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Gueimonde M.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla | Collado M.C.,CSIC - Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Technology
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2012

The development of extensive sequencing methods has allowed metagenomic studies on the human gut microbiome to be carried out. This has tremendously increased our knowledge on gut microbiota composition and activity, allowing microbiota aberrations related to different diseases to be identified. These aberrations constitute targets for the development of probiotics directed to correct them. Probiotics are extensively used to modulate gut microbiota. Nevertheless, metagenomic studies on the effects of probiotics are still very scarce. In the near future, the use of metagenomics promises to expand our understanding of probiotic action. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

De Palma G.,CSIC - Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Technology
Current issues in molecular biology | Year: 2010

Coeliac disease (CD) development involves genetic (HLA-DQ2/DQ8) and environmental factors. Herein, the influence of the HLA-DQ genotype on the gut colonization process of breast-fed children was determined. A cohort of 20 newborns, with at least one first-degree relative with CD, were classified according to their HLA-DQ genotype into high, intermediate and low genetic risk groups, showing 24-28%, 7-8% and less than 1% probability to develop CD, respectively. Faecal microbiota was analysed at 7 days, 1 and 4 months of children's age by fluorescence in situ hybridization. When considering all data, Gram-negative bacteria and Bacteroides-Prevotella group proportions were higher (P<0.05) in the high than in the intermediate and low genetic risk groups. E. coli, Streptococcus-Lactococcus, E. rectale-C. coccoides, sulphate-reducing bacteria, C. lituseburense and C. histolyticum group proportions were also significantly higher (P<0.05) in the high than in the low genetic risk group. Correlations between these bacterial groups and the genetic risk were also detected (P<0.05). In addition, the number and type of CD relative seemed to influence (P<0.050) these bacterial proportions in children at CD risk. At 4 months of age, similar relationships were established between the high genetic risk to develop CD and the proportions of Streptococcus-Lactococcus (P<0.05), E. rectale-C. coccoides (P<0.05), C. lituseburense (P<0.05), C. histolyticum (P<0.05), Bacteroides-Prevotella (P<0.10) groups and total Gram-negative bacteria (P<0.05). The results suggest a relationship between HLA-DQ genes and the gut microbial colonization process that could lead to a change in the way this disorder is investigated.

The effect of infection of Citrus sinensis (var. Navelina) fruits with Penicillium digitatum was studied at gene expression and metabolite levels. In this study, expression of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway was studied in the flavedo (outer coloured part of the peel) and albedo (inner white part) in response to pathogen infection. Results of the time-course experiment showed that maximal expression of 10 out of 17 phenylpropanoid genes analysed occurred at 48h post-inoculation, when decay symptoms started to appear, and mRNA levels either kept constant or decreased after 72h post-inoculation. To further investigate the putative involvement of the phenylpropanoid pathway in the defence of citrus fruit, changes in the metabolic profile of both tissues infected with P. digitatum was studied by means of HPLC-PDA-FD. Metabolite accumulation levels along the time course suggest that flavanones, flavones, polymethoxylated flavones and scoparone are induced in citrus fruit in response to P. digitatum infection, although with different trends depending on the tissue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Landete J.M.,CSIC - Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Technology
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2012

Polyphenols are important constituents of food products of plant origin. Fruits, vegetables, and beverages are the main sources of phenolic compounds in the human diet. These compounds are directly related to sensory characteristics of foods such as flavor, astringency and color. Polyphenols are extensively metabolized both in tissues and by the colonic microbiota. Normally, the circulating polyphenols are glucuronidated and/or sulphated and no free aglycones are found in plasma. The presence of phenolic compounds in the diet is beneficial to health due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and vasodilating properties. The health effects of polyphenols depend on the amount consumed and their bioavailability. Moreover, polyphenols are able to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, or protozoans. Some dietary polyphenols may have significant effects on the colonic flora providing a type of prebiotic effect. The anti-nutrient properties of polyphenols are also discussed in this paper. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, vasodilating, and prebiotic properties of polyphenols make them potential functional foods. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Varela P.,CSIC - Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Technology | Ares G.,University of the Republic of Uruguay
Food Research International | Year: 2012

Sensory descriptive analysis is one of the most powerful, sophisticated and most extensively used tools in sensory science, which provides a complete description of the sensory characteristics of food products. Considering the economic and time consuming aspects of training assessor panels for descriptive analysis, several novel methodologies for sensory characterization have been developed in the last ten years. These methodologies are less time consuming, more flexible and can be used with semi trained assessors and even consumers, providing sensory maps very close to a classic descriptive analysis with highly trained panels. Novel techniques are based on different approaches: methods based on the evaluation of individual attributes (intensity scales, check-all-that-apply questions or CATA, flash profiling, paired comparisons); methods based on the evaluation of global differences (sorting, projective mapping or Napping®); methods based on the comparison with product references (polarized sensory positioning), and based on a free, global evaluation of the individual products (Open-ended questions). This review aims at reviewing theory, implementation, advantages and disadvantages of the novel product profiling techniques developed in the last ten years, discussing recommendations for their application. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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