CSIR Animal Research Institute

Achimota, Ghana

CSIR Animal Research Institute

Achimota, Ghana
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Adu E.K.,CSIR Animal Research Institute | Asafu-Adjaye A.,CSIR Animal Research Institute | Hagan B.A.,CSIR Animal Research Institute | Nyameasem J.K.,CSIR Animal Research Institute
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2017

The grasscutter, Thryonomys swinderianus, is one of the large rodents of Africa’s grasslands being domesticated. Naturally, the distribution of the grasscutter is influenced by occurrence of dense and thick cane-like grasses growing in damp places. The economic potential of the grasscutter is the reason many development agencies and non-governmental organizations interested in reducing poverty are promoting its production, particularly in countries in the West African sub-region where the meat of the animal is a delicacy. The meat of grasscutter enjoys a higher premium price per kilogram weight than chicken, beef, pork, mutton or chevon among many West Africans and elsewhere. Compared to other meats such as rabbit meat, grasscutter meat is very low in cholesterol and high in protein. It has a very high mineral (e.g. iron, calcium and phosphorous) content compared to beef, mutton, and chevon. The economic return on rearing is comparable to that of a cow, much higher than most livestock species, and only lower than that of the pig. However, there is very little information on basic production parameters for efficient economic exploitation under captive breeding, which has translated into poor production performance under captivity compared to the rabbit. Further research is required with regards to the nutrition of the grasscutter as well as the constraints associated with growth rates and reproductive efficiency in captivity. Genetic improvement of the grasscutter is another area that needs extensive research in order to improve upon its docility. © 2017, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.

Nyameasem J.K.,CSIR Animal Research Institute | Adu E.K.,CSIR Animal Research Institute | Amoah K.O.,CSIR Animal Research Institute | Hagan B.A.,CSIR Animal Research Institute
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2016

This study was conducted to investigate the influence of male proximity on vaginal patency, estrous cycle length and feed intake of nulliparous and pluriparous grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) does. Twelve non-pregnant and non-lactating adult female (six nulliparous and six pluriparous) grasscutters and six proven male grasscutters were used for the study in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The factors were the type of contact between the sexes (no visual contact v. visual contact) and parity (nulliparous v. pluriparous). The condition of the vaginal membrane, which was monitored daily, was used as an indicator of the reproductive status of the experimental females. The findings of the study showed significant effect (P < 0.001) of male presence on feed intake. Visual contact between breeding pairs significantly (P < 0.05) increased the rate of vaginal opening (11 ± 3.3 % v. 22 ± 3.3 %) and significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the length of estrous cycling in the grasscutters (58 ± 5 days v. 20 ± 5 days). However, the duration of vaginal patency was not (P > 0.05) affected by the contact type. Parity had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on the duration of vaginal patency with pluriparous does recording longer duration compared to nulliparous does (76 ± 12 h v. 38 ± 12 h), but not on feed intake (P > 0.05). The study has revealed that housing breeding grasscutters such that females have visual contact with males could increase rate of vaginal patency and reduce the length of the estrous cycle in both pluriparous and nulliparous grasscutter does. This practice however compromises feed intake of the females. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Darfour-Oduro K.A.,CSIR Animal Research Institute | Sottie E.T.,CSIR Animal Research Institute | Hagan B.A.,CSIR Animal Research Institute | Okantah S.A.,CSIR Animal Research Institute
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2010

Milk yield traits and lactation length of two breeds of cattle raised on natural pasture with little or no supplementation were assessed. A total of 42 573 daily milk records on 98 Friesian-Sanga cows collected over a period of 10 years and 17 790 daily milk records on 72 Sanga cows spanning a 6-year period were used in the study. Traits examined for each breed were daily milk yield, total milk yield, 305-day milk yield, 305-day milk yield/day and lactation length. Friesian-Sanga cows outperformed their Sanga counterparts in all traits studied. Friesian-Sanga cows had an average daily milk yield of 1.35 ± 0.00 kg; average total milk yield of 266 ± 12 kg; average 305-day milk yield of 339 ± 10 kg; average 305-day milk yield/ day of 1.11 ± 0.03 kg and mean lactation length of 201.1 ± 6.9 days. Average values for Sanga cows were 1.01 ± 0.00 kg as daily milk yield; 162 ± 12 kg as total milk yield; 244 ± 10 kg as 305-day milk yield; 0.80 ± 0.03 kg as 305-day milk yield/day. Mean lactation length for Sanga cows was 164.1 ± 9.4 days. Season of calving significantly (P < 0.05) influenced daily milk yield of Friesian-Sanga cows and all traits of Sanga cows with animals calving in the major rainy season surpassing those that calved in the minor and dry seasons. Daily milk yield for both Friesian-Sanga and Sanga cows was significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by season of lactation. Daily milk yield gradually declined from second parity towards the sixth parity for Friesian-Sanga cows. A gradual increase in daily milk yield from first to third parity was observed in Sanga cows. Year of calving significantly influenced all traits for both breeds. Genetic improvement in milk yield traits and lactation length is achievable for both breeds of cattle as co-efficient of variation of traits were moderate to high. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Damptey J.K.,University of Ghana | Obese F.Y.,University of Ghana | Aboagye G.S.,University of Ghana | Ayim-Akonor M.,CSIR Animal Research Institute | Ayizanga R.A.,University of Ghana
South African Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2014

