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De Palma G.,CSIC - Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Technology
Current issues in molecular biology | Year: 2010

Coeliac disease (CD) development involves genetic (HLA-DQ2/DQ8) and environmental factors. Herein, the influence of the HLA-DQ genotype on the gut colonization process of breast-fed children was determined. A cohort of 20 newborns, with at least one first-degree relative with CD, were classified according to their HLA-DQ genotype into high, intermediate and low genetic risk groups, showing 24-28%, 7-8% and less than 1% probability to develop CD, respectively. Faecal microbiota was analysed at 7 days, 1 and 4 months of children's age by fluorescence in situ hybridization. When considering all data, Gram-negative bacteria and Bacteroides-Prevotella group proportions were higher (P<0.05) in the high than in the intermediate and low genetic risk groups. E. coli, Streptococcus-Lactococcus, E. rectale-C. coccoides, sulphate-reducing bacteria, C. lituseburense and C. histolyticum group proportions were also significantly higher (P<0.05) in the high than in the low genetic risk group. Correlations between these bacterial groups and the genetic risk were also detected (P<0.05). In addition, the number and type of CD relative seemed to influence (P<0.050) these bacterial proportions in children at CD risk. At 4 months of age, similar relationships were established between the high genetic risk to develop CD and the proportions of Streptococcus-Lactococcus (P<0.05), E. rectale-C. coccoides (P<0.05), C. lituseburense (P<0.05), C. histolyticum (P<0.05), Bacteroides-Prevotella (P<0.10) groups and total Gram-negative bacteria (P<0.05). The results suggest a relationship between HLA-DQ genes and the gut microbial colonization process that could lead to a change in the way this disorder is investigated.


Varela P.,CSIC - Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Technology | Fiszman S.M.,CSIC - Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Technology
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2013

Consumer perceptions and resulting actions determine the commercial future of any food ingredient. Food safety affects consumer food choice in ways that are different from other dimensions of quality. In the present exploratory work, qualitative consumer techniques (Word Association and Free Listing) were applied to identify the consumers' first associations and knowledge of additives in general and of thickeners in particular. The consumers' knowledge and perceptions of the functions and applications of thickeners were also assessed. Little knowledge and a relatively negative perception of additives were identified, but the consumers did not have food hydrocolloids in mind when they thought of additives. Thickeners were principally identified with flour and starches and a minor degree of knowledge about gums was also found. A strong association between "industrially processed" food and additives/thickeners was identified. Good prospects can be predicted for food hydrocolloids due to their natural origin in familiar sources which are "cleaner" in the consumers' eyes. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Gueimonde M.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla | Collado M.C.,CSIC - Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Technology
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2012

The development of extensive sequencing methods has allowed metagenomic studies on the human gut microbiome to be carried out. This has tremendously increased our knowledge on gut microbiota composition and activity, allowing microbiota aberrations related to different diseases to be identified. These aberrations constitute targets for the development of probiotics directed to correct them. Probiotics are extensively used to modulate gut microbiota. Nevertheless, metagenomic studies on the effects of probiotics are still very scarce. In the near future, the use of metagenomics promises to expand our understanding of probiotic action. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.


The effect of infection of Citrus sinensis (var. Navelina) fruits with Penicillium digitatum was studied at gene expression and metabolite levels. In this study, expression of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway was studied in the flavedo (outer coloured part of the peel) and albedo (inner white part) in response to pathogen infection. Results of the time-course experiment showed that maximal expression of 10 out of 17 phenylpropanoid genes analysed occurred at 48h post-inoculation, when decay symptoms started to appear, and mRNA levels either kept constant or decreased after 72h post-inoculation. To further investigate the putative involvement of the phenylpropanoid pathway in the defence of citrus fruit, changes in the metabolic profile of both tissues infected with P. digitatum was studied by means of HPLC-PDA-FD. Metabolite accumulation levels along the time course suggest that flavanones, flavones, polymethoxylated flavones and scoparone are induced in citrus fruit in response to P. digitatum infection, although with different trends depending on the tissue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Varela P.,CSIC - Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Technology | Ares G.,University of the Republic of Uruguay
Food Research International | Year: 2012

Sensory descriptive analysis is one of the most powerful, sophisticated and most extensively used tools in sensory science, which provides a complete description of the sensory characteristics of food products. Considering the economic and time consuming aspects of training assessor panels for descriptive analysis, several novel methodologies for sensory characterization have been developed in the last ten years. These methodologies are less time consuming, more flexible and can be used with semi trained assessors and even consumers, providing sensory maps very close to a classic descriptive analysis with highly trained panels. Novel techniques are based on different approaches: methods based on the evaluation of individual attributes (intensity scales, check-all-that-apply questions or CATA, flash profiling, paired comparisons); methods based on the evaluation of global differences (sorting, projective mapping or Napping®); methods based on the comparison with product references (polarized sensory positioning), and based on a free, global evaluation of the individual products (Open-ended questions). This review aims at reviewing theory, implementation, advantages and disadvantages of the novel product profiling techniques developed in the last ten years, discussing recommendations for their application. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Landete J.M.,CSIC - Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Technology
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2012

