CSIR Building and Road Research Institute

Kumasi, Ghana

CSIR Building and Road Research Institute

Kumasi, Ghana

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Mensah F.A.,CSIR Building and Road Research Institute | Bartarya S.K.,Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2014: Water Without Borders - Proceedings of the 2014 World Environmental and Water Resources Congress | Year: 2014

The paper examines the extent and levels of groundwater salinization in shallow aquifers in the Ada East-West districts of Ghana and possible causes. The samples comprise 11 surface water samples and 37 shallow wells, which served as sources of water for the local communities. TDS values in well samples varies from 87.5 to 5,160 mg/l with mean value of 1,912 mg/l, in lagoon samples from 6,350-27,100 mg/l, with a mean of 13,506.7 mg/l, in the Volta River from 42.4-165 mg/l with a mean of 93 mg/l, and in stream samples from 38.4-669 mg/l with a mean of 217.5 mg/l. Salinity values across the area is in the range from 33.8-43,574 psu/ppm with a mean value of 2,451 psu/ppm. Among the major ions Cl values range between 2 and 46,636.9 mg/l with a mean value of 1,858 mg/l while Ca range from 5.3 -1,089.3 mg/l with a mean of 107.2 mg/l. River Angor in Dendo and the sampled stream in Kodzi have exceptionally high conductivity values compared with the other sampled rivers and streams. Groundwater salinity overall increases from north to south and away from the Volta River in the direction east toward the Songhor lagoon in the study area. Less saline groundwater and streams are recharged from the Volta River. Between the high saline and low saline groundwater is suspected mixing zone of groundwater with average salinity value of 2,451 psu/ppm. Groundwaters are generally fresh to brackish in study area using TDS as classification. The salinity in the shallow aquifers is a result of evaporation, diffusion, and mixing of coastal water. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Akaateba M.A.,University for Development Studies | Amoh-Gyimah R.,CSIR Building and Road Research Institute | Amponsah O.,KNUST
Safety Science | Year: 2015

This paper investigated the influence of three distinct variables; driver educational attainment, driving experience, and form of driver training on drivers' self-reported attitudes towards the frequency of commission of traffic safety violations in Kumasi, Ghana. A total of 285 participants were sampled from public transport terminals, work places, market places and other social centres within the Kumasi Metropolis using both interviewer-administered and self-administered questionnaires. The results of the study showed that there were small but yet significant associations between driver education, driver training and driving experience on the one hand, and the frequency of violation of traffic safety laws on the other hand. The mean frequency of commission of traffic violations increased with increasing driver experience whilst the frequency of violation of traffic regulations on speeding and overtaking when prohibited decreased with increasing education in Kumasi. Drivers trained from driving schools reported an overall higher mean frequency of commission of traffic violations compared to other drivers interviewed. Plausible explanations and implications of the study's results on traffic safety campaigns in Ghana as well as methodological issues have been discussed. Based on the results of the study, this paper strongly recommends targeted and more tailored traffic safety behaviour change campaigns combined with a strict enforcement of traffic safety regulations in the country. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Bediako M.,CSIR Building and Road Research Institute | Amankwah E.O.,University of Education, Winneba
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2015

The performance of Portland cement in concrete or mortar formation is very well influenced by chemical compositions among other factors. Many engineers usually have little information on the chemical compositions of cement in making decisions for the choice of commercially available Portland cement in Ghana. This work analyzed five different brands of Portland cement in Ghana, namely, Ghacem ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and Portland limestone cement (PLC), CSIR-BRRI Pozzomix, Dangote OPC, and Diamond PLC. The chemical compositions were analyzed with X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer. Student's t-test was used to test the significance of the variation in chemical composition between standard literature values and each of the commercial cement brands. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was also used to establish the extent of variations between chemical compositions and brand name of the all commercial Portland cement brands. Student's t-test results showed that there were no significant differences between standard chemical composition values and that of commercial Portland cement. The ANOVA results also indicated that each brand of commercial Portland cement varies in terms of chemical composition; however, the specific brands of cement had no significant differences. The study recommended that using any brand of cement in Ghana was good for any construction works be it concrete or mortar formation. © 2015 Mark Bediako and Eric Opoku Amankwah.


