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Mittelbrunn M.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Sanchez-Madrid F.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Sanchez-Madrid F.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2012

An emerging concept is that cellular communication in mammals can be mediated by the exchange of genetic information, mainly in the form of microRNAs. This can occur when extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, secreted by a donor cell are taken up by an acceptor cell. Transfer of genetic material can also occur through intimate membrane contacts between donor and acceptor cells. Specialized cell-cell contacts, such as synapses, have the potential to combine these modes of genetic transfer. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Hidalgo M.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2012

Pancreatic cancer remains a devastating disease. Over the last few years, there have been important advances in the molecular and biological understanding of pancreatic cancer. This included understanding of the genomic complexity of the disease, the role of pancreatic cancer stem cells, the relevance of the tumor microenvironment, and the unique metabolic adaptation of pancreas cancer cells to obtain nutrients under hypoxic environment. In this paper, we review the most salient developments in these few areas. © The author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


Soengas M.S.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research
Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research | Year: 2012

Proteins and pathways that control cell fate are placed under intense scrutiny. The same tight regulation applies to essential organelles that can both sustain cell survival or promote self-degradation programs. Mitochondria are perhaps the prime example of cellular machineries with split functions (personalities). As a main source of ATP, mitochondria represent the main powerhouse of eukaryotic cells. However, mitochondrial respiration has the hidden complication of the production of potentially harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, mitochondria holds an armamentarium of stress-response factors, which depending on the context, may lead to pro-inflammatory signals, and to various forms of cell death, ranging from apoptosis to necrosis. A main clearance mechanism to eliminate superfluous, damaged or hyperactive mitochondria is selective mitophagy. Mitophagy, in fact, is emerging as a key quality-control mechanism in cancer cells. Specifically, malignant transformation has been found to induce marked changes in mitochondrial dynamics and structure. Moreover, a key hallmark of tumor progression is metabolic reprogramming, which further deregulates ROS content and renders cells more susceptible to mitochondrial perturbations. Despite its increasing relevance in cancer biology, the field of mitophagy remains virtually unexplored in melanoma. However, given unique antioxidant mechanisms in melanocytic cells (e.g., linked to melanin) and the idiosyncratic interplay between ROS and hypoxia (both mitophagy inducers) in melanoma, this tumor type represents an ideal scenario for physiological studies of mitochondrial turnover. This perspective summarizes proof of concept for in-depth basic and translational studies of mitophagy in melanoma. Particular emphasis is dedicated to new opportunities for gene discovery and drug design in this still aggressive disease. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Manuel H.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Manuel H.,Johns Hopkins University
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010

Deaths from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, also known as pancreatic cancer, rank fourth among cancer-related deaths in the United States, yet the causes of pancreatic cancer remain unknown. This review article summarizes recent progress in the understanding and management of pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Hidalgo M.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Von Hoff D.D.,Translational Genomics Research Institute
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) remains a devastating disease with nearly equal incidence and mortality rates. Over the past few decades, a litany of randomized clinical trials has failed to improve the outcome of this disease. More recently, the combination chemotherapy regimen FOLFIRINOX has shown improvement in overall survival over the single agent gemcitabine, and nab-paclitaxel (an albumin-coated formulation of paclitaxel) in combination with gemcitabine has shown promising results in phase II studies. Despite limited impact on patient care as of yet, the molecular and biologic understanding of PDA has advanced substantially. This includes understanding the genomic complexity of the disease, the potential importance of the tumor microenvironment, the metabolic adaptation of PDA cells to obtain nutrients in a hypoxic environment, and the role of pancreatic cancer stem cells. These fundamental discoveries are starting to be translated into clinical studies. In this overview, we discuss the implications of biologic understanding of PDA in clinical research and provide insights for future development of novel approaches and agents in this disease. ©2012 AACR.


de Yebenes V.G.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Bartolome-Izquierdo N.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Ramiro A.R.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research
Immunological Reviews | Year: 2013

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a new class of gene expression regulators whose functions influence a myriad of biological processes, from developmental decisions through immune responses and numerous pathologies, including cancer and autoimmunity. miRNAs are small RNA molecules that drive post-transcriptional negative regulation of gene expression by promoting the degradation or translational block of their target mRNAs. Here, we review some of the data relating to the role of miRNAs in the regulation of the B-cell lineage, with a special focus on results obtained in vivo. We start by giving a general overview of miRNA activity, including the issue of target specificity and the experimental approaches more widely used to analyze the function of these molecules. We then go on to discuss the function of miRNAs during B-cell differentiation in the bone marrow and in the periphery as well as during the humoral immune response. Finally, we describe a few examples of the contribution of miRNAs, both as oncogenes and tumor suppressors, to the development of B-cell neoplasias. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Sancho D.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Reis e Sousa C.,London Research Institute
Annual Review of Immunology | Year: 2012

Myeloid cells are key drivers of physiological responses to pathogen invasion or tissue damage. Members of the C-type lectin receptor (CLR) family stand out among the specialized receptors utilized by myeloid cells to orchestrate these responses. CLR ligands include carbohydrate, protein, and lipid components of both pathogens and self, which variably trigger endocytic, phagocytic, proinflammatory, or anti-inflammatory reactions. These varied outcomes rely on a versatile system for CLR signaling that includes tyrosine-based motifs that recruit kinases, phosphatases, or endocytic adaptors as well as nontyrosine-based signals that modulate the activation of other pathways or couple to the uptake machinery. Here, we review the signaling properties of myeloid CLRs and how they impact the role of myeloid cells in innate and adaptive immunity. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Sreeramkumar V.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research
Blood | Year: 2013

Beyond its well-established roles in mediating leukocyte rolling, E-selectin is emerging as a multifunctional receptor capable of inducing integrin activation in neutrophils, and of regulating various biological processes in hematopoietic precursors. Although these effects suggest important homeostatic contributions of this selectin in the immune and hematologic systems, the ligands responsible for transducing these effects in different leukocyte lineages are not well defined. We have characterized mice deficient in E-selectin ligand-1 (ESL-1), or in both P-selectin glycoprotein-1 (PSGL-1) and ESL-1, to explore and compare the contributions of these glycoproteins in immune and hematopoietic cell trafficking. In the steady state, ESL-1 deficiency resulted in a moderate myeloid expansion that became more prominent when both glycoproteins were eliminated. During inflammation, PSGL-1 dominated E-selectin binding, rolling, integrin activation, and extravasation of mature neutrophils, but only the combined deficiency in PSGL-1 and ESL-1 completely abrogated leukocyte recruitment. Surprisingly, we find that the levels of ESL-1 were strongly elevated in hematopoietic progenitor cells. These elevations correlated with a prominent function of ESL-1 for E-selectin binding and for migration of hematopoietic progenitor cells into the bone marrow. Our results uncover dominant roles for ESL-1 in the immature compartment, and a functional shift toward PSGL-1 dependence in mature neutrophils.


Patent
University of Bern and CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Date: 2013-02-18

The invention relates inhibiting nucleic acids directed at mammalian homologues of the Drosophila fwe gene (Flower) and to antibodies against the respective proteins, and their use in diagnosing, preventing and treating cancer.


Patent
CSIC - Institute of Refrigeration and CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Date: 2012-04-25

Autoantibodies to different proteins useful as biomarkers for the diagnosis, prognosis or monitoring of the progress of a colorectal cancer (CRC) are described.

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