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Martinez-Cob A.,CSIC - Aula Dei Experimental Station | Faci J.M.,CSIC - Centro de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agroalimentaria
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2010

The evapotranspiration of hedge-pruned olive orchards (Olea europaea L. cv. Arbequina) was measured under the semiarid conditions of the middle Ebro River Valley in a commercial olive orchard (57 ha) during 2004 and 2005. No measured ETc values for this type of olive orchards have previously been reported. An eddy covariance system (krypton hygrometer KH20 and 3D sonic anemometer CSAT3, Campbell Scientific) was used. The eddy covariance measurements showed a lack of the energy balance closure (average imbalance of 26%). Then sensible and latent heat (LE) flux values were corrected using the approach proposed by Twine et al. (2000) in order to get daily measured olive evapotranspiration (ETc) and crop coefficient (Kc) values. The highest measured monthly ETc averages were about 3.1-3.3 mm day-1, while the total seasonal ETc during the irrigation period (March-October) was about 585 mm (in 2004) and 597 mm (in 2005). Monthly Kc values varied from about 1.0 (Winter) to 0.4-0.5 (Spring and Summer). These Kc values were similar to Kc values reported for round-shape canopy olive orchards, adjusted for ground cover, particularly during late Spring and Summer months when differences among measured and published Kc values were about less than 0.1. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


De Franceschi P.,University of Bologna | Dondini L.,University of Bologna | Sanzol J.,CSIC - Centro de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agroalimentaria
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2012

The molecular bases of the gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system of species of the subtribe Pyrinae (Rosaceae), such as apple and pear, have been widely studied in the last two decades. The characterization of S-locus genes and of the mechanisms underlying pollen acceptance or rejection have been topics of major interest. Besides the single pistil-side S determinant, the S-RNase, multiple related S-locus F-box genes seem to be involved in the determination of pollen S specificity. Here, we collect and review the state of the art of GSI in the Pyrinae. We emphasize recent genomic data that have contributed to unveiling the S-locus structure of the Pyrinae, and discuss their consistency with the models of self-recognition that have been proposed for Prunus and the Solanaceae. Experimental data suggest that the mechanism controlling pollen-pistil recognition specificity of the Pyrinae might fit well with the collaborative 'non-self' recognition system proposed for Petunia (Solanaceae), whereas it presents relevant differences with the mechanism exhibited by the species of the closely related genus Prunus, which uses a single evolutionarily divergent F-box gene as the pollen S determinant. The possible involvement of multiple pollen S genes in the GSI system of Pyrinae, still awaiting experimental confirmation, opens up new perspectives to our understanding of the evolution of S haplotypes, and of the evolution of S-RNase-based GSI within the Rosaceae family. Whereas S-locus genes encode the players determining self-recognition, pollen rejection in the Pyrinae seems to involve a complex cascade of downstream cellular events with significant similarities to programmed cell death. © The Author 2012. Source


Isidoro D.,CSIC - Centro de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agroalimentaria | Grattan S.R.,University of California at Davis
Irrigation Science | Year: 2011

A model was developed to predict rootzone salinity under different irrigation practices on different soil types, with similar rainfall but different monthly distributions. A rootzone daily water and salt balance was performed using eight scenarios: two soil types (coarse textured vs. fine textured), two multi-year series of actual rainfall data and two irrigation practices (surface with fixed number of irrigations and ET-based sprinkler irrigation). All factors influenced the mean electrical conductivity (EC) of the rootzone in the growing season (ECeS): (i) Surface irrigation led to lower ECeS than sprinkler irrigation; (ii) Winter-concentrated rainfall caused lower ECeS than rainfall distributed uniformly throughout the year; and (iii) Coarser-textured soil usually resulted in lower ECeS than the finer textured. The ECeS was related to the total precipitation of the hydrologic year and to the annual leaching fraction (LF) but surprisingly not to the seasonal LF. In most cases, the model predicted lower ECeS than the FAO steady-state approach. Therefore, considering these site-specific features could lead to lower leaching requirements and the safe use of higher salinity water. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source


Garcia-Garizabal I.,CSIC - Centro de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agroalimentaria | Causape J.,Instituto Geologico Y Minero Of Espana Igme
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2010

Irrigated agriculture is working towards environmental sustainability but more study is needed regarding the agro-systems' response to alterations imposed on them. This work analyzed the repercussions that alternative irrigation management can cause on water use and on the quality of irrigation return flows. The case of Bardenas Canal Irrigation District no. V (ID-V) was studied, by analyzing the change of salinity and nitrate concentration in the drainage network through monthly samplings, before (2000) and after (2007) ID-V implanted alternative flood irrigation management. The results showed that the electric conductivity (25 °C) and nitrate concentration in the drainage ditches increased in 2007 (0.99 dS/m and 62 mg/l) with respect to 2000 (0.86 dS/m and 57 mg/l). Nevertheless, the decrease in irrigation drainage in 2007 (88% lower in 2007 when compared to that of 2000) was a result of the decrease in water requirement (594 mm in 2007 against 752 mm in 2000) and of the increase in irrigation efficiency (93% in 2007 and 67% in 2000), causing the Riguel River to present a lower flow (13% inferior when compared with 2000), lower salinity (1.08 dS/m in 2007 and 1.18 dS/m in 2000), and lower nitrate concentration (29 mg/l in 2007 and 33 mg/l in 2000) when exiting ID-V in 2007. In summary, simple alternatives in irrigation management achieved an increment of 26% in water use, decreasing by 20% and 24% the salt and nitrate masses exported, respectively, ameliorating the quality of the system receiving the irrigation return flows (Riguel River). © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Gracia A.,CSIC - Centro de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agroalimentaria
Animal Welfare | Year: 2013

The aim of this paper is to analyse the intention to purchase animal welfare-friendly meat products and determine the factors explaining this intention. Additionally, a model of the intention to purchase animal welfare-friendly meat products has been developed based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). This model has been specified as a two-equation multivariate ordered probit model and estimated using data from a survey conducted in Spain in 2008. Results indicate that one of the most important factors associated with the intention to purchase animal welfare-friendly meat products was consumer self-identification with ethical issues. Second, findings suggested that, as the Theory of Planned Behaviour states, other factors related to the intention to purchase these products were attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control. © 2013 Universities Federation for Animal Welfare. Source

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