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Gupta A.K.,CSIR Central Drug Research Institute | Saxena A.K.,CSIR Central Drug Research Institute
SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research

This study reports the utilization of three approaches - pharmacophore, CoMFA/CoMSIA and HQSAR studies - to identify the essential structural requirements in 3D chemical space for the modulation of the antimalarial activity of substituted 1,2,4-trioxanes. The superiority of quantitative pharmacophore-based alignment (QuantitativePBA) over global minima energy conformer-based alignment (GMCBA) has been reported in CoMFA and CoMSIA studies. The developed models showed good statistical significance in internal validation (q2, group cross-validation and bootstrapping) and performed very well in predicting the antimalarial activity of test set compounds. Structural features in terms of their steric, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in 3D space have been found to be important for the antimalarial activity of substituted 1,2,4-trioxanes. Further, the HQSAR studies based on the same training and test set acted as an additional tool to find the sub-structural fingerprints of substituted 1,2,4-trioxanes for their antimalarial activity. Together, these studies may facilitate the design and discovery of new substituted 1,2,4-trioxanes with potent antimalarial activity. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Chauhan I.S.,CSIR Central Drug Research Institute | Kaur J.,Shri Ram Murti Smarak Institute of Medical science | Krishna S.,CSIR Central Drug Research Institute | Ghosh A.,Xcelris Genomics | And 3 more authors.
BMC Evolutionary Biology

Background: Leptomonas is monogenetic kinetoplastid parasite of insects and is primitive in comparison to Leishmania. Comparative studies of these two kinetoplastid may share light on the evolutionary transition to dixenous parasitism in Leishmania. In order to adapt and survive within two hosts, Leishmania species must have acquired virulence factors in addition to mechanisms that mediate susceptibility/resistance to infection in the pathology associated with disease. Rab proteins are key mediators of vesicle transport and contribute greatly to the evolution of complexity of membrane transport system. In this study we used our whole genome sequence data of these two divergent kinetoplastids to analyze the orthologues/paralogues of Rab proteins. Results: During change of lifestyle from monogenetic (Leptomonas) to digenetic (Leishmania), we found that the prenyl machinery remained unchanged. Geranylgeranyl transferase-I (GGTase-I) was absent in both Leishmania and its sister Leptomonas. Farnesyltransferase (FTase) and geranylgeranyl transferase-II (GGTase-II) were identified for protein prenylation. We predict that activity of the missing alpha-subunit (aα-subunit) of GGTase-II in Leptomonas was probably contributed by the aα-subunit of FTase, while beta-subunit (β-subunit) of GGTase-II was conserved and indicated functional conservation in the evolution of these two kinetoplastids. Therefore the β-subunit emerges as an excellent target for compounds inhibiting parasite activity in clinical cases of co-infections. We also confirmed that during the evolution to digenetic life style in Leishmania, the parasite acquired capabilities to evade drug action and maintain parasite virulence in the host with the incorporation of short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR/MDR) superfamily in Rab genes. Conclusion: Our study based on whole genome sequences is the first to build comparative evolutionary analysis and identification of prenylation proteins in Leishmania and its sister Leptomonas. The information presented in our present work has importance for drug design targeted to kill L. donovani in humans but not affect the human form of the prenylation enzymes. © 2015 Chauhan et al. Source

Gupta A.K.,CSIR Central Drug Research Institute | Varshney K.,CSIR Central Drug Research Institute | Saxena A.K.,CSIR Central Drug Research Institute
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling

The present study describes application of computational approaches to identify a validated and reliable 3D QSAR pharmacophore model for the CCK-2R antagonism through integrated ligand and structure based studies using anthranilic sulfonamide and 1,3,4-benzotriazepine based CCK-2R antagonists. The best hypothesis consisted five features viz. two aliphatic hydrophobic, one aromatic hydrophobic, one H-bond acceptor, and one ring aromatic feature with an excellent correlation for 34 training set (r 2 training = 0.83) and 58 test set compounds (r 2 test = 0.74). This model was validated through F-test and docking studies at the active site of the plausible CCK-2R where the 99% significance and well corroboration with the pharmacophore model respectively describes the model's reliability. The model also predicts well to other known clinically effective CCK-2R antagonists. Therefore, the developed model may useful in finding new scaffolds that may aid in design and develop new chemical entities (NCEs) as potent CCK-2R antagonists before their synthesis. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Khare P.,CSIR Central Drug Research Institute | Gupta A.K.,CSIR Central Drug Research Institute | Gajula P.K.,CSIR Central Drug Research Institute | Sunkari K.Y.,CSIR Central Drug Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling

The present study describes a successful application of computational approaches to identify novel Leishmania donovani (Ld) AdoHcyase inhibitors utilizing the differences for Ld AdoHcyase NAD + binding between human and Ld parasite. The development and validation of the three-dimensional (3D) structures of Ld AdoHcyase using the L. major AdoHcyase as template has been carried out. At the same time, cloning of the Ld AdoHcyase gene from clinical strains, its overexpression and purification have been performed. Further, the model was used in combined docking and molecular dynamics studies to validate the binding site of NAD in Ld. The hierarchical structure based virtual screening followed by the synthesis of five active hits and enzyme inhibition assay has resulted in the identification of novel Ld AdoHcyase inhibitors. The most potent inhibitor, compound 5, may serve as a "lead" for developing more potent Ld AdoHcy hydrolase inhibitors as potential antileishmanial agents. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

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