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Pelejero C.,Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies | Calvo E.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Sciences | Hoegh-Guldberg O.,University of Queensland
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2010

The anthropogenic rise in atmospheric CO2 is driving fundamental and unprecedented changes in the chemistry of the oceans. This has led to changes in the physiology of a wide variety of marine organisms and, consequently, the ecology of the ocean. This review explores recent advances in our understanding of ocean acidification with a particular emphasis on past changes to ocean chemistry and what they can tell us about present and future changes. We argue that ocean conditions are already more extreme than those experienced by marine organisms and ecosystems for millions of years, emphasising the urgent need to adopt policies that drastically reduce CO2 emissions. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Massana R.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Sciences
Annual Review of Microbiology | Year: 2011

The eukaryotic picoplankton is a heterogeneous collection of small protists 1 to 3 μm in size populating surface oceans at abundances of 10 2 to 10 4 cells ml -1. Pigmented cells are important primary producers that are at the base of food webs. Colorless cells are mostly bacterivores and play key roles in channeling bacteria to higher trophic levels as well as in nutrient recycling. Mixotrophy and parasitism are relevant but less investigated trophic paths. Molecular surveys of picoeukaryotes have unveiled a large phylogenetic diversity and new lineages, and it is critical to understand the ecological and evolutionary significance of this large and novel diversity. A main goal is to assess how individuals are organized in taxonomic units and how they participate in ecological processes. Picoeukaryotes are convincingly integral members of marine ecosystems in terms of cell abundance, biomass, activity, and diversity and they play crucial roles in food webs and biogeochemical cycles. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Montoya J.M.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Sciences | Raffaelli D.,University of York
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

Climate change is real. The wrangling debates are over, and we now need to move onto a predictive ecology that will allow managers of landscapes and policy makers to adapt to the likely changes in biodiversity over the coming decades. There is ample evidence that ecological responses are already occurring at the individual species (population) level. The challenge is how to synthesize the growing list of such observations with a coherent body of theory that will enable us to predict where and when changes will occur, what the consequences might be for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and what we might do practically in order to maintain those systems in as good condition as possible. It is thus necessary to investigate the effects of climate change at the ecosystem level and to consider novel emergent ecosystems composed of new species assemblages arising from differential rates of range shifts of species. Here, we present current knowledge on the effects of climate change on biotic interactions and ecosystem services supply, and summarize the papers included in this volume. We discuss how resilient ecosystems are in the face of the multiple components that characterize climate change, and suggest which current ecological theories may be used as a starting point to predict ecosystem-level effects of climate change. © 2010 The Royal Society. Source

Garcia-Olivares A.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Sciences
Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions | Year: 2015

Photovoltaic (PV) energy is reaching full grid parity in many regions, which can trigger a global deployment of home PV panels and PV systems near municipalities. The scaling-up of conventional crystalline silicon panels to the terawatt range is not feasible due to insufficient global silver reserves. However, recent copper metallization in front and rear contacts of silicon cells avoids the use of silver. This opens the door to a rapid and wide diffusion of PV energy. Intelligent grids allow the integration of decentralized and centralized generators of all types and size. A regional integration based on such grids can compensate the intermittency of PV production with the storage capacity of hydroelectricity and Concentrating Solar Power stations. It makes the best of both systems: local autonomy through home PV and supply stability through large renewable stations. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Piferrer F.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Sciences
Developmental Dynamics | Year: 2013

Epigenetics is commonly defined as the study of heritable changes in gene function that cannot be explained by changes in DNA sequence. The three major epigenetic mechanisms for gene expression regulation include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs. Epigenetic mechanisms provide organisms with the ability to integrate genomic and environmental information to modify the activity of their genes for generating a particular phenotype. During development, cells differentiate, acquire, and maintain identity through changes in gene expression. This is crucial for sex determination and differentiation, which are among the most important developmental processes for the proper functioning and perpetuation of species. This review summarizes studies showing how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms contribute to sex determination and reproductive organ formation in plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. Further progress will be made by integrating several approaches, including genomics and Next Generation Sequencing to create epigenetic maps related to different aspects of sex determination and gonadogenesis. Epigenetics will also contribute to understand the etiology of several disorders of sexual development. It also might play a significant role in the control of reproduction in animal farm production and will aid in recognizing the environmental versus genetic influences on sex determination of sensitive species in a global change scenario. Developmental Dynamics 242:360-370, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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