Aidoo E.N.,CSIR Building and Road Research Institute | Amoh-Gyimah R.,CSIR Building and Road Research Institute | Ackaah W.,CSIR Building and Road Research Institute
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2013

The number of pedestrians who have died as a result of being hit by vehicles has increased in recent years, in addition to vehicle passenger deaths. Many pedestrians who were involved in road traffic accident died as a result of the driver leaving the pedestrian who was struck unattended at the scene of the accident. This paper seeks to determine the effect of road and environmental characteristics on pedestrian hit-and-run accidents in Ghana. Using pedestrian accident data extracted from the National Road Traffic Accident Database at the Building and Road Research Institute (BRRI) of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Ghana, a binary logit model was employed in the analysis. The results from the estimated model indicate that fatal accidents, unclear weather, nighttime conditions, and straight and flat road sections without medians and junctions significantly increase the likelihood that the vehicle driver will leave the scene after hitting a pedestrian. Thus, integrating median separation and speed humps into road design and construction and installing street lights will help to curb the problem of pedestrian hit-and-run accidents in Ghana. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Ackaah W.,CSIR Building and Road Research Institute | Salifu M.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology
IATSS Research | Year: 2011

Crash Prediction Models (CPMs) have been used elsewhere as a useful tool by road Engineers and Planners. There is however no study on the prediction of road traffic crashes on rural highways in Ghana. The main objective of the study was to develop a prediction model for road traffic crashes occurring on the rural sections of the highways in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The model was developed for all injury crashes occurring on selected rural highways in the Region over the three (3) year period 2005-2007. Data was collected from 76 rural highway sections and each section varied between 0.8. km and 6.7. km. Data collected for each section comprised injury crash data, traffic flow and speed data, and roadway characteristics and road geometry data. The Generalised Linear Model (GLM) with Negative Binomial (NB) error structure was used to estimate the model parameters. Two types of models, the 'core' model which included key exposure variables only and the 'full' model which included a wider range of variables were developed. The results show that traffic flow, highway segment length, junction density, terrain type and presence of a village settlement within road segments were found to be statistically significant explanatory variables (p < 0.05) for crash involvement. Adding one junction to a 1. km section of road segment was found to increase injury crashes by 32.0% and sections which had a village settlement within them were found to increase injury crashes by 60.3% compared with segments with no settlements. The model explained 61.2% of the systematic variation in the data. Road and Traffic Engineers and Planners can apply the crash prediction model as a tool in safety improvement works and in the design of safer roads. It is recommended that to improve safety, highways should be designed to by-pass village settlements and that the number of junctions on a highway should be limited to carefully designed ones. © 2011 International Association of Traffic and Safety Sciences.


Amoh-Gyimah R.,CSIR Building and Road Research Institute | Aidoo E.N.,CSIR Building and Road Research Institute | Akaateba M.A.,University for Development Studies | Appiah S.K.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology
International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion | Year: 2016

Despite the benefits of walking as a means of travelling, walking can be quite hazardous. Pedestrian-vehicle crashes remain a major concern in Ghana as they account for the highest percentage of fatalities. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of both natural and built environmental features on pedestrian-vehicle crash severity in Ghana. The study is based on an extensive pedestrian-vehicle crash dataset extracted from the National Road Traffic Accident Database at the Building and Road Research Institute (BRRI) of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Ghana. Using a multinomial logit modelling framework, possible determinants of pedestrian-vehicle crash severity were identified. The study found that fatal crashes are likely to occur during unclear weather conditions, on weekends, at night time where there are no lights, on curved and inclined roads, on untarred roads, at mid-blocks and on wider roads. The developed model and its interpretations will make important contributions to road crash analysis and prevention in Ghana with the possibility of extension to other developing countries. These contributing factors could inform policy makers on road design and operational improvements. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Akaateba M.A.,University for Development Studies | Amoh-Gyimah R.,CSIR Building and Road Research Institute | Yakubu I.,University for Development Studies
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2014