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of concentrations of certain blood nutrient-sensitive metabolites and the resumption of postpartum ovarian cyclicity in 16 Sanga cows (mean BCS 5). Blood samples were taken from cows from weeks 1 to 13 (90 days) postpartum, processed and the plasma progesterone concentration measured to determine the resumption of postpartum ovarian cyclicity. The cows were classified as having resumed ovarian cyclicity when a plasma progesterone concentration of ≥1.0 ng/mL was recorded for two consecutive weekly samples. Based on the resumption of ovarian activity, cows were classified as early cycling, late cycling or non-cycling. The plasma glucose, cholesterol, total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations recorded were similar in the early cycling, late cycling and non-cycling cows. The mean blood glucose, cholesterol, total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were 3.60 mmol/L, 2.47 mmol/L, 83.1 g/L, 29.9 g/L and 52.9 g/L, respectively. Plasma urea concentrations in late (6.57 ± 0.17 mmol/L) and non-cycling (6.59 ± 0.17 mmol/L) cows were higher than in the early cycling (5.99 ± 0.17 mmol/L) cows in weeks 1 to 13 postpartum. In addition, the plasma creatinine concentration in the early cycling cows was higher than in late cycling cows (101.8 ± 1.82 versus 94.0 ± 1.99 mmol/L). Cows with higher plasma concentrations of urea and lower creatinine concentrations were at risk of delayed resumption of postpartum ovarian cyclicity. Results suggest poor nutritional status, especially energy deficiency, as a major underlying factor suppressing the postpartum resumption of ovarian cyclicity.

Antwi-Agyakwa A.K.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Osekre E.A.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Adu-Acheampong R.,Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana | Ninsin K.D.,CSIR Animal Research Institute
West African Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2015

Chemical control of insect pests of cocoa started in 1950, and insecticides from the various classes have been recommended and used by farmers since then. Presently, Imidacloprid (Confidor®), Bifenthrin (Akatemaster®) and Thiamethoxam (Actara®) are recommended by Ghana Cocoa Board (COCOBOD) for insect pest management. A survey was conducted in the Ashanti, Eastern, Volta and Western regions of Ghana using questionnaires and farm visits of 147 cocoa farmers’ fields to gather information on insecticide use practices by farmers. The survey showed that the farmers used mostly Imidacloprid and Bifenthrin insecticides and the frequency of application was more than that recommended by COCOBOD. Among the three recommended insecticides, 43% each of the farmers across the three regions used either Confidor® or Akatemaster® whilst the remaining 14% used Actara®. The number of years farmers had consistently used a particular insecticide ranged between 5 and 16 years. Whilst some cocoa farmers do not apply insecticides to their farms, others, however, do as many as 11 applications in a year. Most of the insecticides used are classified as class II under WHO Hazard category, and the farmers used very minimal protective clothing during pesticides application. The results of this study show that there is the need to intensify education on safe handling and use of pesticides to reduce pesticide abuse, especially by cocoa farmers, in order to sustain effective management of pests and protect farmers, consumers and the environment. © 2015, Ecological Laboratory. All rights reserved.

Asuming-Bediako N.,CSIR Animal Research Institute | Jaspal M.H.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Hallett K.,University of Bristol | Bayntun J.,University of Bristol | And 2 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2014

Rapeseed and sunflower oil were used to replace pork backfat in UK-style sausages by incorporating the oils as pre-formed emulsions. Replacing the pork backfat emulsion with rapeseed emulsion at total fat content of about 12%, reduced total saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition from 38% to 14% (4.5 to 1.8. g/100. g), increased monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) composition from 45% to 59% and increased polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition from 15% to 25%. Partial replacement of pork backfat with rapeseed at a fat content of about 20% reduced SFA from 38% to 24% (7.2 to 4.8. g/100. g). There were no significant differences in eating quality and overall liking other than slight differences in the attributes 'firmness' and 'particle size'. Improvement in the fatty acid composition was achieved without adversely affecting colour shelf life or lipid oxidation. The study suggests that a substantial reduction in SFA can be achieved by incorporating 'healthy' oils in UK-style sausages without adversely affecting eating quality or shelf life. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Dundon W.G.,International Atomic Energy Agency | Adombi C.,International Atomic Energy Agency | Waqas A.,International Atomic Energy Agency | Otsyina H.R.,University of Ghana | And 4 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2014

