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Bediako M.,CSIR Building and Road Research Institute | Amankwah E.O.,University of Education, Winneba
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2015

The performance of Portland cement in concrete or mortar formation is very well influenced by chemical compositions among other factors. Many engineers usually have little information on the chemical compositions of cement in making decisions for the choice of commercially available Portland cement in Ghana. This work analyzed five different brands of Portland cement in Ghana, namely, Ghacem ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and Portland limestone cement (PLC), CSIR-BRRI Pozzomix, Dangote OPC, and Diamond PLC. The chemical compositions were analyzed with X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer. Student's t-test was used to test the significance of the variation in chemical composition between standard literature values and each of the commercial cement brands. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was also used to establish the extent of variations between chemical compositions and brand name of the all commercial Portland cement brands. Student's t-test results showed that there were no significant differences between standard chemical composition values and that of commercial Portland cement. The ANOVA results also indicated that each brand of commercial Portland cement varies in terms of chemical composition; however, the specific brands of cement had no significant differences. The study recommended that using any brand of cement in Ghana was good for any construction works be it concrete or mortar formation. © 2015 Mark Bediako and Eric Opoku Amankwah. Source


Mensah F.A.,CSIR Building and Road Research Institute | Bartarya S.K.,Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2014: Water Without Borders - Proceedings of the 2014 World Environmental and Water Resources Congress | Year: 2014

The paper examines the extent and levels of groundwater salinization in shallow aquifers in the Ada East-West districts of Ghana and possible causes. The samples comprise 11 surface water samples and 37 shallow wells, which served as sources of water for the local communities. TDS values in well samples varies from 87.5 to 5,160 mg/l with mean value of 1,912 mg/l, in lagoon samples from 6,350-27,100 mg/l, with a mean of 13,506.7 mg/l, in the Volta River from 42.4-165 mg/l with a mean of 93 mg/l, and in stream samples from 38.4-669 mg/l with a mean of 217.5 mg/l. Salinity values across the area is in the range from 33.8-43,574 psu/ppm with a mean value of 2,451 psu/ppm. Among the major ions Cl values range between 2 and 46,636.9 mg/l with a mean value of 1,858 mg/l while Ca range from 5.3 -1,089.3 mg/l with a mean of 107.2 mg/l. River Angor in Dendo and the sampled stream in Kodzi have exceptionally high conductivity values compared with the other sampled rivers and streams. Groundwater salinity overall increases from north to south and away from the Volta River in the direction east toward the Songhor lagoon in the study area. Less saline groundwater and streams are recharged from the Volta River. Between the high saline and low saline groundwater is suspected mixing zone of groundwater with average salinity value of 2,451 psu/ppm. Groundwaters are generally fresh to brackish in study area using TDS as classification. The salinity in the shallow aquifers is a result of evaporation, diffusion, and mixing of coastal water. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source


Yankson I.K.,CSIR Building and Road Research Institute | Browne E.N.L.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Tagbor H.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Donkor P.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | And 4 more authors.
Injury Prevention | Year: 2010

In order to analyse traffic injury reporting in Ghanaian newspapers and identify opportunities for improving road safety, the content of 240 articles on road traffic injury was reviewed from 2005 to 2006 editions of two state-owned and two privately owned newspapers. The articles comprised reports on vehicle crashes (37%), commentaries (33%), informational pieces (12%), reports on pedestrian injury (10%), and editorials (8%). There was little coverage of pedestrian injuries, which account for half of the traffic fatalities in Ghana, but only 22% of newspaper reports. Only two articles reported on seatbelt use. Reporting patterns were similar between public and private papers, but private papers more commonly recommended government action (50%) than did public papers (32%, p=0.006). It is concluded that Ghanaian papers provide detailed coverage of traffic injury. Areas for improvement include pedestrian injury and attention to preventable risk factors such as road risk factors, seatbelt use, speed control, and alcohol use. Source


Ackaah W.,CSIR Building and Road Research Institute | Salifu M.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology
IATSS Research | Year: 2011

Crash Prediction Models (CPMs) have been used elsewhere as a useful tool by road Engineers and Planners. There is however no study on the prediction of road traffic crashes on rural highways in Ghana. The main objective of the study was to develop a prediction model for road traffic crashes occurring on the rural sections of the highways in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The model was developed for all injury crashes occurring on selected rural highways in the Region over the three (3) year period 2005-2007. Data was collected from 76 rural highway sections and each section varied between 0.8. km and 6.7. km. Data collected for each section comprised injury crash data, traffic flow and speed data, and roadway characteristics and road geometry data. The Generalised Linear Model (GLM) with Negative Binomial (NB) error structure was used to estimate the model parameters. Two types of models, the 'core' model which included key exposure variables only and the 'full' model which included a wider range of variables were developed. The results show that traffic flow, highway segment length, junction density, terrain type and presence of a village settlement within road segments were found to be statistically significant explanatory variables (p < 0.05) for crash involvement. Adding one junction to a 1. km section of road segment was found to increase injury crashes by 32.0% and sections which had a village settlement within them were found to increase injury crashes by 60.3% compared with segments with no settlements. The model explained 61.2% of the systematic variation in the data. Road and Traffic Engineers and Planners can apply the crash prediction model as a tool in safety improvement works and in the design of safer roads. It is recommended that to improve safety, highways should be designed to by-pass village settlements and that the number of junctions on a highway should be limited to carefully designed ones. © 2011 International Association of Traffic and Safety Sciences. Source


Akaateba M.A.,University for Development Studies | Amoh-Gyimah R.,CSIR Building and Road Research Institute | Yakubu I.,University for Development Studies
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2014

Motorcyclists' injuries and fatalities are a major public health concern in many developing countries including Ghana. This study therefore aimed to investigate the prevalence of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana. The method used involved a cross-sectional roadside observation at 12 randomly selected sites within and outside the CBD of Wa. A total of 14,467 motorcyclists made up of 11,360 riders and 3107 pillion riders were observed during the study period. Most observed riders (86.5%) and pillion riders (61.7%) were males. The overall prevalence of helmet use among the observed motorcyclists was 36.9% (95% CI: 36.1-37.7). Helmet use for riders was 45.8% (95% CI: 44.8-46.7) whilst that for pillion riders was 3.7% (95 CI: 3.0-4.4). Based on logistic regression analysis, higher helmet wearing rates were found to be significantly associated with female gender, weekdays, morning periods and at locations within the CBD. Riders at locations outside the CBD were about 7 times less likely to wear a helmet than riders within the CBD (48.9% compared to 42.3%; χ 2 (1) = 49.526; p < 0.001). The study concluded that despite the existence of a national helmet legislation that mandates the use of helmets by both riders and pillion riders on all roads in Ghana, helmet use is generally low in Wa. This suggests that all stakeholders in road safety should jointly intensify education on helmet use and pursue rigorous enforcement on all road types especially at locations outside the CBD to improve helmet use in Wa. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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