Motorcyclists' injuries and fatalities are a major public health concern in many developing countries including Ghana. This study therefore aimed to investigate the prevalence of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana. The method used involved a cross-sectional roadside observation at 12 randomly selected sites within and outside the CBD of Wa. A total of 14,467 motorcyclists made up of 11,360 riders and 3107 pillion riders were observed during the study period. Most observed riders (86.5%) and pillion riders (61.7%) were males. The overall prevalence of helmet use among the observed motorcyclists was 36.9% (95% CI: 36.1-37.7). Helmet use for riders was 45.8% (95% CI: 44.8-46.7) whilst that for pillion riders was 3.7% (95 CI: 3.0-4.4). Based on logistic regression analysis, higher helmet wearing rates were found to be significantly associated with female gender, weekdays, morning periods and at locations within the CBD. Riders at locations outside the CBD were about 7 times less likely to wear a helmet than riders within the CBD (48.9% compared to 42.3%; χ 2 (1) = 49.526; p < 0.001). The study concluded that despite the existence of a national helmet legislation that mandates the use of helmets by both riders and pillion riders on all roads in Ghana, helmet use is generally low in Wa. This suggests that all stakeholders in road safety should jointly intensify education on helmet use and pursue rigorous enforcement on all road types especially at locations outside the CBD to improve helmet use in Wa. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Amoh-Gyimah R.,CSIR Building and Road Research Institute | Aidoo E.N.,CSIR Building and Road Research Institute
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2013

The paper presents the empirical results of a study into the journey to work by government employees in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana using data obtained from a field survey conducted in April, 2012. The choice of mode of transport to work was investigated using a conditional logit regression model; the purpose was to determine individual and alternative specific variables that influence mode choice for trips to work. The results from the estimated model indicate that individual characteristics such as family size, educational status, income, home-to-work distance and marital status are significant determinants of the choice of commute mode by government employees. Furthermore, the results indicate that government workers are less likely to choose transport modes with longer travel times. It was also found that about 75% of the workers using public transport and that 19% of those using personal means of transport were prepared to shift to an institutionally arranged large bus services. It was therefore recommended that government institutions in the metropolis as a policy provide large buses to convey employees to and from work. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | University for Development Studies and CSIR Building and Road Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Accident; analysis and prevention | Year: 2014

Motorcyclists injuries and fatalities are a major public health concern in many developing countries including Ghana. This study therefore aimed to investigate the prevalence of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana. The method used involved a cross-sectional roadside observation at 12 randomly selected sites within and outside the CBD of Wa. A total of 14,467 motorcyclists made up of 11,360 riders and 3107 pillion riders were observed during the study period. Most observed riders (86.5%) and pillion riders (61.7%) were males. The overall prevalence of helmet use among the observed motorcyclists was 36.9% (95% CI: 36.1-37.7). Helmet use for riders was 45.8% (95% CI: 44.8-46.7) whilst that for pillion riders was 3.7% (95 CI: 3.0-4.4). Based on logistic regression analysis, higher helmet wearing rates were found to be significantly associated with female gender, weekdays, morning periods and at locations within the CBD. Riders at locations outside the CBD were about 7 times less likely to wear a helmet than riders within the CBD (48.9% compared to 42.3%; (2)(1)=49.526; p<0.001). The study concluded that despite the existence of a national helmet legislation that mandates the use of helmets by both riders and pillion riders on all roads in Ghana, helmet use is generally low in Wa. This suggests that all stakeholders in road safety should jointly intensify education on helmet use and pursue rigorous enforcement on all road types especially at locations outside the CBD to improve helmet use in Wa.


Akayuli C.F.A.,CSIR Building and Road Research Institute | Ofosu B.,CSIR Building and Road Research Institute
Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering | Year: 2013

Geotechnical investigation is required for the determination of ground parameters for safe and economic design of civil engineering structures. Compression index is one of the soil parameters that are required for calculation of foundation settlements, however, the determination of compression index is expensive, cumbersome, time consuming and required a lot of experience for obtaining undisturbed soil samples from the field. In order to mitigate these complexities, equations have been developed by many researchers in the past to predict compression index using index properties of soil which are relatively easier to conduct in the laboratory. Linear regression analysis was used to established empirical models relating compression index and index properties of sixty weathered Birimian phyllites samples in the Kumasi area. Based on the analysis, the liquid limit resulted in the model with the highest coefficient of determination compared to the moisture content, plasticity index, and plastic limit. The resulting model was used to predict the compression index of about thirty samples that were not used in the regression analysis; the results showed that, the model is able to predict the compression index with less error. The empirical model (Cc = 0.004LL - 0.03) involving the liquid limit is recommended for prediction of compression index for preliminary design and verification of the laboratory tests soils in Kumasi within the Birimian phyllites. © 2013, EJGE.

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