The full genome of a peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) isolated from a sheep lung sample collected in Ghana, Western Africa, in 2010, has been sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the virus clustered within the lineage II clade while comparison of its full genome with those of other PPRV strains revealed the highest identity (96.6 %) at a nucleotide level with the PPRV strain Nigeria/76/1. This is the first full genome sequence generated for a PPRV lineage II isolated since 1976. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Wallace P.A.,CSIR Animal Research Institute | Adu E.K.,CSIR Animal Research Institute | Rhule S.W.A.,CSIR Animal Research Institute
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

The optimum storage conditions for three oil seed cakes namely copra cake (CC), palm kernel cake (PKC) and cocoa-cake-with-shell (CCWS) were studied under four different conditions: (Deep freezer, DF, -15±1°C), (Refrigeration, REF, 5±1°C), (Air condition, AC, 19±1°C) and (Room temperature, RT, 25±1°C). Samples were chemically analysed fortnightly over a 6 month period for proximate, gross energy, Ca, P and free fatty acid composition. Among the parameters analyzed under proximate analysis, moisture, ether extract and crude protein contents which have potential to undergo major alterations with time were not significantly (P > 0.05) influenced by all the storage conditions studied irrespective of the oil seed cake considered. On the other hand, the free fatty acid content was significantly (P < 0.03) affected by storage conditions with the values increasing with time. The most significant change occurred when storage was done at RT. The study indicated that CCWS should not be stored longer than 2 weeks when kept under RT conditions whereas CC may be stored up to 6 and 8 weeks under REF and DF respectively. PKC could be well preserved under DF for as long as 10 weeks while under RT, storage should be less than two weeks.

Hagan B.A.,CSIR Animal Research Institute | Nyameasem J.K.,CSIR Animal Research Institute | Asafu-Adjaye A.,CSIR Animal Research Institute | Daffour-Oduro K.A.,CSIR Animal Research Institute
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2016

A study was undertaken to predict the live weight (LW) of domestically kept grasscutters from body length (BL), tail length (TL), heart girth (HG) and head length (HL) using linear, quadratic and cubic functions. Data on LW, BL, TL, HG and HL were taken from 80 grasscutters between the ages of 12 and 18 months old. Linear, quadratic and cubic functions were fitted with LW as independent variable and BL, TL, HG or HL as predictor variables using the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) procedure of SAS. The correlations between the LW and linear body measurements were also determined for male, female and pooled data (both males and females). The correlation coefficients between LW and body measurements ranged from 0.33 to 0.76 for pooled data. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the prediction equations ranged from 8.2% to 81.4% for pooled data. Using the linear function, BL (54.3%) and HG (58.2%) were better predictors of LW than TL (10.8%) and HL (8.2%). The use of both BL and HG in a given function explained better the variation in LW than the use of just one body measurement. In all three functions, prediction equations involving males gave the best R2 values compared with those from females and pooled data. © 2016, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.

Darfour-Oduro K.,CSIR Animal Research Institute | Hagan B.A.,CSIR Animal Research Institute | Asafu-Adjaye A.,CSIR Animal Research Institute
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2014

Average daily milk yield records of 81 Friesian-Sanga crossbred cows obtained from 1999 to 2008 and for 46 Sanga cows obtained from 2003 to 2008 were used to abstract lactation curve and their parameters for the incomplete gamma function: yn=anbe-cn; where yn is the predicted average daily milk yield in week n; a is a constant representing the level of initial yield of the cow, b is representing the rate of increase to peak milk production and c is the rate of decline after peak milk production.Season of calving significantly influenced only parameter b for Friesian-Sanga cows and all three parameters of Sanga cows. Lactation number was important as a source of variation for only Friesian-Sanga cows with their parameters a and c being significantly affected. The year an animal calved had a significant effect on parameter c for Friesian-Sanga cows and parameters a and b for their Sanga counterparts. Significant negative correlations were observed between parameters a and b and parameters b and c for both breeds. Residual mean squares and correlation analysis between actual and predicted values indicated that second parity Friesian-Sanga cows and their primiparous Sanga counterparts were the best and worst respectively in terms of how good the incomplete gamma function fitted the data. Lactation curves derived by the incomplete gamma function in this study were similar to those observed for other cows in the tropics. The incomplete gamma function can be relied on in terms of fitting lactation curves for these two cattle breeds in Ghana. © 2014, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.

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