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Jonkers K.,CSIC Institute of Public Goods and Policies IPP CCHS
Scientometrics | Year: 2010

This article explores the concentration in the global plant molecular life science research output. In the past 15 years, especially the share of articles which refer to the model organism A. thaliana has increased rapidly. Citation analyses show an even greater rise in the importance of this organism. Attempts are discussed to come to a scientometric definition of model organisms. For this purpose a comparison is made with applied microbiology. However, few shared scientometric characteristics were found which could help characterise model organisms. A distinction between major economic organisms and model organisms will therefore continue to rely on qualitative data. © Akadémiai KiadÓ, Budapest, Hungary 2009. Source


Martinez C.,CSIC Institute of Public Goods and Policies IPP CCHS
Scientometrics | Year: 2011

Data on patent families is used in economic and statistical studies for many purposes, including the analysis of patenting strategies of applicants, the monitoring of the globalization of inventions and the comparison of the inventive performance and stock of technological knowledge of different countries. Most of these studies take family data as given, as a sort of black box, without going into the details of their underlying methodologies and patent linkages. However, different definitions of patent families may lead to different results. One of the purposes of this paper is to compare the most commonly used definitions of patent families and identify factors causing differences in family outcomes. Another objective is to shed light into the internal structure of patent families and see how it affects patent family outcomes based on different definitions. An automated characterization of the internal structures of all extended families with earliest priorities in the 1990s, as recorded in PATSTAT, found that family counts are not affected by the choice of patent family definitions in 75% of families. However, different definitions may really matter for the 25% of families with complex structures and lead to different family compositions, which might have an impact, for instance, on econometric studies using family size as a proxy of patent value. © 2010 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary. Source


Cruz-Castro L.,CSIC Institute of Public Goods and Policies IPP CCHS | Sanz-Menendez L.,CSIC Institute of Public Goods and Policies IPP CCHS | Martinez C.,CSIC Institute of Public Goods and Policies IPP CCHS
Journal of Technology Transfer | Year: 2012

Governments continue to play a central role in the way research is conducted and organized by defining new models for research centers. How do existing research centers adapt to changes in their environment? Institutional theory suggests that organizations pursue efficiency and legitimacy by conforming to isomorphic pressures in their organizational field, which will eventually lead to a reduction of diversity in organizational practices and strategies. Resource-dependence theory assumes a more active agency and calls attention to the diverse strategic responses of organizations to institutional processes. Based on funding microdata and qualitative information at center level, this study undertakes to analyze changes in two populations of Spanish research centers (government laboratories and technology centers) in a time of evolving policy paradigms, emergence of new models for research centers, and increasing competition in the field of R&D. We find that a large share of the existing government laboratories and technology centers have progressively conformed to a funding strategy based on diversifying sources and increasing competitive public funding, although both populations are still characterized by some degree of internal diversity regarding funding portfolios. Structural heterogeneity also remains as regards management practices such as research planning and agenda setting. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Osuna C.,CSIC Institute of Public Goods and Policies IPP CCHS | Cruz-Castro L.,CSIC Institute of Public Goods and Policies IPP CCHS | Sanz-Menendez L.,CSIC Institute of Public Goods and Policies IPP CCHS
Scientometrics | Year: 2011

In 1989 the Spanish Government established an individual retrospective research evaluation system (RES) for public researchers. Policy makers have associated the establishment of this evaluation system with the significant increase in the volume of scientific publications attributed to Spain over the last decades. In a similar vein to the analyses of other country cases, some scholars have also claimed that the growth of Spain's international scientific publications is a result of the establishment of the new evaluation system. In this paper, we provide a methodological revision of the validity threats in previous research, including some interrupted time-series analyses and control groups to investigate the effects of this policy instrument on the number of papers produced by Spanish authors. In the years following the establishment of the evaluation system, the results indicate a considerable increase in the number of papers attributed to Spanish authors among those eligible for evaluation (the "treated" group), but also in the control groups. After testing various alternative explanations, we conclude that the growth in Spanish publications cannot be attributed indisputably to the effect of the establishment of the RES, but rather to the increase of expenditure and number of researchers in the Spanish R&D system along with some maturation effects. We take this case as an example of the need to improve and refine methodologies and to be more cautious when attributing effects to research evaluation mechanisms at the national level. © 2010 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary. Source

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