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Antwi-Agyakwa A.K.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Osekre E.A.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Adu-Acheampong R.,Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana | Ninsin K.D.,CSIR Animal Research Institute
West African Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2015

Chemical control of insect pests of cocoa started in 1950, and insecticides from the various classes have been recommended and used by farmers since then. Presently, Imidacloprid (Confidor®), Bifenthrin (Akatemaster®) and Thiamethoxam (Actara®) are recommended by Ghana Cocoa Board (COCOBOD) for insect pest management. A survey was conducted in the Ashanti, Eastern, Volta and Western regions of Ghana using questionnaires and farm visits of 147 cocoa farmers’ fields to gather information on insecticide use practices by farmers. The survey showed that the farmers used mostly Imidacloprid and Bifenthrin insecticides and the frequency of application was more than that recommended by COCOBOD. Among the three recommended insecticides, 43% each of the farmers across the three regions used either Confidor® or Akatemaster® whilst the remaining 14% used Actara®. The number of years farmers had consistently used a particular insecticide ranged between 5 and 16 years. Whilst some cocoa farmers do not apply insecticides to their farms, others, however, do as many as 11 applications in a year. Most of the insecticides used are classified as class II under WHO Hazard category, and the farmers used very minimal protective clothing during pesticides application. The results of this study show that there is the need to intensify education on safe handling and use of pesticides to reduce pesticide abuse, especially by cocoa farmers, in order to sustain effective management of pests and protect farmers, consumers and the environment. © 2015, Ecological Laboratory. All rights reserved. Source

Asuming-Bediako N.,CSIR Animal Research Institute | Jaspal M.H.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Hallett K.,University of Bristol | Bayntun J.,University of Bristol | And 2 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2014

Rapeseed and sunflower oil were used to replace pork backfat in UK-style sausages by incorporating the oils as pre-formed emulsions. Replacing the pork backfat emulsion with rapeseed emulsion at total fat content of about 12%, reduced total saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition from 38% to 14% (4.5 to 1.8. g/100. g), increased monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) composition from 45% to 59% and increased polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition from 15% to 25%. Partial replacement of pork backfat with rapeseed at a fat content of about 20% reduced SFA from 38% to 24% (7.2 to 4.8. g/100. g). There were no significant differences in eating quality and overall liking other than slight differences in the attributes 'firmness' and 'particle size'. Improvement in the fatty acid composition was achieved without adversely affecting colour shelf life or lipid oxidation. The study suggests that a substantial reduction in SFA can be achieved by incorporating 'healthy' oils in UK-style sausages without adversely affecting eating quality or shelf life. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Dundon W.G.,International Atomic Energy Agency | Adombi C.,International Atomic Energy Agency | Waqas A.,International Atomic Energy Agency | Otsyina H.R.,University of Ghana | And 4 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2014

The full genome of a peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) isolated from a sheep lung sample collected in Ghana, Western Africa, in 2010, has been sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the virus clustered within the lineage II clade while comparison of its full genome with those of other PPRV strains revealed the highest identity (96.6 %) at a nucleotide level with the PPRV strain Nigeria/76/1. This is the first full genome sequence generated for a PPRV lineage II isolated since 1976. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Obese F.Y.,University of Ghana | Martin G.B.,University of Western Australia | Martin G.B.,University of Oxford | Blackberry M.A.,University of Western Australia | And 2 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2015

Cattle farmers in Ghana want larger animals with better milk yield and have therefore focused on improving the indigenous tropical Sanga breed by crossing with the temperate Friesian breed. However, in the Friesian-Sanga crossbred, a major limitation to reproductive performance is extended postpartum anoestrus, perhaps exacerbated by under-nutrition under field conditions. We therefore tested whether the breeds vary in the circulating concentrations of metabolic hormones that mediate the effects of nutrition on the reproductive axis during the postpartum period. Two herds comprising 16 Sanga, and 16 Friesian-Sanga cows, were grazed separately on natural pastures of similar nutritive value with no feed supplements. Every week during weeks 1 to 10 postpartum, the cows were weighed, body condition score (BCS) was assessed, and blood was sampled. Resumption of ovarian activity, detected from progesterone profiles, was used to classify cows as 'early-cycling' (≤45 days), 'late-cycling' (46-70 days) or 'non-cycling' (after 70 days). Resumption of ovarian cyclicity, body weight and body condition score did not differ between breeds, but daily milk yield was lower for Sanga (1.01±0.02. kg/day) than for Friesian-Sanga crossbreds (1.57±0.02. kg/day; P<0.001). Compared with Friesian-Sanga crossbreds, Sanga cows had greater plasma concentrations of IGF-I (18.7±0.7 versus 14.8±0.7. ng/mL; P<0.001) and leptin (1.12±0.01 versus 0.96±0.01. ng/mL; P<0.001), but the two breeds had similar concentrations of GH and insulin. After calving, the IGF-I/GH ratio recovered more rapidly in the Sanga than in the crossbred (. P=0.01). In both breeds, early-cycling cows had greater concentrations of IGF-I and leptin than late- or non-cycling cows. It was concluded that, during the postpartum period, the Sanga breed is better able to avoid the effects of negative energy balance, maintain metabolic homeostasis and prevent uncoupling of the GH-IGF axis, compared with the Friesian-Sanga crossbreed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Damptey J.K.,University of Ghana | Obese F.Y.,University of Ghana | Aboagye G.S.,University of Ghana | Ayim-Akonor M.,CSIR Animal Research Institute | Ayizanga R.A.,University of Ghana
South African Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2014

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of concentrations of certain blood nutrient-sensitive metabolites and the resumption of postpartum ovarian cyclicity in 16 Sanga cows (mean BCS 5). Blood samples were taken from cows from weeks 1 to 13 (90 days) postpartum, processed and the plasma progesterone concentration measured to determine the resumption of postpartum ovarian cyclicity. The cows were classified as having resumed ovarian cyclicity when a plasma progesterone concentration of ≥1.0 ng/mL was recorded for two consecutive weekly samples. Based on the resumption of ovarian activity, cows were classified as early cycling, late cycling or non-cycling. The plasma glucose, cholesterol, total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations recorded were similar in the early cycling, late cycling and non-cycling cows. The mean blood glucose, cholesterol, total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were 3.60 mmol/L, 2.47 mmol/L, 83.1 g/L, 29.9 g/L and 52.9 g/L, respectively. Plasma urea concentrations in late (6.57 ± 0.17 mmol/L) and non-cycling (6.59 ± 0.17 mmol/L) cows were higher than in the early cycling (5.99 ± 0.17 mmol/L) cows in weeks 1 to 13 postpartum. In addition, the plasma creatinine concentration in the early cycling cows was higher than in late cycling cows (101.8 ± 1.82 versus 94.0 ± 1.99 mmol/L). Cows with higher plasma concentrations of urea and lower creatinine concentrations were at risk of delayed resumption of postpartum ovarian cyclicity. Results suggest poor nutritional status, especially energy deficiency, as a major underlying factor suppressing the postpartum resumption of ovarian cyclicity. Source

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