Polyphenols are important constituents of food products of plant origin. Fruits, vegetables, and beverages are the main sources of phenolic compounds in the human diet. These compounds are directly related to sensory characteristics of foods such as flavor, astringency and color. Polyphenols are extensively metabolized both in tissues and by the colonic microbiota. Normally, the circulating polyphenols are glucuronidated and/or sulphated and no free aglycones are found in plasma. The presence of phenolic compounds in the diet is beneficial to health due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and vasodilating properties. The health effects of polyphenols depend on the amount consumed and their bioavailability. Moreover, polyphenols are able to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, or protozoans. Some dietary polyphenols may have significant effects on the colonic flora providing a type of prebiotic effect. The anti-nutrient properties of polyphenols are also discussed in this paper. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, vasodilating, and prebiotic properties of polyphenols make them potential functional foods. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Landete J.M.,CSIC - Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Technology
Food Research International | Year: 2011

Ellagitannins (ETs) and ellagic acid (EA) are polyphenols present in some fruits, nuts and seeds, such as pomegranates, black raspberries, raspberries, strawberries, walnuts and almonds. ETs are hydrolyzed to EA under physiological conditions in vivo and EA is then gradually metabolized by the intestinal microbiota to produce different types of urolithins. Epidemiological evidence indicates that intake of ET and EA-rich foods may be protective against certain chronic diseases, although in vitro results often do not coincide with the findings of in vivo studies. This could be explained by the low bioavailability of ETs and EA antioxidant and the fact that urolithins are not as potent antioxidants as ellagitannins. On the other hand, urolithins could display estrogenic and/or anti-estrogenic activity and tissue disposition studies reveal that urolithins are enriched in prostate, intestinal, and colon tissues in mouse, which could explain why urolithins inhibit prostate and colon cancer cell growth. Moreover, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities of EA and urolithins have been demonstrated by the inhibition of cancer cell growth. The present work reviews the source, dietary intake, metabolism, functions and effects of ETs, EA and their derivate metabolites. Moreover, prebiotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects are also discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Landete J.M.,CSIC - Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Technology
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2013

Oxidative stress is a condition in which oxidant metabolites exert their toxic effect because of an increased production or an altered cellular mechanism of protection; oxidative stress is rapidly gaining recognition as a key phenomenon in chronic diseases. Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions by being oxidized themselves. Endogenous defence mechanisms are inadequate for the complete prevention of oxidative damage, and different sources of dietary antioxidants may be especially important. This article calls attention to the dietary antioxidants, such as vitamins A, C, and E and polyphenols. Compelling evidence has led to the conclusion that diet is a key environmental factor and a potential tool for the control of chronic diseases. More specifically, fruits and vegetables have been shown to exert a protective effect. The high content of minerals and natural antioxidant as vitamins A, C, and E and polyphenols in fruits and vegetables may be a main factor responsible for these effects. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Fiszman S.,CSIC - Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Technology | Varela P.,CSIC - Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Technology
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2013

Alongside proteins, soluble fibres are the most promising ingredients for formulating foods with high satiating capacity. Because of the considerable complexity and variety of composition and structure of polysaccharide gums, it is not easy to decide which ingredients are most effective in which products. They can often act in combination on more than one level. Moreover, the research results are often contradictory as it is extremely difficult to draw comparisons between different studies. The complexity of the methods and the absence of necessary information on the substances used for satiating purposes pose additional difficulties. This review aims to clarify the mechanisms governing the satiating effect of gums in formulated foods, update the information and draw attention to points that require further investigation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Toldra F.,CSIC - Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Technology | Reig M.,Polytechnic University of Valencia
Trends in Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Meat and meat products are generally recognised as good sources of high biological-value proteins, group B vitamins, minerals and trace elements as well as some other bioactive compounds. However, the image to consumers is relatively negative due to their involvement in prevalent diseases of Western societies like cardiovascular diseases, cancer and obesity. Recent innovations in the meat industry are addressed towards the production of healthier meats and processed meats. The strategies are based on either reducing the content of unhealthy substances (i.e. less added sodium chloride, less nitrate and nitrite) or improving the content of substances with healthy benefits (i.e. natural antioxidants, omega-3 fatty acids, probiotics and bioactive peptides). © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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