prediction result based on the BNN model is compared with the conventional artificial neural network (ANN) and the AR linear models results. The comparative results show that the BNN based analysis makes better prediction than the ANN and the AR models. The new BNN modeling approach provides a viable tool for climate studies and could also be exploited for modeling other kinds of environmental data. © Author(s) 2011.


Mishra A.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Reviews in Medical Microbiology | Year: 2016

Pathogenic bacteria have to adapt to the various microenvironmental conditions encountered during its infective cycle. Therefore, an efficient transcriptional regulatory mechanism becomes a precondition to ensure survival of bacteria inside the host. Intracellular pathogenic bacteria basically rely on two-component signalling systems (TCSs) for this purpose. However, the reductive evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) complex encompassed a significant reduction in the number of TCSs. Nevertheless, the 11 conserved TCSs, selected under the evolutionary pressure of Mtb, play crucial roles in the successful establishment of TB infection. The basic histidine-aspartate phosphorelay mechanism and structural aspects of the TCSs have been reviewed. It has also been discussed how the conserved histidine kinases tune the transcription of specific bacterial genes in response to environmental stimulus and ensures the intracellular survival of Mtb. © Copyright 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Hussain M.K.,Sector 10 | Ansari M.I.,Sector 10 | Kant R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Hajela K.,Sector 10
Organic Letters | Year: 2014

An efficient diversity-oriented synthetic approach to annulated 9H-benzo[b]pyrrolo[1,2-g][1,2,3]- triazolo[1,5-d][1,4]diazepines has been developed using a Sc(OTf)3-catalyzed two-component tandem C-2 functionalization- intramolecular azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. The reaction shows high substrate tolerance and provides a library of fused heterocycles that may lead to novel biologically active compounds or drug lead molecules.© 2013 American Chemical Society.


Passari A.K.,Mizoram University | Mishra V.K.,Mizoram University | Saikia R.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Gupta V.K.,National University of Ireland |